Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 156 in total

  1. Bader Ahmad Aljawadi, Mohd Rizam Abu Bakar, Noor Akma
    This study deals with the analysis of the cure rate estimation based on the Bounded Cumulative Hazard (BCH) model using interval censored data, given that the exact distribution of the data set is unknown. Thus, the non-parametric estimation methods are employed by means of the EM algorithm. The Turnbull and Kaplan Meier estimators were proposed to estimate the survival function, even though the Kaplan Meier estimator faces some restrictions in term of interval survival data. A comparison of the cure rate estimation based on the two estimators was done through a simulation study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  2. Faisal T, Ibrahim F, Taib MN
    PMID: 19163874 DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2008.4650371
    This study presents a new approach to determine the significant prognosis factors in dengue patients utilizing the self-organizing map (SOM). SOM was used to visualize and determine the significant factors that can differentiate between the dengue patients and the healthy subjects. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) parameters and symptoms/signs obtained from the 210 dengue patients during their hospitalization were used in this study. Database comprised of 329 sample (210 dengue patients and 119 healthy subjects) were used in the study. Accordingly, two maps were constructed. A total of 35 predictors (17 BIA parameters, 18 symptoms/signs) were investigated on the day of defervescence of fever. The first map was constructed based on BIA parameters while the second map utilized the symptoms and signs. The visualized results indicated that, the significant BIA prognosis factors for differentiating the dengue patients from the healthy subjects are reactance, intracellular water, ratio of the extracellular water and intracellular water, and ratio of the extracellular mass and body cell mass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models*
  3. Abd Hamid IJ, M Iyen MI, Ibrahim NR, Abd Majid N, Ramli N, Van Rostenberghe H
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2013 May;49(5):375-9.
    PMID: 23573836 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.12192
    The use of reflecting curtains with single phototherapy has not yet been directly compared with double phototherapy (DP). The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of single phototherapy with reflecting curtains (SPRC) and DP in treating neonatal jaundice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  4. Awang H
    J Biosoc Sci, 2005 Jul;37(4):471-9.
    PMID: 16082858
    This analysis demonstrates the application of a data duplication technique in linear regression with censored observations of the waiting time to third pregnancy ending in two outcome types, using data from Malaysia. The linear model not only confirmed the results obtained by the Cox proportional hazards model, but also identified two additional significant factors. The method provides a useful alternative when Cox proportionality assumption of the hazards is violated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  5. Mohd Suan MA, Tan WL, Soelar SA, Ismail I, Abu Hassan MR
    Epidemiol Health, 2015;37:e2015017.
    PMID: 25868638 DOI: 10.4178/epih/e2015017
    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal obstruction and the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma.

    METHODS: Data pertaining to 4,501 colorectal carcinoma patients were extracted from the national colorectal registry and analysed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival rate between patients with intestinal obstruction and those without intestinal obstruction. The p-values<0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Simple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the crude hazard ratio of mortality from colorectal cancer.

    RESULTS: Intestinal obstruction was reported in more than 13% of patients. The 3-year survival rate after treatment was 48.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.9 to 52.8) for patients with intestinal obstruction (n=593) and 54.9% (95% CI, 53.1 to 56.6) for patients without intestinal obstruction (n=3,908). The 5-year survival rate for patients with intestinal obstruction was 37.3% (95% CI, 31.9 to 42.8), which was lower than that of patients without intestinal obstruction (45.6%; 95% CI, 43.5 to 47.7). After adjusting the hazard ratio for other prognostic variables, intestinal obstruction had a statistically significant negative correlation with the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.22 (p=0.008).

    CONCLUSIONS: The presence of intestinal obstruction is associated with a lower survival rate among colorectal cancer patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  6. Suhaimi Hussain, Wong A. Rahim, Ibrahim W. Pauzi W., Naing, N.N.
    Introduction: There are many factors that determine the survival of patients with VSD. Among these include size of VSD, position, pulmonary hypertension, bacterial sepsis, valvular involvement, associated anomalies with VSD, associated syndromes and age at first diagnosis. There has been no published local data as far as we know and this information will be useful especially for consultation with parents. Even though VSD in general has a good prognosis, whenever they have added risks for example pulmonary hypertension then they are at risk of further morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine the factors that are associated with survival of patients with VSD. Design: Retrospective cohort. Materials and methods: All cases of isolated VSDs admitted to HUSM from 1996 to 2003 were reviewed. Results: Univariate Cox regression of survival time of patients with VSDs revealed that 4 factors had prognostic significance namely bacterial sepsis (HR= 287.7, 95% CI 51.1, 1618.5, P < 0.001), Down syndrome (HR = 14.89, 95% CI 3.00, 73.92, P = 0.001), pulmonary hypertension (HR=14.58, 95% CI 1.69, 125.7, P=0.015) and large VSDs (HR=8.23, 95% CI 1.5, 45, P=0.015). Bacterial sepsis was the only significant prognostic factors for the survival of patients with VSDs using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Conclusion: Bacterial sepsis, pulmonary hypertension, large VSD and Down syndrome were the significant prognostic factors from Univariate Cox analysis, however bacterial sepsis was the only significant prognostic factor from Multivariate Cox analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  7. Mohd Shariff N, Shah SA, Kamaludin F
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 2016 09;6:102-107.
    PMID: 27530850 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2016.04.005
    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health threat. However, little is known about the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB patients, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study adopted a retrospective cohort study design and involved laboratory-confirmed drug-resistant TB patients (n=426) from January 2009 to June 2013. A Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to model the outcome measure. Data were analysed by using SPSS v.20.0 for Windows. In this study, 15.3% (n=65) of the patients died. Among the study patients, 70.9% were monoresistant TB cases, 9.4% were poly-resistant TB and 19.7% were MDR-TB. MDR-TB [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-3.95], ethnicity [Malay (aHR=5.95, 95% CI 2.30-15.41), Chinese (aHR=4.01, 95% CI 1.38-11.66) and Indian (aHR=3.76, 95% CI 1.19-11.85)], coronary heart disease (aHR=6.82, 95% CI 2.16-21.50), drug abuse (aHR=3.79, 95% CI 2.07-6.93) and treatment non-compliance (aHR=1.81, 95% CI 1.01-3.27) were independent predictors of poorer survival in the multivariate Cox regression analysis. This study suggests that MDR-TB, local ethnicity, coronary heart disease, history of drug abuse and treatment non-compliance are factors predicting poor survival in drug-resistant TB patients. More emphasis should be given to the management of drug-resistant TB patients with these characteristics to achieve better treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  8. Ting CY, Liew SM, Price A, Gan GG, Bee-Lan Ong D, Tan SY, et al.
    Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol., 2019 Dec;144:102818.
    PMID: 31733445 DOI: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2019.102818
    The clinical significance of aberrantly expressed microRNAs in predicting treatment response to chemotherapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients (DLBCL) remains uncertain. Feasibility of microRNA testing to predict treatment outcome was evaluated. Twenty-two types of aberrantly expressed microRNAs were associated with poor treatment response; pooled hazard ratio (HR) was 2.14 [95%CI:1.78-2.57, P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  9. Ngah H, Hairon SM, Yaacob NM, Yusoff H
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 Jul;26(4):70-78.
    PMID: 31496895 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.4.8
    Background: Death resulting from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide concern. This study is aimed at determining the overall median survival time, and the prognostic factors of mortality among AIDS-infected patients in North-East Peninsular Malaysia.

    Methods: In 2018, a retrospective cohort study stretching from January to April was conducted. This study involved a review of data obtained from the National AIDS Registry. A total of 1,073 AIDS cases diagnosed from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014 were selected, and follow-up procedures were conducted until 31 March 2015 (a 3-month follow-up). The Kaplan-Meier plot and Cox's proportional hazard regression were used for data analyses.

    Results: 564 (52.5%) patients died due to AIDS, while the remaining 509 (47.4%) were censored. The overall median survival time was 11 months. The probability of survival in 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, 4-year and 5-year periods were 49.1%, 47.8%, 47.3%, 47.0% and 46.7%, respectively. Multiple Cox regression revealed that the significant prognostic factors were age 30-49 years [adjusted hazard ratio (Adj. HR) 1.57; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.16; P = 0.006], male (Adj. HR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.79; P = 0.012), unemployed (Adj. HR 1.40; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.75; P = 0.003) and HIV-TB co-infection (Adj. HR 1.78; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.31; P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: The overall median survival time among AIDS patients in North-East Peninsular Malaysia was revealed to be short, in comparison to the other studies. The chances for survival can be improved with more emphasis on early detection (to ensure early treatment) and social support, particularly for HIV-TB co-infected patients, as well as for younger and unemployed patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  10. Karunamuni RA, Huynh-Le MP, Fan CC, Thompson W, Eeles RA, Kote-Jarai Z, et al.
    PMID: 33420416 DOI: 10.1038/s41391-020-00311-2
    BACKGROUND: Polygenic hazard scores (PHS) can identify individuals with increased risk of prostate cancer. We estimated the benefit of additional SNPs on performance of a previously validated PHS (PHS46).

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: 180 SNPs, shown to be previously associated with prostate cancer, were used to develop a PHS model in men with European ancestry. A machine-learning approach, LASSO-regularized Cox regression, was used to select SNPs and to estimate their coefficients in the training set (75,596 men). Performance of the resulting model was evaluated in the testing/validation set (6,411 men) with two metrics: (1) hazard ratios (HRs) and (2) positive predictive value (PPV) of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. HRs were estimated between individuals with PHS in the top 5% to those in the middle 40% (HR95/50), top 20% to bottom 20% (HR80/20), and bottom 20% to middle 40% (HR20/50). PPV was calculated for the top 20% (PPV80) and top 5% (PPV95) of PHS as the fraction of individuals with elevated PSA that were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer on biopsy.

    RESULTS: 166 SNPs had non-zero coefficients in the Cox model (PHS166). All HR metrics showed significant improvements for PHS166 compared to PHS46: HR95/50 increased from 3.72 to 5.09, HR80/20 increased from 6.12 to 9.45, and HR20/50 decreased from 0.41 to 0.34. By contrast, no significant differences were observed in PPV of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating 120 additional SNPs (PHS166 vs PHS46) significantly improved HRs for prostate cancer, while PPV of PSA testing remained the same.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  11. Lim J, Amantakul A, Shariff N, Lojanapiwat B, Alip A, Ong TA, et al.
    Cancer Med, 2020 07;9(13):4613-4621.
    PMID: 32374087 DOI: 10.1002/cam4.3101
    It is of much interest to understand the efficacy of abiraterone acetate (AA) in routine clinical practice. We assessed the clinical outcome of AA in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and determined clinical factors associated with AA treatment duration in real-world setting. This real-world cohort consisted of 93 patients with mCRPC treated with AA in Thailand (58.1%) and Malaysia (41.9%). Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS). Secondary endpoints were predictors associated with AA treatment duration evaluated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Around 74% were chemotherapy-naïve. The median AA treatment duration was 10 months (IQR 5.6-17.1). Malaysians had a relatively lower median OS and bPFS (OS 17.8 months; 95% CI 6.4-29.1, bPFS 10.4 months; 95% CI 8.8-12.0) compared to Thais (OS 27.0 months; 95% CI 11.3-42.7, bPFS 14.0 months; 95% CI 5.8-22.2), although it did not achieve statistical significance (P > .05). Patients with longer AA treatment duration (>10 months) had lower risk of death and longer bPFS, compared to those with shorter AA treatment duration (≤10 months) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.10, 95% CI 0.05-0.22 and HR 0.13, 95% CI 0.06-0.25, respectively). Multivariable analysis showed that PSA at AA initiation, presence of PSA response and chemotherapy-naive were independently associated with AA duration (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  12. Ghazali AK, Keegan T, Taylor BM
    PMID: 33503972 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18031052
    A patient's survival may depend on several known and unknown factors and it may also vary spatially across a region. Socioeconomic status, accessibility to healthcare and other environmental factors are likely to contribute to survival rates. The aim of the study was to model the spatial variation in survival for colorectal cancer patients in Malaysia, accounting for individual and socioeconomic risk factors. We conducted a retrospective study of 4412 colorectal cancer (ICD-10, C18-C20) patients diagnosed from 2008 to 2013 to model survival in CRC patients. We used the data recorded in the database of the Malaysian National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer (NCPR-CRC). Spatial location was assigned based on the patients' central district location, which involves 144 administrative districts of Malaysia. We fitted a parametric proportional hazards model in which the spatially correlated frailties were modelled by a log-Gaussian stochastic process to analyse the spatially referenced survival data, which is also known as a spatial survival model. After controlling for individual and area level characteristics, our findings indicate wide spatial variation in colorectal cancer survival across Malaysia. Better healthcare provision and higher socioeconomic index in the districts where patients live decreased the risk of death from colorectal cancer, but these associations were not statistically significant. Reliable measurement of environmental factors is needed to provide good insight into the effects of potential risk factors for the disease. For example, a better metric is needed to measure socioeconomic status and accessibility to healthcare in the country. The findings provide new information that might be of use to the Ministry of Health in identifying populations with an increased risk of poor survival, and for planning and providing cancer control services.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  13. Hedayati E, Papakonstantinou A, Gernaat SAM, Altena R, Brand JS, Alfredsson J, et al.
    Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes, 2020 04 01;6(2):147-155.
    PMID: 31328233 DOI: 10.1093/ehjqcco/qcz039
    AIMS: Heart failure (HF) patients diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) may have a higher risk of death, and different HF presentation and treatment than patients without BC.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 14 998 women with incident HF (iHF) or prevalent HF (pHF) enrolled in the Swedish HF Registry within and after 1 month since HF diagnosis, respectively, between 2008 and 2013. Patients were linked with the National Patient-, Cancer-, and Cause-of-Death Registry. Two hundred and ninety-four iHF and 338 pHF patients with BC were age-matched to 1470 iHF and 1690 pHF patients without BC. Comorbidity and treatment characteristics were compared using the χ2 tests for categories. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among HF patients with and without BC. In the pHF group, BC patients had less often myocardial infarction (21.6% vs. 28.6%, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  14. Cho YH, Seo JB, Lee SM, Kim N, Yun J, Hwang JE, et al.
    Eur Radiol, 2021 Apr 13.
    PMID: 33847809 DOI: 10.1007/s00330-021-07747-7
    OBJECTIVES: To apply radiomics analysis for overall survival prediction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and evaluate the performance of the radiomics signature (RS).

    METHODS: This study included 344 patients from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) cohort. External validation was performed on a cohort of 112 patients. In total, 525 chest CT-based radiomics features were semi-automatically extracted. The five most useful features for survival prediction were selected by least absolute shrinkage and selection operation (LASSO) Cox regression analysis and used to generate a RS. The ability of the RS for classifying COPD patients into high or low mortality risk groups was evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.

    RESULTS: The five features remaining after the LASSO analysis were %LAA-950, AWT_Pi10_6th, AWT_Pi10_heterogeneity, %WA_heterogeneity, and VA18mm. The RS demonstrated a C-index of 0.774 in the discovery group and 0.805 in the validation group. Patients with a RS greater than 1.053 were classified into the high-risk group and demonstrated worse overall survival than those in the low-risk group in both the discovery (log-rank test, < 0.001; hazard ratio [HR], 5.265) and validation groups (log-rank test, < 0.001; HR, 5.223). For both groups, RS was significantly associated with overall survival after adjustments for patient age and body mass index.

    CONCLUSIONS: A radiomics approach for survival prediction and risk stratification in COPD patients is feasible, and the constructed radiomics model demonstrated acceptable performance. The RS derived from chest CT data of COPD patients was able to effectively identify those at increased risk of mortality.

    KEY POINTS: • A total of 525 chest CT-based radiomics features were extracted and the five radiomics features of %LAA-950, AWT_Pi10_6th, AWT_Pi10_heterogeneity, %WA_heterogeneity, and VA18mm were selected to generate a radiomics model. • A radiomics model for predicting survival of COPD patients demonstrated reliable performance with a C-index of 0.774 in the discovery group and 0.805 in the validation group. • Radiomics approach was able to effectively identify COPD patients with an increased risk of mortality, and patients assigned to the high-risk group demonstrated worse overall survival in both the discovery and validation groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  15. Ismail NA, Pettitt AN
    Stat Med, 2004 Apr 30;23(8):1247-58.
    PMID: 15083481
    A new method for estimating the time to colonization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) patients is developed in this paper. The time to colonization of MRSA is modelled using a Bayesian smoothing approach for the hazard function. There are two prior models discussed in this paper: the first difference prior and the second difference prior. The second difference prior model gives smoother estimates of the hazard functions and, when applied to data from an intensive care unit (ICU), clearly shows increasing hazard up to day 13, then a decreasing hazard. The results clearly demonstrate that the hazard is not constant and provide a useful quantification of the effect of length of stay on the risk of MRSA colonization which provides useful insight.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models*
  16. Emaus MJ, Peeters PH, Bakker MF, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, et al.
    Am J Clin Nutr, 2016 Jan;103(1):168-77.
    PMID: 26607934 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.114.101436
    BACKGROUND: The recent literature indicates that a high vegetable intake and not a high fruit intake could be associated with decreased steroid hormone receptor-negative breast cancer risk.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between vegetable and fruit intake and steroid hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.

    DESIGN: A total of 335,054 female participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were included in this study (mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 9.8 y). Vegetable and fruit intake was measured by country-specific questionnaires filled out at recruitment between 1992 and 2000 with the use of standardized procedures. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age at recruitment and study center and were adjusted for breast cancer risk factors.

    RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 11.5 y (IQR: 10.1-12.3 y), 10,197 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed [3479 estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+); 1021 ER and PR negative (ER-PR-)]. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of overall breast cancer (HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94). Although the inverse association was most apparent for ER-PR- breast cancer (ER-PR-: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = 0.03; ER+PR+: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.05; P-trend = 0.14), the test for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status was not significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.09). Fruit intake was not significantly associated with total and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.

    CONCLUSION: This study supports evidence that a high vegetable intake is associated with lower (mainly hormone receptor-negative) breast cancer risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  17. Ricceri F, Fasanelli F, Giraudo MT, Sieri S, Tumino R, Mattiello A, et al.
    Int J Cancer, 2015 Aug 15;137(4):940-8.
    PMID: 25650288 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.29462
    Women with a diagnosis of breast cancer are at increased risk of second primary cancers, and the identification of risk factors for the latter may have clinical implications. We have followed-up for 11 years 10,045 women with invasive breast cancer from a European cohort, and identified 492 second primary cancers, including 140 contralateral breast cancers. Expected and observed cases and Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR) were estimated using Aalen-Johansen Markovian methods. Information on various risk factors was obtained from detailed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the role of risk factors. Women with breast cancer had a 30% excess risk for second malignancies (95% confidence interval-CI 18-42) after excluding contralateral breast cancers. Risk was particularly elevated for colorectal cancer (SIR, 1.71, 95% CI 1.43-2.00), lymphoma (SIR 1.80, 95% CI 1.31-2.40), melanoma (2.12; 1.63-2.70), endometrium (2.18; 1.75-2.70) and kidney cancers (2.40; 1.57-3.52). Risk of second malignancies was positively associated with age at first cancer, body mass index and smoking status, while it was inversely associated with education, post-menopausal status and a history of full-term pregnancy. We describe in a large cohort of women with breast cancer a 30% excess of second primaries. Among risk factors for breast cancer, a history of full-term pregnancy was inversely associated with the risk of second primary cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  18. Norsa' adah B, Nur-Zafira A, Knight A
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(6):2857-60.
    PMID: 22938473
    Pancreatic cancer is usually detected late and has a high mortality rate. Since little is known about this cancer in Malaysia, a review of all cases admitted to Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital was conducted to identify the epidemiological distribution and assess survival. A list of pancreatic cancer patients in 2001-2008 was obtained from the Hospital Record Department. Only cases confirmed by radio-imaging or histo-pathology examination were included. We excluded those with incomplete medical records. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard approaches were used for data analysis. Only 56 cases were included with a mean (SD) age of 49.6 (16.0) years, with 60.7% males and 82.1% of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included cholelithiasis in 23.2%, diabetes mellitus in 16.1%, previous laparotomy in 10.7%, chronic pancreatitis in 7.1%, alcohol drinking in 5.4% and positive family history in 3.6%. The common presenting history included 67.9% loss of appetite, 66.1% loss of weight, 58.9% jaundice and 46.4% abdominal pain. Tumour staging was: 21.5% stage l, 17.8% stage ll, 3.6% stage lll and 57.1% stage lV. The median (95% CI) survival time was 3.4 (0.5, 6.3) months and significant prognostic factors were duration of symptoms (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99; p value 0.013), ascites (HR 2.64; 95% CI: 1.28, 5.44; p value 0.008) and Whipple surgery (HR 4.20; 95% CI: 2.27, 7.76; p value <0.001). The history of presenting complaints was short and the majority presented at late stages of the disease, thus the median survival time was very poor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  19. Choong LP, Taib NA, Rampal S, Saad M, Bustam AZ, Yip CH
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2010;11(5):1409-16.
    PMID: 21198302
    BACKGROUND: Locoregional recurrence after mastectomy for breast cancer may predict distant recurrence and mortality. This study examined the pattern and rates of post-mastectomy locoregional recurrence (PMLRR), survival outcome and prognostic factors for isolated PMLRR (ILR) in a breast cancer cohort in University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC).

    METHODS: We studied 522 patients who underwent mastectomy between 1998 and 2002 and followed them up until 2008. We defined PMLRR as recurrence to the axilla, supraclavicular nodes and or chest wall. ILR was defined as PMLRR occurring as an isolated event. Prognostic factors for locoregional recurrence were determined using the Cox proportional hazards regression model.

    RESULTS: The overall PMLRR rate was 16.4%. ILR developed in 42 of 522 patients (8.0%). Within this subgroup, 25 (59.5%) remained disease free after treatment while 17 (40.5%) suffered disease progression. Univariate analyses identified race, age, size, stage, margin involvement, lymph node involvement, grade, lymphovascular invasion and ER status as probable prognostic factors for ILR. Cox regression resulted in only stage III disease and margin involvement as independent prognostic factors. The hazard of ILR was 2.5 times higher when the margins were involved compared to when they were clear (aHRR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 5.0). Similarly, compared with stage I those with Stage II (aHRR 2.1; 95%CI 0.6 to 6.8) and stage III (aHRR 4.6; 95%CI 1.4 to 15.9) had worse prognosis for ILR.

    CONCLUSION: Margin involvement and stage III disease were identified to be independent prognostic factors for ILR. Close follow-up of high risk patients and prompt treatment of locoregional recurrence were recommended.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  20. Salahshourifar I, Halim AS, Sulaiman WA, Zilfalil BA
    J. Dent. Res., 2011 Mar;90(3):387-91.
    PMID: 21297019 DOI: 10.1177/0022034510391798
    Non-syndromic cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, is a heterogeneous, complex disease with a high incidence in the Asian population. Several association studies have been done on cleft candidate genes, but no reports have been published thus far on the Orofacial Cleft 1 (OFC1) genomic region in an Asian population. This study investigated the association between the OFC1 genomic region and non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in 90 Malay father-mother-offspring trios. Results showed a preferential over-transmission of a 101-bp allele of marker D6S470 in the allele- and haplotype-based transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), as well as an excess of maternal transmission. However, no significant p-value was found for a maternal genotype effect in a log-linear model, although single and double doses of the 101-bp allele showed a slightly increased cleft risk (RR = 1.37, 95% CI, 0.527-3.4, p-value = 0.516). Carrying two copies of the 101-bp allele was significantly associated with an increased cleft risk (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.06-6.12, p-value = 0.035). In conclusion, we report evidence of the contribution of the OFC1 genomic region to the etiology of clefts in a Malay population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
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