There are a lot of factors and conditions to be considered by tour and travel companies when designing quality product due to the fact that the product being sold is intangible and their ultimate goal is to sustain customers' loyalty. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) has been observed to be compatible to this 'intangible' factor thus giving better result when compared to other methods. By using FLC, all communications are clear and have precise meaning.
RNA molecules have been discovered playing crucial roles in numerous biological and medical procedures and processes. RNA structures determination have become a major problem in the biology context. Recently, computer scientists have empowered the biologists with RNA secondary structures that ease an understanding of the RNA functions and roles. Detecting RNA secondary structure is an NP-hard problem, especially in pseudoknotted RNA structures. The detection process is also time-consuming; as a result, an alternative approach such as using parallel architectures is a desirable option. The main goal in this paper is to do an intensive investigation of parallel methods used in the literature to solve the demanding issues, related to the RNA secondary structure prediction methods. Then, we introduce a new taxonomy for the parallel RNA folding methods. Based on this proposed taxonomy, a systematic and scientific comparison is performed among these existing methods.
Protein biologics are prone to conformational changes during formulation development. Limited methods are available for conformational analysis of proteins in solid state and in the presences of formulation excipients. The aim of this study was to investigate the secondary structures of proteins encased in solid lipid matrices as a novel indicator of their stability upon in vitro release. Model proteins namely catalase and lysozyme were incorporated into lipid namely Precirol® AT05 (glycerol palmitostearate, melting point 58°C) at 30% w/w loading using melting and mixing and wet granulation methods. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and biological activity analyses were performed. The information about secondary structure was acquired using second derivative analysis of amide-I band (1600-1700 cm-1). ATR analysis demonstrated interference of lipid spectrum with protein amide-I band which was subsequently subtracted to allow the analysis of the secondary structure. ATR spectra amide-I bands showed shifts peak band positions compared to native protein for matrices prepared using wet granulation. SEC analysis gave evidence of protein aggregation for catalase which was increased using wet granulation. The biological activity of catalase was statistically different from that of control and was affected by the incorporation method and was found to be in alignment with ATR spectral changes and extent of aggregation. In conclusion, ATR spectroscopy could analyze protein secondary structure in lipid matrices provided lipid interference was minimized. The ATR spectral changes and formation of aggregates can indicate the loss in biological activity of protein released from solid lipid matrices.
The ability to predict local structural features of a protein from the primary sequence is of paramount importance for unraveling its function in absence of experimental structural information. Two main factors affect the utility of potential prediction tools: their accuracy must enable extraction of reliable structural information on the proteins of interest, and their runtime must be low to keep pace with sequencing data being generated at a constantly increasing speed. Here, we present NetSurfP-2.0, a novel tool that can predict the most important local structural features with unprecedented accuracy and runtime. NetSurfP-2.0 is sequence-based and uses an architecture composed of convolutional and long short-term memory neural networks trained on solved protein structures. Using a single integrated model, NetSurfP-2.0 predicts solvent accessibility, secondary structure, structural disorder, and backbone dihedral angles for each residue of the input sequences. We assessed the accuracy of NetSurfP-2.0 on several independent test datasets and found it to consistently produce state-of-the-art predictions for each of its output features. We observe a correlation of 80% between predictions and experimental data for solvent accessibility, and a precision of 85% on secondary structure 3-class predictions. In addition to improved accuracy, the processing time has been optimized to allow predicting more than 1000 proteins in less than 2 hours, and complete proteomes in less than 1 day.
BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive research carried out to develop natural antifungal preservatives for food applications, there are very limited antifungal agents available to inhibit the growth of spoilage fungi in processed foods. Scope and Approach: Therefore, this review summarizes the discovery and development of antifungal peptides using lactic acid bacteria fermentation to prevent food spoilage by fungi. The focus of this review will be on the identification of antifungal peptides, potential sources, the possible modes of action and properties of peptides considered to inhibit the growth of spoilage fungi. Key Findings and Conclusions: Antifungal peptides generated by certain lactic acid bacteria strains have high potential for applications in broad range of foods. The mechanism of peptides antifungal activity is related to their properties such as low molecular weight, concentration and secondary structure. The antifungal peptides were proposed to be used as bio-preservatives to reduce and/or replace chemical preservatives.
A nuclear export signal (NES) is a protein localization signal, which is involved in binding of cargo proteins to nuclear export receptor, thus contributes to regulate localization of cellular proteins. Consensus sequences of NES have been used to detect NES from protein sequences, but suffer from poor predictive power. Some recent peering works were proposed to use biochemical properties of experimental verified NES to refine NES candidates. Those methods can achieve high prediction rates, but their execution time will become unacceptable for large-scale NES searching if too much properties are involved. In this work, we developed a novel computational approach, named NES-REBS, to search NES from protein sequences, where biochemical properties of experimental verified NES, including secondary structure and surface accessibility, are utilized to refine NES candidates obtained by matching popular consensus sequences. We test our method by searching 262 experimental verified NES from 221 NES-containing protein sequences. It is obtained that NES-REBS runs in 2-3[Formula: see text]mins and performs well by achieving precision rate 47.2% and sensitivity 54.6%.
We study a series of N oscillators, each coupled to its nearest neighbors, and linearly to a phonon field through the oscillator's number operator. We show that the Hamiltonian of a pair of adjacent oscillators, or a dimer, within the series of oscillators can be transformed into a form in which they are collectively coupled to the phonon field as a composite unit. In the weak coupling and rotating-wave approximation, the system behaves effectively as the trilinear boson model in the one excitation subspace of the dimer subsystem. The reduced dynamics of the one excitation subspace of the dimer subsystem coupled weakly to a phonon bath is similar to that of a two-level system, with a metastable state against the vacuum. The decay constant of the subsystem is proportional to the dephasing rate of the individual oscillator in a phonon bath, attenuated by a factor that depends on site asymmetry, intersite coupling, and the resonance frequency between the transformed oscillator modes, or excitons. As a result of the collective effect, the excitation relaxation lifetime is prolonged over the dephasing lifetime of an individual oscillator coupled to the same bath.
Protein drugs may encounter conformational perturbations during the formulation processing of lipid-based solid dosage forms. In aqueous protein solutions, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy can investigate these conformational changes following the subtraction of spectral interference of solvent with protein amide I bands. However, in solid dosage forms, the possible spectral contribution of lipid carriers to protein amide I band may be an obstacle to determine conformational alterations. The objective of this study was to develop an ATR FT-IR spectroscopic method for the analysis of protein secondary structure embedded in solid lipid matrices. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was chosen as a model protein, while Precirol AT05 (glycerol palmitostearate, melting point 58 ℃) was employed as the model lipid matrix. Bovine serum albumin was incorporated into lipid using physical mixing, melting and mixing, or wet granulation mixing methods. Attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) were performed for the analysis of BSA secondary structure and its dissolution in aqueous media, respectively. The results showed significant interference of Precirol ATO5 with BSA amide I band which was subtracted up to 90% w/w lipid content to analyze BSA secondary structure. In addition, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy also detected thermally denatured BSA solid alone and in the presence of lipid matrix indicating its suitability for the detection of denatured protein solids in lipid matrices. Despite being in the solid state, conformational changes occurred to BSA upon incorporation into solid lipid matrices. However, the extent of these conformational alterations was found to be dependent on the mixing method employed as indicated by area overlap calculations. For instance, the melting and mixing method imparted negligible effect on BSA secondary structure, whereas the wet granulation mixing method promoted more changes. Size exclusion chromatography analysis depicted the complete dissolution of BSA in the aqueous media employed in the wet granulation method. In conclusion, an ATR FT-IR spectroscopic method was successfully developed to investigate BSA secondary structure in solid lipid matrices following the subtraction of lipid spectral interference. The ATR FT-IR spectroscopy could further be applied to investigate the secondary structure perturbations of therapeutic proteins during their formulation development.
Matched MeSH terms: Protein Structure, Secondary/physiology*
Conformational analysis of champedak galactose-binding (CGB) lectin under different urea concentrations was studied in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2) using far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (far-UV CD), tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence and ANS fluorescence. In all cases, CGB lectin displayed a two-step, three-state transition. The first transition (from the native state to the intermediate state) started at ∼2.0 M urea and ended at ∼4.5 M urea, while the second transition (from the intermediate state to the completely denatured state) was characterized by the start- and end-points at ∼5.75 M and ∼7.5 M urea, respectively, when analyzed by the emission maximum of Trp fluorescence. A marked increase in the Trp fluorescence, ANS fluorescence and -CD values at 218 nm (-CD218 nm) represented the first transition, whereas a decrease in these parameters defined the second transition. On the other hand, emission maximum of the Trp fluorescence showed a continuous increase throughout the urea concentration range. Transformation of tetramer into monomer represented the first transition, whereas the second transition reflected the unfolding of monomer. Far-UV CD, Trp fluorescence and ANS fluorescence spectra were used to characterize the native, the intermediate and the completely denatured states of CGB lectin, obtained at 0.0 M, 5.0 M and 9.0 M urea, respectively. The intermediate state was characterized by the presence of higher secondary structures, increased ANS binding as well as increased Trp fluorescence intensity. A gradual decrease in the hemagglutination activity of CGB lectin was observed with increasing urea concentrations, showing complete loss at 4.0 M urea.
Matched MeSH terms: Protein Structure, Secondary/drug effects
Protein structure alignment and comparisons that are based on an alphabetical demonstration of protein structure are more simple to run with faster evaluation processes; thus, their accuracy is not as reliable as three-dimension (3D)-based tools. As a 1D method candidate, TS-AMIR used the alphabetic demonstration of secondary-structure elements (SSE) of proteins and compared the assigned letters to each SSE using the [Formula: see text]-gram method. Although the results were comparable to those obtained via geometrical methods, the SSE length and accuracy of adjacency between SSEs were not considered in the comparison process. Therefore, to obtain further information on accuracy of adjacency between SSE vectors, the new approach of assigning text to vectors was adopted according to the spherical coordinate system in the present study. Moreover, dynamic programming was applied in order to account for the length of SSE vectors. Five common datasets were selected for method evaluation. The first three datasets were small, but difficult to align, and the remaining two datasets were used to compare the capability of the proposed method with that of other methods on a large protein dataset. The results showed that the proposed method, as a text-based alignment approach, obtained results comparable to both 1D and 3D methods. It outperformed 1D methods in terms of accuracy and 3D methods in terms of runtime.
[Formula: see text]-Helical transmembrane proteins are the most important drug targets in rational drug development. However, solving the experimental structures of these proteins remains difficult, therefore computational methods to accurately and efficiently predict the structures are in great demand. We present an improved structure prediction method TMDIM based on Park et al. (Proteins 57:577-585, 2004) for predicting bitopic transmembrane protein dimers. Three major algorithmic improvements are introduction of the packing type classification, the multiple-condition decoy filtering, and the cluster-based candidate selection. In a test of predicting nine known bitopic dimers, approximately 78% of our predictions achieved a successful fit (RMSD <2.0 Å) and 78% of the cases are better predicted than the two other methods compared. Our method provides an alternative for modeling TM bitopic dimers of unknown structures for further computational studies. TMDIM is freely available on the web at https://cbbio.cis.umac.mo/TMDIM . Website is implemented in PHP, MySQL and Apache, with all major browsers supported.
Halophiles are extremophilic microorganisms that grow optimally at high salt concentrations by producing a myriad of equally halotolerant enzymes. Structural haloadaptation of these enzymes adept to thriving under high-salt environments, though are not fully understood. Herein, the study attempts an in silico investigation to identify and comprehend the evolutionary structural adaptation of a halotolerant dehalogenase, DehHX (GenBank accession number: KR297065) of the halotolerant Pseudomonas halophila, over its non-halotolerant counterpart, DehMX1 (GenBank accession number KY129692) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. GC content of the halotolerant DehHX DNA sequence was distinctively higher (58.9%) than the non-halotolerant dehalogenases (55% average GC). Its acidic residues, Asp and Glu were 8.27% and 12.06%, respectively, compared to an average 5.5% Asp and 7% Glu, in the latter; but lower contents of basic and hydrophobic residues in the DehHX. The secondary structure of DehHX interestingly revealed a lower incidence of α-helix forming regions (29%) and a higher percentage of coils (57%), compared to 49% and 29% in the non-halotolerant homologues, respectively. Simulation models showed the DehHX is stable under a highly saline environment (25% w/v) by adopting a highly negative-charged surface with a concomitant weakly interacting hydrophobic core. The study thus, established that a halotolerant dehalogenase undergoes notable evolutionary structural changes related to GC content over its non-halotolerant counterpart, in order to adapt and thrive under highly saline environments. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Currently, protein interaction of Homo sapiens nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of heat shock 70 kDa protein (PDB: 1HJO) with p53 motif remains to be elucidated. The NBD-p53 motif complex enhances the p53 stabilization, thereby increasing the tumor suppression activity in cancer treatment. Therefore, we identified the interaction between NBD and p53 using STRING version 9.1 program. Then, we modeled the three-dimensional structure of p53 motif through homology modeling and determined the binding affinity and stability of NBD-p53 motif complex structure via molecular docking and dynamics (MD) simulation. Human DNA binding domain of p53 motif (SCMGGMNR) retrieved from UniProt (UniProtKB: P04637) was docked with the NBD protein, using the Autodock version 4.2 program. The binding energy and intermolecular energy for the NBD-p53 motif complex were -0.44 Kcal/mol and -9.90 Kcal/mol, respectively. Moreover, RMSD, RMSF, hydrogen bonds, salt bridge, and secondary structure analyses revealed that the NBD protein had a strong bond with p53 motif and the protein-ligand complex was stable. Thus, the current data would be highly encouraging for designing Hsp70 structure based drug in cancer therapy.
Chemical synthesis of Ag-NPs was carried out using reduction method. The reduction mechanistic approach of silver ions was found to be a basic clue for the formation of the Ag-NPs. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR and TEM analysis. We had designed some experiments in support of our hypothesis, "low concentrations of novel nanoparticles (silver and gold) increases the activity of plant peroxidases and alter their structure also", we had used Ag-NPs and HRP as models. The immobilization/interaction experiment had demonstrated the specific concentration range of the Ag-NPs and within this range, an increase in HRP activity was reported. At 0.08 mM concentration of Ag-NPs, 50% increase in the activity yield was found. The U.V-vis spectra had demonstrated the increase in the absorbance of HRP within the reported concentration range (0.06-0.12 mM). Above and below this concentration range there was a decrease in the activity of HRP. The results that we had found from the fluorescence spectra were also in favor of our hypothesis. There was a maximum increase in ellipticity and α-helix contents in the presence of 0.08 mM concentration of Ag-NPs, demonstrated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Finally, incubation of a plant peroxidase, HRP with Ag-NPs, within the reported concentration range not only enhances the activity but also alter the structure.
Virus-like particles composed of the core antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBcAg) have been shown to be an effective platform for the display of foreign epitopes in vaccine development. Heterologous sequences have been successfully inserted at both amino and carboxy termini as well as internally at the major immunodominant epitope. We used cryogenic electron microscopy (CryoEM) and three-dimensional image reconstruction to investigate the structure of VLPs assembled from an N-terminal extended HBcAg that contained a polyhistidine tag. The insert was seen to form a trimeric spike on the capsid surface that was poorly resolved, most likely owing to it being flexible. We hypothesise that the capacity of N-terminal inserts to form trimers may have application in the development of multivalent vaccines to trimeric antigens. Our analysis also highlights the value of tools for local resolution assessment in studies of partially disordered macromolecular assemblies by cryoEM.
Multiple sequence alignment was performed against eight proteases from the Flaviviridae family using ClustalW to illustrate conserved domains. Two sets of prediction approaches were applied and the results compared. Firstly, secondary structure prediction was performed using available structure prediction servers. The second approach made use of the information on the secondary structures extracted from structure prediction servers, threading techniques and DSSP database of some of the templates used in the threading techniques. Consensus on the one-dimensional secondary structure of Den2 protease was obtained from each approach and evaluated against data from the recently crystallised Den2 NS2B/NS3 obtained from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Results indicated the second approach to show higher accuracy compared to the use of prediction servers only. Thus, it is plausible that this approach is applicable to the initial stage of structural studies of proteins with low amino acid sequence homology against other available proteins in the PDB.
The utilization of organic solvents as reaction media for enzymatic reactions provides numerous industrially attractive advantages. However, an adaptation of enzyme towards organic solvent is unpredictable and not fully understood because of limited information on the organic solvent tolerant enzymes. To understand how the enzyme can adapt to the organic solvent environment, structural and computational approaches were employed. A recombinant elastase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K was an organic solvent tolerant zinc metalloprotease was successfully crystallized and diffracted up to 1.39 Å. Crystal structure of elastase from strain K showed the typical, canonical alpha-beta hydrolase fold consisting of 10-helices (118 residues), 10- β-strands (38 residues) and 142 residues were formed other secondary structure such as loop and coil to whole structure. The elastase from Pseusomonas aeruginosa strain K possess His-140, His-144 and Glu-164 served as a ligand for zinc ion. The conserved catalytic triad was composed of Glu-141, Tyr-155 and His-223. Three-dimensional structure features such as calcium-binding and presence of disulphide-bridge contribute to the stabilizing the elastase structure. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation of elastase revealed that, amino acid residues located at the surface area and disulphide bridge in Cys-30 to Cys-58 were responsible for enzyme stability in organic solvents.
Protein drugs are important therapeutic agents however; they may degrade during formulation processing. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between secondary structure alterations and the retentions of biological activity of protein upon the application of thermal stress. Catalase, horseradish peroxidase and α- chymotrypsin were employed as model proteins. Each protein was heated in a solid and solution state at a temperature of 70 °C for 1 h. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography and biological activity assay were performed. Results showed that heat-exposure of protein solids at 70 °C caused minimum changes in secondary structure and biological activity was almost retained. However, thermal exposure of protein aqueous solution induced significant changes in the secondary structure indicated by area overlap values and caused considerable reduction in the biological activity. The changes in secondary structures were found to be in full alignment with the loss of biological activity for both protein solids as well as aqueous solutions. Catalase lost entire biological activity upon heating in the solution state. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicate a direct correlation between protein secondary structure alterations and the retention of biological activity which can be taken into account during the development and delivery of protein drugs formulations.
Cleavage of the alphavirus precursor glycoprotein p62 into the E2 and E3 glycoproteins before assembly with the nucleocapsid is the key to producing fusion-competent mature spikes on alphaviruses. Here we present a cryo-EM, 6.8-Å resolution structure of an "immature" Chikungunya virus in which the cleavage site has been mutated to inhibit proteolysis. The spikes in the immature virus have a larger radius and are less compact than in the mature virus. Furthermore, domains B on the E2 glycoproteins have less freedom of movement in the immature virus, keeping the fusion loops protected under domain B. In addition, the nucleocapsid of the immature virus is more compact than in the mature virus, protecting a conserved ribosome-binding site in the capsid protein from exposure. These differences suggest that the posttranslational processing of the spikes and nucleocapsid is necessary to produce infectious virus.
N-(Substituted)-5-(1-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio) acetamide were synthesized by following conventional as well as microwave assisted protocol through five consecutive steps under the impact of various reaction conditions to control the reaction time and the yield of product. Starting from 4-methoxybenzenesulfonyl chloride and ethyl isonipecotate, product 3 was obtained which was converted into product 4 by treating with hydrazine hydrate. In step 3, the product 4 was refluxed with methyl isothiocyanate and KOH to yield compound 5 which was finally treated with variety of N-substituted acetamides to yield an array of different new compounds (8a-k). These synthesized compounds were evaluated for their inhibition potential against bovine carbonic anhydrase (bCA-II), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. Compound 8g demonstrated good activity against bCA-II, AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 8.69 ± 0.38 μM, 11.87±0.19 μM and 26.01±0.55 μM respectively. SAR studies assisted with molecular docking were carried out to explore the mode of binding of the compounds against the studied enzymes.