Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 104 in total

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  1. Bader Ahmad Aljawadi, Mohd Rizam Abu Bakar, Noor Akma
    MyJurnal
    This study deals with the analysis of the cure rate estimation based on the Bounded Cumulative Hazard (BCH) model using interval censored data, given that the exact distribution of the data set is unknown. Thus, the non-parametric estimation methods are employed by means of the EM algorithm. The Turnbull and Kaplan Meier estimators were proposed to estimate the survival function, even though the Kaplan Meier estimator faces some restrictions in term of interval survival data. A comparison of the cure rate estimation based on the two estimators was done through a simulation study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  2. Agudo A, Cayssials V, Bonet C, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Boutron-Ruault MC, et al.
    Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2018 Apr 01;107(4):607-616.
    PMID: 29635497 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy002
    Background: Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the 2 major types of gastric cancer. Several foods, nutrients, and nonnutrient food components seem to be involved in the regulation of chronic inflammation.

    Objective: We assessed the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of gastric carcinoma, overall and for the 2 major subsites: cardia cancers and noncardia cancers.

    Design: A total of 476,160 subjects (30% men, 70% women) from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were followed for 14 y, during which 913 incident cases of gastric carcinoma were identified, including 236 located in the cardia, 341 in the distal part of the stomach (noncardia), and 336 with overlapping or unknown tumor site. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated with the use of 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory scores. The association between the ISD and gastric cancer risk was estimated by HRs and 95% CIs calculated by multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for confounders.

    Results: The inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The HR (95% CI) for each increase in 1 SD of the ISD were 1.25 (1.12, 1.39) for all gastric cancers, 1.30 (1.06, 1.59) for cardia cancers, and 1.07 (0.89, 1.28) for noncardia cancers. The corresponding values for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles of the ISD were 1.66 (1.26, 2.20), 1.94 (1.14, 3.30), and 1.07 (0.70, 1.70), respectively.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that low-grade chronic inflammation induced by the diet may be associated with gastric cancer risk. This pattern seems to be more consistent for gastric carcinomas located in the cardia than for those located in the distal stomach. This study is listed on the ISRCTN registry as ISRCTN12136108.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  3. Faisal T, Ibrahim F, Taib MN
    PMID: 19163874 DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2008.4650371
    This study presents a new approach to determine the significant prognosis factors in dengue patients utilizing the self-organizing map (SOM). SOM was used to visualize and determine the significant factors that can differentiate between the dengue patients and the healthy subjects. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) parameters and symptoms/signs obtained from the 210 dengue patients during their hospitalization were used in this study. Database comprised of 329 sample (210 dengue patients and 119 healthy subjects) were used in the study. Accordingly, two maps were constructed. A total of 35 predictors (17 BIA parameters, 18 symptoms/signs) were investigated on the day of defervescence of fever. The first map was constructed based on BIA parameters while the second map utilized the symptoms and signs. The visualized results indicated that, the significant BIA prognosis factors for differentiating the dengue patients from the healthy subjects are reactance, intracellular water, ratio of the extracellular water and intracellular water, and ratio of the extracellular mass and body cell mass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models*
  4. Abd Hamid IJ, M Iyen MI, Ibrahim NR, Abd Majid N, Ramli N, Van Rostenberghe H
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2013 May;49(5):375-9.
    PMID: 23573836 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.12192
    The use of reflecting curtains with single phototherapy has not yet been directly compared with double phototherapy (DP). The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of single phototherapy with reflecting curtains (SPRC) and DP in treating neonatal jaundice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  5. Awang H
    J Biosoc Sci, 2005 Jul;37(4):471-9.
    PMID: 16082858
    This analysis demonstrates the application of a data duplication technique in linear regression with censored observations of the waiting time to third pregnancy ending in two outcome types, using data from Malaysia. The linear model not only confirmed the results obtained by the Cox proportional hazards model, but also identified two additional significant factors. The method provides a useful alternative when Cox proportionality assumption of the hazards is violated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  6. Suhaimi Hussain, Wong A. Rahim, Ibrahim W. Pauzi W., Naing, N.N.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: There are many factors that determine the survival of patients with VSD. Among these include size of VSD, position, pulmonary hypertension, bacterial sepsis, valvular involvement, associated anomalies with VSD, associated syndromes and age at first diagnosis. There has been no published local data as far as we know and this information will be useful especially for consultation with parents. Even though VSD in general has a good prognosis, whenever they have added risks for example pulmonary hypertension then they are at risk of further morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine the factors that are associated with survival of patients with VSD. Design: Retrospective cohort. Materials and methods: All cases of isolated VSDs admitted to HUSM from 1996 to 2003 were reviewed. Results: Univariate Cox regression of survival time of patients with VSDs revealed that 4 factors had prognostic significance namely bacterial sepsis (HR= 287.7, 95% CI 51.1, 1618.5, P < 0.001), Down syndrome (HR = 14.89, 95% CI 3.00, 73.92, P = 0.001), pulmonary hypertension (HR=14.58, 95% CI 1.69, 125.7, P=0.015) and large VSDs (HR=8.23, 95% CI 1.5, 45, P=0.015). Bacterial sepsis was the only significant prognostic factors for the survival of patients with VSDs using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Conclusion: Bacterial sepsis, pulmonary hypertension, large VSD and Down syndrome were the significant prognostic factors from Univariate Cox analysis, however bacterial sepsis was the only significant prognostic factor from Multivariate Cox analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  7. Mohd Shariff N, Shah SA, Kamaludin F
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 2016 09;6:102-107.
    PMID: 27530850 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2016.04.005
    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health threat. However, little is known about the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB patients, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study adopted a retrospective cohort study design and involved laboratory-confirmed drug-resistant TB patients (n=426) from January 2009 to June 2013. A Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to model the outcome measure. Data were analysed by using SPSS v.20.0 for Windows. In this study, 15.3% (n=65) of the patients died. Among the study patients, 70.9% were monoresistant TB cases, 9.4% were poly-resistant TB and 19.7% were MDR-TB. MDR-TB [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-3.95], ethnicity [Malay (aHR=5.95, 95% CI 2.30-15.41), Chinese (aHR=4.01, 95% CI 1.38-11.66) and Indian (aHR=3.76, 95% CI 1.19-11.85)], coronary heart disease (aHR=6.82, 95% CI 2.16-21.50), drug abuse (aHR=3.79, 95% CI 2.07-6.93) and treatment non-compliance (aHR=1.81, 95% CI 1.01-3.27) were independent predictors of poorer survival in the multivariate Cox regression analysis. This study suggests that MDR-TB, local ethnicity, coronary heart disease, history of drug abuse and treatment non-compliance are factors predicting poor survival in drug-resistant TB patients. More emphasis should be given to the management of drug-resistant TB patients with these characteristics to achieve better treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  8. Shehabi Y, Bellomo R, Kadiman S, Ti LK, Howe B, Reade MC, et al.
    Crit. Care Med., 2018 06;46(6):850-859.
    PMID: 29498938 DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003071
    OBJECTIVES: In the absence of a universal definition of light or deep sedation, the level of sedation that conveys favorable outcomes is unknown. We quantified the relationship between escalating intensity of sedation in the first 48 hours of mechanical ventilation and 180-day survival, time to extubation, and delirium.

    DESIGN: Harmonized data from prospective multicenter international longitudinal cohort studies SETTING:: Diverse mix of ICUs.

    PATIENTS: Critically ill patients expected to be ventilated for longer than 24 hours.

    INTERVENTIONS: Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale and pain were assessed every 4 hours. Delirium and mobilization were assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method of ICU and a standardized mobility assessment, respectively.

    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Sedation intensity was assessed using a Sedation Index, calculated as the sum of negative Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale measurements divided by the total number of assessments. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to adjust for relevant covariates. We performed subgroup and sensitivity analysis accounting for immortal time bias using the same variables within 120 and 168 hours. The main outcome was 180-day survival. We assessed 703 patients in 42 ICUs with a mean (SD) Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 22.2 (8.5) with 180-day mortality of 32.3% (227). The median (interquartile range) ventilation time was 4.54 days (2.47-8.43 d). Delirium occurred in 273 (38.8%) of patients. Sedation intensity, in an escalating dose-dependent relationship, independently predicted increased risk of death (hazard ratio [95% CI], 1.29 [1.15-1.46]; p < 0.001, delirium hazard ratio [95% CI], 1.25 [1.10-1.43]), p value equals to 0.001 and reduced chance of early extubation hazard ratio (95% CI) 0.80 (0.73-0.87), p value of less than 0.001. Agitation level independently predicted subsequent delirium hazard ratio [95% CI], of 1.25 (1.04-1.49), p value equals to 0.02. Delirium or mobilization episodes within 168 hours, adjusted for sedation intensity, were not associated with survival.

    CONCLUSIONS: Sedation intensity independently, in an ascending relationship, predicted increased risk of death, delirium, and delayed time to extubation. These observations suggest that keeping sedation level equivalent to a Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale 0 is a clinically desirable goal.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  9. Borzych-Duzalka D, Shroff R, Ariceta G, Yap YC, Paglialonga F, Xu H, et al.
    Am. J. Kidney Dis., 2019 Apr 19.
    PMID: 31010601 DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.02.014
    RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) have been recommended as the preferred vascular access for pediatric patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD), but data comparing AVFs with other access types are scant. We studied vascular access choice, placement, complications, and outcomes in children.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study.

    SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 552 children and adolescents from 27 countries on maintenance HD followed up prospectively by the International Pediatric HD Network (IPHN) Registry between 2012 and 2017.

    PREDICTOR: Type of vascular access: AVF, central venous catheter (CVC), or arteriovenous graft.

    OUTCOME: Infectious and noninfectious vascular access complication rates, dialysis performance, biochemical and hematologic parameters, and clinical outcomes.

    ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Univariate and multivariable linear mixed models, generalized linear mixed models, and proportional hazards models; cumulative incidence functions.

    RESULTS: During 314 cumulative patient-years, 628 CVCs, 225 AVFs, and 17 arteriovenous grafts were placed. One-third of the children with an AVF required a temporary CVC until fistula maturation. Vascular access choice was associated with age and expectations for early transplantation. There was a 3-fold higher living related transplantation rate and lower median time to transplantation of 14 (IQR, 6-23) versus 20 (IQR, 14-36) months with CVCs compared with AVFs. Higher blood flow rates and Kt/Vurea were achieved with AVFs than with CVCs. Infectious complications were reported only with CVCs (1.3/1,000 catheter-days) and required vascular access replacement in 47%. CVC dysfunction rates were 2.5/1,000 catheter-days compared to 1.2/1,000 fistula-days. CVCs required 82% more revisions and almost 3-fold more vascular access replacements to a different site than AVFs (P<0.001).

    LIMITATIONS: Clinical rather than population-based data.

    CONCLUSIONS: CVCs are the predominant vascular access choice in children receiving HD within the IPHN. Age-related anatomical limitations and expected early living related transplantation were associated with CVC use. CVCs were associated with poorer dialysis efficacy, higher complication rates, and more frequent need for vascular access replacement. Such findings call for a re-evaluation of pediatric CVC use and practices.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  10. Teck Seo S, Singh VA, Yasin NF
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2019 6 22;27(2):2309499019854957.
    PMID: 31221016 DOI: 10.1177/2309499019854957
    PURPOSE: Inflammation plays a major role in tumour development, progression and metastasis. Multiple inflammatory markers such as absolute lymphocyte count, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio have been discovered as prognostic markers for various malignancies. We investigate preoperative lymphocyte count and other cell count ratios and their relation to survival and prognosis of sarcoma patients after surgery.

    METHODS: A total of 142 patients from the Orthopaedics Oncology Database were included into this retrospective study. Kaplan-Meier curve and multivariate Cox proportional models were used to calculate the overall survival of patients with sarcoma who underwent radical excision surgery.

    RESULTS: High preoperative LMR is significantly associated with better overall survival and prognosis in sarcoma patients, whereas high preoperative NLR is significantly associated with shorter overall survival and poorer prognosis. Multivariate analysis shows that LMR and NLR are good predictors for overall survival at 3 and 5 years after surgery, respectively. Patients with high preoperative lymphocytes count are associated with longer overall survival, but this association is not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that preoperative NLR and LMR are good predictive markers for survival of sarcoma patients.

    CONCLUSION: LMR and NLR can be used to identify patients at risk for poor clinical outcome, so that a more aggressive course of treatment can be applied to improve outcome. These are cost-effective prognostic tools as they are calculated from routine preoperative peripheral blood counts. In conclusion, preoperative NLR and LMR are good prognostic markers for predicting the clinical outcome of patients with sarcoma.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  11. Ismail NA, Pettitt AN
    Stat Med, 2004 Apr 30;23(8):1247-58.
    PMID: 15083481
    A new method for estimating the time to colonization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) patients is developed in this paper. The time to colonization of MRSA is modelled using a Bayesian smoothing approach for the hazard function. There are two prior models discussed in this paper: the first difference prior and the second difference prior. The second difference prior model gives smoother estimates of the hazard functions and, when applied to data from an intensive care unit (ICU), clearly shows increasing hazard up to day 13, then a decreasing hazard. The results clearly demonstrate that the hazard is not constant and provide a useful quantification of the effect of length of stay on the risk of MRSA colonization which provides useful insight.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models*
  12. Kosalaraksa P, Boettiger DC, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, Saramony S, Do VC, et al.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc, 2017 Jun 01;6(2):173-177.
    PMID: 27295973 DOI: 10.1093/jpids/piw031
    Background.: Regular CD4 count testing is often used to monitor antiretroviral therapy efficacy. However, this practice may be redundant in children with a suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load.

    Methods: Study end points were as follows: (1) a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 followed by a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 (transient CD4 <200); (2) CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 confirmed within 6 months (confirmed CD4 <200); and (3) a new or recurrent World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 or 4 illness (clinical failure). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used to evaluate rates and predictors of transient CD4 <200, confirmed CD4 <200, and clinical failure among virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years who were enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.

    Results: Data from 967 children were included in the analysis. At the time of confirmed viral suppression, median age was 10.2 years, 50.4% of children were female, and 95.4% were perinatally infected with HIV. Median CD4 cell count was 837 cells/mm3, and 54.8% of children were classified as having WHO stage 3 or 4 disease. In total, 18 transient CD4 <200 events, 2 confirmed CD4 <200 events, and10 clinical failures occurred at rates of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.46-1.16), 0.08 (95% CI, 0.02-0.32), and 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.75) events per 100 patient-years, respectively. CD4 <500 cells/mm3 at the time of viral suppression confirmation was associated with higher rates of both CD4 outcomes.

    Conclusions: Regular CD4 testing may be unnecessary for virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years with CD4 ≥500 cells/mm3.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  13. Molina-Montes E, Sánchez MJ, Zamora-Ros R, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Wark PA, Obon-Santacana M, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2016 Oct 01;139(7):1480-92.
    PMID: 27184434 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.30190
    Despite the potential cancer preventive effects of flavonoids and lignans, their ability to reduce pancreatic cancer risk has not been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. Our aim was to examine the association between dietary intakes of flavonoids and lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 865 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases occurred after 11.3 years of follow-up of 477,309 cohort members. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake was estimated through validated dietary questionnaires and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Phenol Explorer databases. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using age, sex and center-stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for energy intake, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol and diabetes status. Our results showed that neither overall dietary intake of flavonoids nor of lignans were associated with pancreatic cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR for a doubling of intake = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.95-1.11 and 1.02; 95% CI: 0.89-1.17, respectively). Statistically significant associations were also not observed by flavonoid subclasses. An inverse association between intake of flavanones and pancreatic cancer risk was apparent, without reaching statistical significance, in microscopically confirmed cases (HR for a doubling of intake = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00). In conclusion, we did not observe an association between intake of flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses or lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC cohort.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  14. Müezzinler A, Mons U, Gellert C, Schöttker B, Jansen E, Kee F, et al.
    Am J Prev Med, 2015 Nov;49(5):e53-e63.
    PMID: 26188685 DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.04.004
    INTRODUCTION: Smoking is known to be a major cause of death among middle-aged adults, but evidence on its impact and the benefits of smoking cessation among older adults has remained limited. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the influence of smoking and smoking cessation on all-cause mortality in people aged ≥60 years.

    METHODS: Relative mortality and mortality rate advancement periods (RAPs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models for the population-based prospective cohort studies from Europe and the U.S. (CHANCES [Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the U.S.]), and subsequently pooled by individual participant meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were performed from June 2013 to March 2014.

    RESULTS: A total of 489,056 participants aged ≥60 years at baseline from 22 population-based cohort studies were included. Overall, 99,298 deaths were recorded. Current smokers had 2-fold and former smokers had 1.3-fold increased mortality compared with never smokers. These increases in mortality translated to RAPs of 6.4 (95% CI=4.8, 7.9) and 2.4 (95% CI=1.5, 3.4) years, respectively. A clear positive dose-response relationship was observed between number of currently smoked cigarettes and mortality. For former smokers, excess mortality and RAPs decreased with time since cessation, with RAPs of 3.9 (95% CI=3.0, 4.7), 2.7 (95% CI=1.8, 3.6), and 0.7 (95% CI=0.2, 1.1) for those who had quit <10, 10 to 19, and ≥20 years ago, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Smoking remains as a strong risk factor for premature mortality in older individuals and cessation remains beneficial even at advanced ages. Efforts to support smoking abstinence at all ages should be a public health priority.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  15. Sen A, Tsilidis KK, Allen NE, Rinaldi S, Appleby PN, Almquist M, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2015 Sep 01;113(5):840-7.
    PMID: 26313664 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2015.280
    BACKGROUND: Results from several cohort and case-control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered.

    METHODS: The association between alcohol consumption at recruitment and over the lifetime and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 477 263 eligible participants (70% women), 556 (90% women) were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a mean follow-up of 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.

    RESULTS: Compared with participants consuming 0.1-4.9 g of alcohol per day at recruitment, participants consuming 15 or more grams (approximately 1-1.5 drinks) had a 23% lower risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (HR=0.77; 95% CI=0.60-0.98). These findings did not differ greatly when analyses were conducted for lifetime alcohol consumption, although the risk estimates were attenuated and not statistically significant anymore. Similar results were observed by type of alcoholic beverage, by differentiated thyroid carcinoma histology or according to age, sex, smoking status, body mass index and diabetes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides some support to the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a lower risk of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  16. Norsa' adah B, Nur-Zafira A, Knight A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(6):2857-60.
    PMID: 22938473
    Pancreatic cancer is usually detected late and has a high mortality rate. Since little is known about this cancer in Malaysia, a review of all cases admitted to Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital was conducted to identify the epidemiological distribution and assess survival. A list of pancreatic cancer patients in 2001-2008 was obtained from the Hospital Record Department. Only cases confirmed by radio-imaging or histo-pathology examination were included. We excluded those with incomplete medical records. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard approaches were used for data analysis. Only 56 cases were included with a mean (SD) age of 49.6 (16.0) years, with 60.7% males and 82.1% of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included cholelithiasis in 23.2%, diabetes mellitus in 16.1%, previous laparotomy in 10.7%, chronic pancreatitis in 7.1%, alcohol drinking in 5.4% and positive family history in 3.6%. The common presenting history included 67.9% loss of appetite, 66.1% loss of weight, 58.9% jaundice and 46.4% abdominal pain. Tumour staging was: 21.5% stage l, 17.8% stage ll, 3.6% stage lll and 57.1% stage lV. The median (95% CI) survival time was 3.4 (0.5, 6.3) months and significant prognostic factors were duration of symptoms (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99; p value 0.013), ascites (HR 2.64; 95% CI: 1.28, 5.44; p value 0.008) and Whipple surgery (HR 4.20; 95% CI: 2.27, 7.76; p value <0.001). The history of presenting complaints was short and the majority presented at late stages of the disease, thus the median survival time was very poor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  17. Voralu K, Norsa'adah B, Naing NN, Biswal BM
    Singapore Med J, 2006 Aug;47(8):688-92.
    PMID: 16865209
    The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that influence the survival of differentiated thyroid cancer patients treated at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  18. Hooi LN, Hamzah KM, Jahizah H
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Oct;58(4):490-8.
    PMID: 15190623
    A study was done on survival of patients surgically treated for lung cancer from 1995-2001. The average operative rate for 852 patients was 4.8%. In 67 surgically treated patients (54M, 13F), the commonest histological type was squamous cell carcinoma (52.2%) followed by adenocarcinoma (26.9%). The surgical-pathological stage was stage I in 52.2%. Postoperatively, five-year survival was 29%, with a median survival of 27 months. Completeness of resection was the foremost determinant of survival outcome and stage higher than stage I was an adverse prognostic factor. These results indicate that the current outlook for lung cancer patients remains poor.


    Study site: Hospital Pulau Pinang
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  19. Ma S, Cutter J, Tan CE, Chew SK, Tai ES
    Am. J. Epidemiol., 2003 Sep 15;158(6):543-52.
    PMID: 12965880 DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwg199
    Despite the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus, little is known about mortality associated with diabetes in Asia. Therefore, the authors followed 3,492 Chinese, Malay, and Asian Indian adults randomly selected from the general population in Singapore. Data on glucose tolerance, demographic characteristics, and other cardiovascular disease risk factors (lipid profile, blood pressure, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and obesity) were obtained in 1992. Vital status was determined as of December 31, 2001. There were 108 deaths over a period of 9 years. Impaired fasting glycemia or impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT) (hazard ratio (HR)=1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 2.31) and diabetes mellitus (HR=2.49, 95% CI: 1.58, 3.94) were associated with increased mortality after adjustment for age, gender, ethnic group, and educational level. Compared with Chinese with diabetes, Indians with diabetes experienced significantly greater mortality (HR=3.86, 95% CI: 1.76, 8.44) after adjustment for gender, age, educational level, smoking, hypertension, alcohol intake, and obesity. Undiagnosed diabetes and IFG/IGT were more common than known diabetes and also were associated with increased mortality. For reduction of mortality associated with IFG/IGT and diabetes, the authors recommend a screening program to detect undiagnosed diabetes and IFG/IGT along with aggressive treatment of diabetes after diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  20. Lee J, Wang H, Chia KS, Koh D, Hughes K
    Int J Epidemiol, 2002 Aug;31(4):875-6.
    PMID: 12177037
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
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