Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 122 in total

  1. Bader Ahmad Aljawadi, Mohd Rizam Abu Bakar, Noor Akma
    This study deals with the analysis of the cure rate estimation based on the Bounded Cumulative Hazard (BCH) model using interval censored data, given that the exact distribution of the data set is unknown. Thus, the non-parametric estimation methods are employed by means of the EM algorithm. The Turnbull and Kaplan Meier estimators were proposed to estimate the survival function, even though the Kaplan Meier estimator faces some restrictions in term of interval survival data. A comparison of the cure rate estimation based on the two estimators was done through a simulation study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  2. Faisal T, Ibrahim F, Taib MN
    PMID: 19163874 DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2008.4650371
    This study presents a new approach to determine the significant prognosis factors in dengue patients utilizing the self-organizing map (SOM). SOM was used to visualize and determine the significant factors that can differentiate between the dengue patients and the healthy subjects. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) parameters and symptoms/signs obtained from the 210 dengue patients during their hospitalization were used in this study. Database comprised of 329 sample (210 dengue patients and 119 healthy subjects) were used in the study. Accordingly, two maps were constructed. A total of 35 predictors (17 BIA parameters, 18 symptoms/signs) were investigated on the day of defervescence of fever. The first map was constructed based on BIA parameters while the second map utilized the symptoms and signs. The visualized results indicated that, the significant BIA prognosis factors for differentiating the dengue patients from the healthy subjects are reactance, intracellular water, ratio of the extracellular water and intracellular water, and ratio of the extracellular mass and body cell mass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models*
  3. Abd Hamid IJ, M Iyen MI, Ibrahim NR, Abd Majid N, Ramli N, Van Rostenberghe H
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2013 May;49(5):375-9.
    PMID: 23573836 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.12192
    The use of reflecting curtains with single phototherapy has not yet been directly compared with double phototherapy (DP). The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of single phototherapy with reflecting curtains (SPRC) and DP in treating neonatal jaundice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  4. Mohd Suan MA, Tan WL, Soelar SA, Ismail I, Abu Hassan MR
    Epidemiol Health, 2015;37:e2015017.
    PMID: 25868638 DOI: 10.4178/epih/e2015017
    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal obstruction and the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma.

    METHODS: Data pertaining to 4,501 colorectal carcinoma patients were extracted from the national colorectal registry and analysed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival rate between patients with intestinal obstruction and those without intestinal obstruction. The p-values<0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Simple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the crude hazard ratio of mortality from colorectal cancer.

    RESULTS: Intestinal obstruction was reported in more than 13% of patients. The 3-year survival rate after treatment was 48.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.9 to 52.8) for patients with intestinal obstruction (n=593) and 54.9% (95% CI, 53.1 to 56.6) for patients without intestinal obstruction (n=3,908). The 5-year survival rate for patients with intestinal obstruction was 37.3% (95% CI, 31.9 to 42.8), which was lower than that of patients without intestinal obstruction (45.6%; 95% CI, 43.5 to 47.7). After adjusting the hazard ratio for other prognostic variables, intestinal obstruction had a statistically significant negative correlation with the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.22 (p=0.008).

    CONCLUSIONS: The presence of intestinal obstruction is associated with a lower survival rate among colorectal cancer patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  5. Awang H
    J Biosoc Sci, 2005 Jul;37(4):471-9.
    PMID: 16082858
    This analysis demonstrates the application of a data duplication technique in linear regression with censored observations of the waiting time to third pregnancy ending in two outcome types, using data from Malaysia. The linear model not only confirmed the results obtained by the Cox proportional hazards model, but also identified two additional significant factors. The method provides a useful alternative when Cox proportionality assumption of the hazards is violated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  6. Suhaimi Hussain, Wong A. Rahim, Ibrahim W. Pauzi W., Naing, N.N.
    Introduction: There are many factors that determine the survival of patients with VSD. Among these include size of VSD, position, pulmonary hypertension, bacterial sepsis, valvular involvement, associated anomalies with VSD, associated syndromes and age at first diagnosis. There has been no published local data as far as we know and this information will be useful especially for consultation with parents. Even though VSD in general has a good prognosis, whenever they have added risks for example pulmonary hypertension then they are at risk of further morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine the factors that are associated with survival of patients with VSD. Design: Retrospective cohort. Materials and methods: All cases of isolated VSDs admitted to HUSM from 1996 to 2003 were reviewed. Results: Univariate Cox regression of survival time of patients with VSDs revealed that 4 factors had prognostic significance namely bacterial sepsis (HR= 287.7, 95% CI 51.1, 1618.5, P < 0.001), Down syndrome (HR = 14.89, 95% CI 3.00, 73.92, P = 0.001), pulmonary hypertension (HR=14.58, 95% CI 1.69, 125.7, P=0.015) and large VSDs (HR=8.23, 95% CI 1.5, 45, P=0.015). Bacterial sepsis was the only significant prognostic factors for the survival of patients with VSDs using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Conclusion: Bacterial sepsis, pulmonary hypertension, large VSD and Down syndrome were the significant prognostic factors from Univariate Cox analysis, however bacterial sepsis was the only significant prognostic factor from Multivariate Cox analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  7. Mohd Shariff N, Shah SA, Kamaludin F
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 2016 09;6:102-107.
    PMID: 27530850 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2016.04.005
    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health threat. However, little is known about the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB patients, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study adopted a retrospective cohort study design and involved laboratory-confirmed drug-resistant TB patients (n=426) from January 2009 to June 2013. A Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to model the outcome measure. Data were analysed by using SPSS v.20.0 for Windows. In this study, 15.3% (n=65) of the patients died. Among the study patients, 70.9% were monoresistant TB cases, 9.4% were poly-resistant TB and 19.7% were MDR-TB. MDR-TB [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-3.95], ethnicity [Malay (aHR=5.95, 95% CI 2.30-15.41), Chinese (aHR=4.01, 95% CI 1.38-11.66) and Indian (aHR=3.76, 95% CI 1.19-11.85)], coronary heart disease (aHR=6.82, 95% CI 2.16-21.50), drug abuse (aHR=3.79, 95% CI 2.07-6.93) and treatment non-compliance (aHR=1.81, 95% CI 1.01-3.27) were independent predictors of poorer survival in the multivariate Cox regression analysis. This study suggests that MDR-TB, local ethnicity, coronary heart disease, history of drug abuse and treatment non-compliance are factors predicting poor survival in drug-resistant TB patients. More emphasis should be given to the management of drug-resistant TB patients with these characteristics to achieve better treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  8. Ngah H, Hairon SM, Yaacob NM, Yusoff H
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 Jul;26(4):70-78.
    PMID: 31496895 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.4.8
    Background: Death resulting from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide concern. This study is aimed at determining the overall median survival time, and the prognostic factors of mortality among AIDS-infected patients in North-East Peninsular Malaysia.

    Methods: In 2018, a retrospective cohort study stretching from January to April was conducted. This study involved a review of data obtained from the National AIDS Registry. A total of 1,073 AIDS cases diagnosed from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014 were selected, and follow-up procedures were conducted until 31 March 2015 (a 3-month follow-up). The Kaplan-Meier plot and Cox's proportional hazard regression were used for data analyses.

    Results: 564 (52.5%) patients died due to AIDS, while the remaining 509 (47.4%) were censored. The overall median survival time was 11 months. The probability of survival in 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, 4-year and 5-year periods were 49.1%, 47.8%, 47.3%, 47.0% and 46.7%, respectively. Multiple Cox regression revealed that the significant prognostic factors were age 30-49 years [adjusted hazard ratio (Adj. HR) 1.57; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.16; P = 0.006], male (Adj. HR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.79; P = 0.012), unemployed (Adj. HR 1.40; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.75; P = 0.003) and HIV-TB co-infection (Adj. HR 1.78; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.31; P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: The overall median survival time among AIDS patients in North-East Peninsular Malaysia was revealed to be short, in comparison to the other studies. The chances for survival can be improved with more emphasis on early detection (to ensure early treatment) and social support, particularly for HIV-TB co-infected patients, as well as for younger and unemployed patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  9. Ting CY, Liew SM, Price A, Gan GG, Bee-Lan Ong D, Tan SY, et al.
    Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol., 2019 Dec;144:102818.
    PMID: 31733445 DOI: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2019.102818
    The clinical significance of aberrantly expressed microRNAs in predicting treatment response to chemotherapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients (DLBCL) remains uncertain. Feasibility of microRNA testing to predict treatment outcome was evaluated. Twenty-two types of aberrantly expressed microRNAs were associated with poor treatment response; pooled hazard ratio (HR) was 2.14 [95%CI:1.78-2.57, P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  10. Ismail NA, Pettitt AN
    Stat Med, 2004 Apr 30;23(8):1247-58.
    PMID: 15083481
    A new method for estimating the time to colonization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) patients is developed in this paper. The time to colonization of MRSA is modelled using a Bayesian smoothing approach for the hazard function. There are two prior models discussed in this paper: the first difference prior and the second difference prior. The second difference prior model gives smoother estimates of the hazard functions and, when applied to data from an intensive care unit (ICU), clearly shows increasing hazard up to day 13, then a decreasing hazard. The results clearly demonstrate that the hazard is not constant and provide a useful quantification of the effect of length of stay on the risk of MRSA colonization which provides useful insight.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models*
  11. Norsa' adah B, Nur-Zafira A, Knight A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(6):2857-60.
    PMID: 22938473
    Pancreatic cancer is usually detected late and has a high mortality rate. Since little is known about this cancer in Malaysia, a review of all cases admitted to Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital was conducted to identify the epidemiological distribution and assess survival. A list of pancreatic cancer patients in 2001-2008 was obtained from the Hospital Record Department. Only cases confirmed by radio-imaging or histo-pathology examination were included. We excluded those with incomplete medical records. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard approaches were used for data analysis. Only 56 cases were included with a mean (SD) age of 49.6 (16.0) years, with 60.7% males and 82.1% of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included cholelithiasis in 23.2%, diabetes mellitus in 16.1%, previous laparotomy in 10.7%, chronic pancreatitis in 7.1%, alcohol drinking in 5.4% and positive family history in 3.6%. The common presenting history included 67.9% loss of appetite, 66.1% loss of weight, 58.9% jaundice and 46.4% abdominal pain. Tumour staging was: 21.5% stage l, 17.8% stage ll, 3.6% stage lll and 57.1% stage lV. The median (95% CI) survival time was 3.4 (0.5, 6.3) months and significant prognostic factors were duration of symptoms (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99; p value 0.013), ascites (HR 2.64; 95% CI: 1.28, 5.44; p value 0.008) and Whipple surgery (HR 4.20; 95% CI: 2.27, 7.76; p value <0.001). The history of presenting complaints was short and the majority presented at late stages of the disease, thus the median survival time was very poor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  12. Salahshourifar I, Halim AS, Sulaiman WA, Zilfalil BA
    J. Dent. Res., 2011 Mar;90(3):387-91.
    PMID: 21297019 DOI: 10.1177/0022034510391798
    Non-syndromic cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, is a heterogeneous, complex disease with a high incidence in the Asian population. Several association studies have been done on cleft candidate genes, but no reports have been published thus far on the Orofacial Cleft 1 (OFC1) genomic region in an Asian population. This study investigated the association between the OFC1 genomic region and non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in 90 Malay father-mother-offspring trios. Results showed a preferential over-transmission of a 101-bp allele of marker D6S470 in the allele- and haplotype-based transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), as well as an excess of maternal transmission. However, no significant p-value was found for a maternal genotype effect in a log-linear model, although single and double doses of the 101-bp allele showed a slightly increased cleft risk (RR = 1.37, 95% CI, 0.527-3.4, p-value = 0.516). Carrying two copies of the 101-bp allele was significantly associated with an increased cleft risk (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.06-6.12, p-value = 0.035). In conclusion, we report evidence of the contribution of the OFC1 genomic region to the etiology of clefts in a Malay population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  13. Choong LP, Taib NA, Rampal S, Saad M, Bustam AZ, Yip CH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(5):1409-16.
    PMID: 21198302
    BACKGROUND: Locoregional recurrence after mastectomy for breast cancer may predict distant recurrence and mortality. This study examined the pattern and rates of post-mastectomy locoregional recurrence (PMLRR), survival outcome and prognostic factors for isolated PMLRR (ILR) in a breast cancer cohort in University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC).

    METHODS: We studied 522 patients who underwent mastectomy between 1998 and 2002 and followed them up until 2008. We defined PMLRR as recurrence to the axilla, supraclavicular nodes and or chest wall. ILR was defined as PMLRR occurring as an isolated event. Prognostic factors for locoregional recurrence were determined using the Cox proportional hazards regression model.

    RESULTS: The overall PMLRR rate was 16.4%. ILR developed in 42 of 522 patients (8.0%). Within this subgroup, 25 (59.5%) remained disease free after treatment while 17 (40.5%) suffered disease progression. Univariate analyses identified race, age, size, stage, margin involvement, lymph node involvement, grade, lymphovascular invasion and ER status as probable prognostic factors for ILR. Cox regression resulted in only stage III disease and margin involvement as independent prognostic factors. The hazard of ILR was 2.5 times higher when the margins were involved compared to when they were clear (aHRR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 5.0). Similarly, compared with stage I those with Stage II (aHRR 2.1; 95%CI 0.6 to 6.8) and stage III (aHRR 4.6; 95%CI 1.4 to 15.9) had worse prognosis for ILR.

    CONCLUSION: Margin involvement and stage III disease were identified to be independent prognostic factors for ILR. Close follow-up of high risk patients and prompt treatment of locoregional recurrence were recommended.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  14. Müezzinler A, Mons U, Gellert C, Schöttker B, Jansen E, Kee F, et al.
    Am J Prev Med, 2015 Nov;49(5):e53-e63.
    PMID: 26188685 DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.04.004
    INTRODUCTION: Smoking is known to be a major cause of death among middle-aged adults, but evidence on its impact and the benefits of smoking cessation among older adults has remained limited. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the influence of smoking and smoking cessation on all-cause mortality in people aged ≥60 years.

    METHODS: Relative mortality and mortality rate advancement periods (RAPs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models for the population-based prospective cohort studies from Europe and the U.S. (CHANCES [Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the U.S.]), and subsequently pooled by individual participant meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were performed from June 2013 to March 2014.

    RESULTS: A total of 489,056 participants aged ≥60 years at baseline from 22 population-based cohort studies were included. Overall, 99,298 deaths were recorded. Current smokers had 2-fold and former smokers had 1.3-fold increased mortality compared with never smokers. These increases in mortality translated to RAPs of 6.4 (95% CI=4.8, 7.9) and 2.4 (95% CI=1.5, 3.4) years, respectively. A clear positive dose-response relationship was observed between number of currently smoked cigarettes and mortality. For former smokers, excess mortality and RAPs decreased with time since cessation, with RAPs of 3.9 (95% CI=3.0, 4.7), 2.7 (95% CI=1.8, 3.6), and 0.7 (95% CI=0.2, 1.1) for those who had quit <10, 10 to 19, and ≥20 years ago, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Smoking remains as a strong risk factor for premature mortality in older individuals and cessation remains beneficial even at advanced ages. Efforts to support smoking abstinence at all ages should be a public health priority.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  15. Sen A, Tsilidis KK, Allen NE, Rinaldi S, Appleby PN, Almquist M, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2015 Sep 01;113(5):840-7.
    PMID: 26313664 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2015.280
    BACKGROUND: Results from several cohort and case-control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered.

    METHODS: The association between alcohol consumption at recruitment and over the lifetime and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 477 263 eligible participants (70% women), 556 (90% women) were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a mean follow-up of 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.

    RESULTS: Compared with participants consuming 0.1-4.9 g of alcohol per day at recruitment, participants consuming 15 or more grams (approximately 1-1.5 drinks) had a 23% lower risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (HR=0.77; 95% CI=0.60-0.98). These findings did not differ greatly when analyses were conducted for lifetime alcohol consumption, although the risk estimates were attenuated and not statistically significant anymore. Similar results were observed by type of alcoholic beverage, by differentiated thyroid carcinoma histology or according to age, sex, smoking status, body mass index and diabetes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides some support to the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a lower risk of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  16. Molina-Montes E, Sánchez MJ, Zamora-Ros R, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Wark PA, Obon-Santacana M, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2016 10 01;139(7):1480-92.
    PMID: 27184434 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.30190
    Despite the potential cancer preventive effects of flavonoids and lignans, their ability to reduce pancreatic cancer risk has not been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. Our aim was to examine the association between dietary intakes of flavonoids and lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 865 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases occurred after 11.3 years of follow-up of 477,309 cohort members. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake was estimated through validated dietary questionnaires and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Phenol Explorer databases. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using age, sex and center-stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for energy intake, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol and diabetes status. Our results showed that neither overall dietary intake of flavonoids nor of lignans were associated with pancreatic cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR for a doubling of intake = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.95-1.11 and 1.02; 95% CI: 0.89-1.17, respectively). Statistically significant associations were also not observed by flavonoid subclasses. An inverse association between intake of flavanones and pancreatic cancer risk was apparent, without reaching statistical significance, in microscopically confirmed cases (HR for a doubling of intake = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00). In conclusion, we did not observe an association between intake of flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses or lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC cohort.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  17. Kosalaraksa P, Boettiger DC, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, Saramony S, Do VC, et al.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc, 2017 Jun 01;6(2):173-177.
    PMID: 27295973 DOI: 10.1093/jpids/piw031
    Background.: Regular CD4 count testing is often used to monitor antiretroviral therapy efficacy. However, this practice may be redundant in children with a suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load.

    Methods: Study end points were as follows: (1) a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 followed by a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 (transient CD4 <200); (2) CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 confirmed within 6 months (confirmed CD4 <200); and (3) a new or recurrent World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 or 4 illness (clinical failure). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used to evaluate rates and predictors of transient CD4 <200, confirmed CD4 <200, and clinical failure among virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years who were enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.

    Results: Data from 967 children were included in the analysis. At the time of confirmed viral suppression, median age was 10.2 years, 50.4% of children were female, and 95.4% were perinatally infected with HIV. Median CD4 cell count was 837 cells/mm3, and 54.8% of children were classified as having WHO stage 3 or 4 disease. In total, 18 transient CD4 <200 events, 2 confirmed CD4 <200 events, and10 clinical failures occurred at rates of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.46-1.16), 0.08 (95% CI, 0.02-0.32), and 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.75) events per 100 patient-years, respectively. CD4 <500 cells/mm3 at the time of viral suppression confirmation was associated with higher rates of both CD4 outcomes.

    Conclusions: Regular CD4 testing may be unnecessary for virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years with CD4 ≥500 cells/mm3.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  18. Emaus MJ, Peeters PH, Bakker MF, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, et al.
    Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2016 Jan;103(1):168-77.
    PMID: 26607934 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.114.101436
    BACKGROUND: The recent literature indicates that a high vegetable intake and not a high fruit intake could be associated with decreased steroid hormone receptor-negative breast cancer risk.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between vegetable and fruit intake and steroid hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.

    DESIGN: A total of 335,054 female participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were included in this study (mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 9.8 y). Vegetable and fruit intake was measured by country-specific questionnaires filled out at recruitment between 1992 and 2000 with the use of standardized procedures. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age at recruitment and study center and were adjusted for breast cancer risk factors.

    RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 11.5 y (IQR: 10.1-12.3 y), 10,197 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed [3479 estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+); 1021 ER and PR negative (ER-PR-)]. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of overall breast cancer (HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94). Although the inverse association was most apparent for ER-PR- breast cancer (ER-PR-: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = 0.03; ER+PR+: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.05; P-trend = 0.14), the test for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status was not significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.09). Fruit intake was not significantly associated with total and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.

    CONCLUSION: This study supports evidence that a high vegetable intake is associated with lower (mainly hormone receptor-negative) breast cancer risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  19. Romaguera D, Ward H, Wark PA, Vergnaud AC, Peeters PH, van Gils CH, et al.
    BMC Med, 2015 May 07;13:107.
    PMID: 25948112 DOI: 10.1186/s12916-015-0332-5
    BACKGROUND: Cancer survivors are advised to follow lifestyle recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body fatness proposed by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) for cancer prevention. Previous studies have demonstrated that higher concordance with these recommendations measured using an index score (the WCRF/AICR score) was associated with lower cancer incidence and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between pre-diagnostic concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations and mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.

    METHODS: The association between the WCRF/AICR score (score range 0-6 in men and 0-7 in women; higher scores indicate greater concordance) assessed on average 6.4 years before diagnosis and CRC-specific (n = 872) and overall mortality (n = 1,113) was prospectively examined among 3,292 participants diagnosed with CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (mean follow-up time after diagnosis 4.2 years). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality.

    RESULTS: The HRs (95% CIs) for CRC-specific mortality among participants in the second (score range in men/women: 2.25-2.75/3.25-3.75), third (3-3.75/4-4.75), and fourth (4-6/5-7) categories of the score were 0.87 (0.72-1.06), 0.74 (0.61-0.90), and 0.70 (0.56-0.89), respectively (P for trend <0.0001), compared to participants with the lowest concordance with the recommendations (category 1 of the score: 0-2/0-3). Similar HRs for overall mortality were observed (P for trend 0.004). Meeting the recommendations on body fatness and plant food consumption were associated with improved survival among CRC cases in mutually adjusted models.

    CONCLUSIONS: Greater concordance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body fatness prior to CRC diagnosis is associated with improved survival among CRC patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
  20. Wozniak MB, Brennan P, Brenner DR, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2015 Oct 15;137(8):1953-66.
    PMID: 25866035 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.29559
    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 through to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment versus the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend  = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proportional Hazards Models
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