Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 117 in total

  1. Bader Ahmad Aljawadi, Mohd Rizam Abu Bakar, Noor Akma
    This study deals with the analysis of the cure rate estimation based on the Bounded Cumulative Hazard (BCH) model using interval censored data, given that the exact distribution of the data set is unknown. Thus, the non-parametric estimation methods are employed by means of the EM algorithm. The Turnbull and Kaplan Meier estimators were proposed to estimate the survival function, even though the Kaplan Meier estimator faces some restrictions in term of interval survival data. A comparison of the cure rate estimation based on the two estimators was done through a simulation study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  2. Agudo A, Cayssials V, Bonet C, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Boutron-Ruault MC, et al.
    Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2018 Apr 01;107(4):607-616.
    PMID: 29635497 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy002
    Background: Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the 2 major types of gastric cancer. Several foods, nutrients, and nonnutrient food components seem to be involved in the regulation of chronic inflammation.

    Objective: We assessed the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of gastric carcinoma, overall and for the 2 major subsites: cardia cancers and noncardia cancers.

    Design: A total of 476,160 subjects (30% men, 70% women) from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were followed for 14 y, during which 913 incident cases of gastric carcinoma were identified, including 236 located in the cardia, 341 in the distal part of the stomach (noncardia), and 336 with overlapping or unknown tumor site. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated with the use of 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory scores. The association between the ISD and gastric cancer risk was estimated by HRs and 95% CIs calculated by multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for confounders.

    Results: The inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The HR (95% CI) for each increase in 1 SD of the ISD were 1.25 (1.12, 1.39) for all gastric cancers, 1.30 (1.06, 1.59) for cardia cancers, and 1.07 (0.89, 1.28) for noncardia cancers. The corresponding values for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles of the ISD were 1.66 (1.26, 2.20), 1.94 (1.14, 3.30), and 1.07 (0.70, 1.70), respectively.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that low-grade chronic inflammation induced by the diet may be associated with gastric cancer risk. This pattern seems to be more consistent for gastric carcinomas located in the cardia than for those located in the distal stomach. This study is listed on the ISRCTN registry as ISRCTN12136108.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  3. Faisal T, Ibrahim F, Taib MN
    PMID: 19163874 DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2008.4650371
    This study presents a new approach to determine the significant prognosis factors in dengue patients utilizing the self-organizing map (SOM). SOM was used to visualize and determine the significant factors that can differentiate between the dengue patients and the healthy subjects. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) parameters and symptoms/signs obtained from the 210 dengue patients during their hospitalization were used in this study. Database comprised of 329 sample (210 dengue patients and 119 healthy subjects) were used in the study. Accordingly, two maps were constructed. A total of 35 predictors (17 BIA parameters, 18 symptoms/signs) were investigated on the day of defervescence of fever. The first map was constructed based on BIA parameters while the second map utilized the symptoms and signs. The visualized results indicated that, the significant BIA prognosis factors for differentiating the dengue patients from the healthy subjects are reactance, intracellular water, ratio of the extracellular water and intracellular water, and ratio of the extracellular mass and body cell mass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models*
  4. Abd Hamid IJ, M Iyen MI, Ibrahim NR, Abd Majid N, Ramli N, Van Rostenberghe H
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2013 May;49(5):375-9.
    PMID: 23573836 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.12192
    The use of reflecting curtains with single phototherapy has not yet been directly compared with double phototherapy (DP). The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of single phototherapy with reflecting curtains (SPRC) and DP in treating neonatal jaundice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  5. Mohd Suan MA, Tan WL, Soelar SA, Ismail I, Abu Hassan MR
    Epidemiol Health, 2015;37:e2015017.
    PMID: 25868638 DOI: 10.4178/epih/e2015017
    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal obstruction and the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma.

    METHODS: Data pertaining to 4,501 colorectal carcinoma patients were extracted from the national colorectal registry and analysed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival rate between patients with intestinal obstruction and those without intestinal obstruction. The p-values<0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Simple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the crude hazard ratio of mortality from colorectal cancer.

    RESULTS: Intestinal obstruction was reported in more than 13% of patients. The 3-year survival rate after treatment was 48.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.9 to 52.8) for patients with intestinal obstruction (n=593) and 54.9% (95% CI, 53.1 to 56.6) for patients without intestinal obstruction (n=3,908). The 5-year survival rate for patients with intestinal obstruction was 37.3% (95% CI, 31.9 to 42.8), which was lower than that of patients without intestinal obstruction (45.6%; 95% CI, 43.5 to 47.7). After adjusting the hazard ratio for other prognostic variables, intestinal obstruction had a statistically significant negative correlation with the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.22 (p=0.008).

    CONCLUSIONS: The presence of intestinal obstruction is associated with a lower survival rate among colorectal cancer patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  6. Suhaimi Hussain, Wong A. Rahim, Ibrahim W. Pauzi W., Naing, N.N.
    Introduction: There are many factors that determine the survival of patients with VSD. Among these include size of VSD, position, pulmonary hypertension, bacterial sepsis, valvular involvement, associated anomalies with VSD, associated syndromes and age at first diagnosis. There has been no published local data as far as we know and this information will be useful especially for consultation with parents. Even though VSD in general has a good prognosis, whenever they have added risks for example pulmonary hypertension then they are at risk of further morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine the factors that are associated with survival of patients with VSD. Design: Retrospective cohort. Materials and methods: All cases of isolated VSDs admitted to HUSM from 1996 to 2003 were reviewed. Results: Univariate Cox regression of survival time of patients with VSDs revealed that 4 factors had prognostic significance namely bacterial sepsis (HR= 287.7, 95% CI 51.1, 1618.5, P < 0.001), Down syndrome (HR = 14.89, 95% CI 3.00, 73.92, P = 0.001), pulmonary hypertension (HR=14.58, 95% CI 1.69, 125.7, P=0.015) and large VSDs (HR=8.23, 95% CI 1.5, 45, P=0.015). Bacterial sepsis was the only significant prognostic factors for the survival of patients with VSDs using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Conclusion: Bacterial sepsis, pulmonary hypertension, large VSD and Down syndrome were the significant prognostic factors from Univariate Cox analysis, however bacterial sepsis was the only significant prognostic factor from Multivariate Cox analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  7. Awang H
    J Biosoc Sci, 2005 Jul;37(4):471-9.
    PMID: 16082858
    This analysis demonstrates the application of a data duplication technique in linear regression with censored observations of the waiting time to third pregnancy ending in two outcome types, using data from Malaysia. The linear model not only confirmed the results obtained by the Cox proportional hazards model, but also identified two additional significant factors. The method provides a useful alternative when Cox proportionality assumption of the hazards is violated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  8. Mohd Shariff N, Shah SA, Kamaludin F
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 2016 09;6:102-107.
    PMID: 27530850 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2016.04.005
    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health threat. However, little is known about the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB patients, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study adopted a retrospective cohort study design and involved laboratory-confirmed drug-resistant TB patients (n=426) from January 2009 to June 2013. A Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to model the outcome measure. Data were analysed by using SPSS v.20.0 for Windows. In this study, 15.3% (n=65) of the patients died. Among the study patients, 70.9% were monoresistant TB cases, 9.4% were poly-resistant TB and 19.7% were MDR-TB. MDR-TB [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-3.95], ethnicity [Malay (aHR=5.95, 95% CI 2.30-15.41), Chinese (aHR=4.01, 95% CI 1.38-11.66) and Indian (aHR=3.76, 95% CI 1.19-11.85)], coronary heart disease (aHR=6.82, 95% CI 2.16-21.50), drug abuse (aHR=3.79, 95% CI 2.07-6.93) and treatment non-compliance (aHR=1.81, 95% CI 1.01-3.27) were independent predictors of poorer survival in the multivariate Cox regression analysis. This study suggests that MDR-TB, local ethnicity, coronary heart disease, history of drug abuse and treatment non-compliance are factors predicting poor survival in drug-resistant TB patients. More emphasis should be given to the management of drug-resistant TB patients with these characteristics to achieve better treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  9. Qian F, Wang S, Mitchell J, McGuffog L, Barrowdale D, Leslie G, et al.
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 2019 Apr 01;111(4):350-364.
    PMID: 30312457 DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djy132
    BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear.

    METHODS: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided.

    RESULTS: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer.

    CONCLUSION: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  10. Borzych-Duzalka D, Shroff R, Ariceta G, Yap YC, Paglialonga F, Xu H, et al.
    Am. J. Kidney Dis., 2019 Apr 19.
    PMID: 31010601 DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.02.014
    RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) have been recommended as the preferred vascular access for pediatric patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD), but data comparing AVFs with other access types are scant. We studied vascular access choice, placement, complications, and outcomes in children.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study.

    SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 552 children and adolescents from 27 countries on maintenance HD followed up prospectively by the International Pediatric HD Network (IPHN) Registry between 2012 and 2017.

    PREDICTOR: Type of vascular access: AVF, central venous catheter (CVC), or arteriovenous graft.

    OUTCOME: Infectious and noninfectious vascular access complication rates, dialysis performance, biochemical and hematologic parameters, and clinical outcomes.

    ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Univariate and multivariable linear mixed models, generalized linear mixed models, and proportional hazards models; cumulative incidence functions.

    RESULTS: During 314 cumulative patient-years, 628 CVCs, 225 AVFs, and 17 arteriovenous grafts were placed. One-third of the children with an AVF required a temporary CVC until fistula maturation. Vascular access choice was associated with age and expectations for early transplantation. There was a 3-fold higher living related transplantation rate and lower median time to transplantation of 14 (IQR, 6-23) versus 20 (IQR, 14-36) months with CVCs compared with AVFs. Higher blood flow rates and Kt/Vurea were achieved with AVFs than with CVCs. Infectious complications were reported only with CVCs (1.3/1,000 catheter-days) and required vascular access replacement in 47%. CVC dysfunction rates were 2.5/1,000 catheter-days compared to 1.2/1,000 fistula-days. CVCs required 82% more revisions and almost 3-fold more vascular access replacements to a different site than AVFs (P<0.001).

    LIMITATIONS: Clinical rather than population-based data.

    CONCLUSIONS: CVCs are the predominant vascular access choice in children receiving HD within the IPHN. Age-related anatomical limitations and expected early living related transplantation were associated with CVC use. CVCs were associated with poorer dialysis efficacy, higher complication rates, and more frequent need for vascular access replacement. Such findings call for a re-evaluation of pediatric CVC use and practices.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  11. Teck Seo S, Singh VA, Yasin NF
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2019 6 22;27(2):2309499019854957.
    PMID: 31221016 DOI: 10.1177/2309499019854957
    PURPOSE: Inflammation plays a major role in tumour development, progression and metastasis. Multiple inflammatory markers such as absolute lymphocyte count, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio have been discovered as prognostic markers for various malignancies. We investigate preoperative lymphocyte count and other cell count ratios and their relation to survival and prognosis of sarcoma patients after surgery.

    METHODS: A total of 142 patients from the Orthopaedics Oncology Database were included into this retrospective study. Kaplan-Meier curve and multivariate Cox proportional models were used to calculate the overall survival of patients with sarcoma who underwent radical excision surgery.

    RESULTS: High preoperative LMR is significantly associated with better overall survival and prognosis in sarcoma patients, whereas high preoperative NLR is significantly associated with shorter overall survival and poorer prognosis. Multivariate analysis shows that LMR and NLR are good predictors for overall survival at 3 and 5 years after surgery, respectively. Patients with high preoperative lymphocytes count are associated with longer overall survival, but this association is not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that preoperative NLR and LMR are good predictive markers for survival of sarcoma patients.

    CONCLUSION: LMR and NLR can be used to identify patients at risk for poor clinical outcome, so that a more aggressive course of treatment can be applied to improve outcome. These are cost-effective prognostic tools as they are calculated from routine preoperative peripheral blood counts. In conclusion, preoperative NLR and LMR are good prognostic markers for predicting the clinical outcome of patients with sarcoma.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  12. Ngah H, Hairon SM, Yaacob NM, Yusoff H
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 Jul;26(4):70-78.
    PMID: 31496895 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.4.8
    Background: Death resulting from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide concern. This study is aimed at determining the overall median survival time, and the prognostic factors of mortality among AIDS-infected patients in North-East Peninsular Malaysia.

    Methods: In 2018, a retrospective cohort study stretching from January to April was conducted. This study involved a review of data obtained from the National AIDS Registry. A total of 1,073 AIDS cases diagnosed from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014 were selected, and follow-up procedures were conducted until 31 March 2015 (a 3-month follow-up). The Kaplan-Meier plot and Cox's proportional hazard regression were used for data analyses.

    Results: 564 (52.5%) patients died due to AIDS, while the remaining 509 (47.4%) were censored. The overall median survival time was 11 months. The probability of survival in 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, 4-year and 5-year periods were 49.1%, 47.8%, 47.3%, 47.0% and 46.7%, respectively. Multiple Cox regression revealed that the significant prognostic factors were age 30-49 years [adjusted hazard ratio (Adj. HR) 1.57; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.16; P = 0.006], male (Adj. HR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.79; P = 0.012), unemployed (Adj. HR 1.40; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.75; P = 0.003) and HIV-TB co-infection (Adj. HR 1.78; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.31; P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: The overall median survival time among AIDS patients in North-East Peninsular Malaysia was revealed to be short, in comparison to the other studies. The chances for survival can be improved with more emphasis on early detection (to ensure early treatment) and social support, particularly for HIV-TB co-infected patients, as well as for younger and unemployed patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  13. Perez-Cornago A, Huybrechts I, Appleby PN, Schmidt JA, Crowe FL, Overvad K, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2020 Jan 01;146(1):44-57.
    PMID: 30807653 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.32233
    The associations of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk have not been examined comprehensively. We examined the prospective association of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk overall, by tumor subtypes, and prostate cancer death. 142,239 men from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition who were free from cancer at recruitment were included. Dietary intakes of individual fatty acids were estimated using center-specific validated dietary questionnaires at baseline and calibrated with 24-h recalls. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 7,036 prostate cancer cases and 936 prostate cancer deaths were ascertained. Intakes of individual fatty acids were not related to overall prostate cancer risk. There was evidence of heterogeneity in the association of some short chain saturated fatty acids with prostate cancer risk by tumor stage (pheterogeneity
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  14. Obón-Santacana M, Luján-Barroso L, Freisling H, Naudin S, Boutron-Ruault MC, Mancini FR, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2020 Jan 01;146(1):76-84.
    PMID: 31107546 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.32415
    Four epidemiologic studies have assessed the association between nut intake and pancreatic cancer risk with contradictory results. The present study aims to investigate the relation between nut intake (including seeds) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for nut intake and PDAC risk. Information on intake of nuts was obtained from the EPIC country-specific dietary questionnaires. After a mean follow-up of 14 years, 476,160 participants were eligible for the present study and included 1,283 PDAC cases. No association was observed between consumption of nuts and PDAC risk (highest intake vs nonconsumers: HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.10; p-trend = 0.70). Furthermore, no evidence for effect-measure modification was observed when different subgroups were analyzed. Overall, in EPIC, the highest intake of nuts was not statistically significantly associated with PDAC risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  15. Ismail NA, Pettitt AN
    Stat Med, 2004 Apr 30;23(8):1247-58.
    PMID: 15083481
    A new method for estimating the time to colonization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) patients is developed in this paper. The time to colonization of MRSA is modelled using a Bayesian smoothing approach for the hazard function. There are two prior models discussed in this paper: the first difference prior and the second difference prior. The second difference prior model gives smoother estimates of the hazard functions and, when applied to data from an intensive care unit (ICU), clearly shows increasing hazard up to day 13, then a decreasing hazard. The results clearly demonstrate that the hazard is not constant and provide a useful quantification of the effect of length of stay on the risk of MRSA colonization which provides useful insight.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models*
  16. Ricceri F, Fasanelli F, Giraudo MT, Sieri S, Tumino R, Mattiello A, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2015 Aug 15;137(4):940-8.
    PMID: 25650288 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.29462
    Women with a diagnosis of breast cancer are at increased risk of second primary cancers, and the identification of risk factors for the latter may have clinical implications. We have followed-up for 11 years 10,045 women with invasive breast cancer from a European cohort, and identified 492 second primary cancers, including 140 contralateral breast cancers. Expected and observed cases and Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR) were estimated using Aalen-Johansen Markovian methods. Information on various risk factors was obtained from detailed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the role of risk factors. Women with breast cancer had a 30% excess risk for second malignancies (95% confidence interval-CI 18-42) after excluding contralateral breast cancers. Risk was particularly elevated for colorectal cancer (SIR, 1.71, 95% CI 1.43-2.00), lymphoma (SIR 1.80, 95% CI 1.31-2.40), melanoma (2.12; 1.63-2.70), endometrium (2.18; 1.75-2.70) and kidney cancers (2.40; 1.57-3.52). Risk of second malignancies was positively associated with age at first cancer, body mass index and smoking status, while it was inversely associated with education, post-menopausal status and a history of full-term pregnancy. We describe in a large cohort of women with breast cancer a 30% excess of second primaries. Among risk factors for breast cancer, a history of full-term pregnancy was inversely associated with the risk of second primary cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  17. Norsa' adah B, Nur-Zafira A, Knight A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(6):2857-60.
    PMID: 22938473
    Pancreatic cancer is usually detected late and has a high mortality rate. Since little is known about this cancer in Malaysia, a review of all cases admitted to Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital was conducted to identify the epidemiological distribution and assess survival. A list of pancreatic cancer patients in 2001-2008 was obtained from the Hospital Record Department. Only cases confirmed by radio-imaging or histo-pathology examination were included. We excluded those with incomplete medical records. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard approaches were used for data analysis. Only 56 cases were included with a mean (SD) age of 49.6 (16.0) years, with 60.7% males and 82.1% of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included cholelithiasis in 23.2%, diabetes mellitus in 16.1%, previous laparotomy in 10.7%, chronic pancreatitis in 7.1%, alcohol drinking in 5.4% and positive family history in 3.6%. The common presenting history included 67.9% loss of appetite, 66.1% loss of weight, 58.9% jaundice and 46.4% abdominal pain. Tumour staging was: 21.5% stage l, 17.8% stage ll, 3.6% stage lll and 57.1% stage lV. The median (95% CI) survival time was 3.4 (0.5, 6.3) months and significant prognostic factors were duration of symptoms (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99; p value 0.013), ascites (HR 2.64; 95% CI: 1.28, 5.44; p value 0.008) and Whipple surgery (HR 4.20; 95% CI: 2.27, 7.76; p value <0.001). The history of presenting complaints was short and the majority presented at late stages of the disease, thus the median survival time was very poor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  18. Kosalaraksa P, Boettiger DC, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, Saramony S, Do VC, et al.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc, 2017 Jun 01;6(2):173-177.
    PMID: 27295973 DOI: 10.1093/jpids/piw031
    Background.: Regular CD4 count testing is often used to monitor antiretroviral therapy efficacy. However, this practice may be redundant in children with a suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load.

    Methods: Study end points were as follows: (1) a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 followed by a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 (transient CD4 <200); (2) CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 confirmed within 6 months (confirmed CD4 <200); and (3) a new or recurrent World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 or 4 illness (clinical failure). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used to evaluate rates and predictors of transient CD4 <200, confirmed CD4 <200, and clinical failure among virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years who were enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.

    Results: Data from 967 children were included in the analysis. At the time of confirmed viral suppression, median age was 10.2 years, 50.4% of children were female, and 95.4% were perinatally infected with HIV. Median CD4 cell count was 837 cells/mm3, and 54.8% of children were classified as having WHO stage 3 or 4 disease. In total, 18 transient CD4 <200 events, 2 confirmed CD4 <200 events, and10 clinical failures occurred at rates of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.46-1.16), 0.08 (95% CI, 0.02-0.32), and 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.75) events per 100 patient-years, respectively. CD4 <500 cells/mm3 at the time of viral suppression confirmation was associated with higher rates of both CD4 outcomes.

    Conclusions: Regular CD4 testing may be unnecessary for virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years with CD4 ≥500 cells/mm3.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  19. Molina-Montes E, Sánchez MJ, Zamora-Ros R, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Wark PA, Obon-Santacana M, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2016 Oct 01;139(7):1480-92.
    PMID: 27184434 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.30190
    Despite the potential cancer preventive effects of flavonoids and lignans, their ability to reduce pancreatic cancer risk has not been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. Our aim was to examine the association between dietary intakes of flavonoids and lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 865 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases occurred after 11.3 years of follow-up of 477,309 cohort members. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake was estimated through validated dietary questionnaires and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Phenol Explorer databases. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using age, sex and center-stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for energy intake, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol and diabetes status. Our results showed that neither overall dietary intake of flavonoids nor of lignans were associated with pancreatic cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR for a doubling of intake = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.95-1.11 and 1.02; 95% CI: 0.89-1.17, respectively). Statistically significant associations were also not observed by flavonoid subclasses. An inverse association between intake of flavanones and pancreatic cancer risk was apparent, without reaching statistical significance, in microscopically confirmed cases (HR for a doubling of intake = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00). In conclusion, we did not observe an association between intake of flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses or lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC cohort.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  20. Sen A, Tsilidis KK, Allen NE, Rinaldi S, Appleby PN, Almquist M, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2015 Sep 01;113(5):840-7.
    PMID: 26313664 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2015.280
    BACKGROUND: Results from several cohort and case-control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered.

    METHODS: The association between alcohol consumption at recruitment and over the lifetime and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 477 263 eligible participants (70% women), 556 (90% women) were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a mean follow-up of 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.

    RESULTS: Compared with participants consuming 0.1-4.9 g of alcohol per day at recruitment, participants consuming 15 or more grams (approximately 1-1.5 drinks) had a 23% lower risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (HR=0.77; 95% CI=0.60-0.98). These findings did not differ greatly when analyses were conducted for lifetime alcohol consumption, although the risk estimates were attenuated and not statistically significant anymore. Similar results were observed by type of alcoholic beverage, by differentiated thyroid carcinoma histology or according to age, sex, smoking status, body mass index and diabetes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides some support to the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a lower risk of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
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