Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Abdul Wahab RM, Zainal Ariffin SH, Yeen WW, Ahmad NA, Senafi S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:236427.
    PMID: 22629122 DOI: 10.1100/2012/236427
    Three specific orthodontic tooth movement genes, that is, FCRL1, HSPG2, and LAMB2 were detected at upper first premolar (with appliance) dental pulp tissue by using GeneFishing technique as compared to lower first premolar (without appliance). These three differentially expressed genes have the potential as molecular markers during orthodontic tooth movement by looking at molecular changes of pulp tissue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/metabolism*
  2. Moo EK, Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2011;66(8):1431-6.
    PMID: 21915496
    INTRODUCTION: Although previous studies have been performed on cartilage explant cultures, the generalized dynamics of cartilage metabolism after extraction from the host are still poorly understood due to differences in the experimental setups across studies, which in turn prevent building a complete picture.

    METHODS: In this study, we investigated the response of cartilage to the trauma sustained during extraction and determined the time needed for the cartilage to stabilize. Explants were extracted aseptically from bovine metacarpal-phalangeal joints and cultured for up to 17 days.

    RESULTS: The cell viability, cell number, proteoglycan content, and collagen content of the harvested explants were analyzed at 0, 2, 10, and 17 days after explantation. A high percentage of the cartilage explants were found to be viable. The cell density initially increased significantly but stabilized after two days. The proteoglycan content decreased gradually over time, but it did not decrease to a significant level due to leakage through the distorted peripheral collagen network and into the bathing medium. The collagen content remained stable for most of the culture period until it dropped abruptly on day 17.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, the tested cartilage explants were sustainable over long-term culture. They were most stable from day 2 to day 10. The degradation of the collagen on day 17 did not reach diseased levels, but it indicated the potential of the cultures to develop into degenerated cartilage. These findings have implications for the application of cartilage explants in pathophysiological fields.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proteoglycans/metabolism
  3. Chong PP, Panjavarnam P, Ahmad WNHW, Chan CK, Abbas AA, Merican AM, et al.
    Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 2020 10;79:105178.
    PMID: 32988676 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2020.105178
    BACKGROUND: Cartilage damage, which can potentially lead to osteoarthritis, is a leading cause of morbidity in the elderly population. Chondrocytes are sensitive to mechanical stimuli and their matrix-protein synthesis may be altered when chondrocytes experience a variety of in vivo loadings. Therefore, a study was conducted to evaluate the biosynthesis of isolated osteoarthritic chondrocytes which subjected to compression with varying dynamic compressive strains and loading durations.

    METHODS: The proximal tibia was resected as a single osteochondral unit during total knee replacement from patients (N = 10). The osteoarthritic chondrocytes were isolated from the osteochondral units, and characterized using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The isolated osteoarthritic chondrocytes were cultured and embedded in agarose, and then subjected to 10% and 20% uniaxial dynamic compression up to 8-days using a bioreactor. The morphological features and changes in the osteoarthritic chondrocytes upon compression were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Safranin O was used to detect the presence of cartilage matrix proteoglycan expression while quantitative analysis was conducted by measuring type VI collagen using an immunohistochemistry and fluorescence intensity assay.

    FINDINGS: Gene expression analysis indicated that the isolated osteoarthritic chondrocytes expressed chondrocyte-specific markers, including BGN, CD90 and HSPG-2. Moreover, the compressed osteoarthritic chondrocytes showed a more intense and broader deposition of proteoglycan and type VI collagen than control. The expression of type VI collagen was directly proportional to the duration of compression in which 8-days compression was significantly higher than 4-days compression. The 20% compression showed significantly higher intensity compared to 10% compression in 4- and 8-days.

    INTERPRETATION: The biosynthetic activity of human chondrocytes from osteoarthritic joints can be enhanced using selected compression regimes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proteoglycans/metabolism
  4. Ichimizu S, Watanabe H, Maeda H, Hamasaki K, Ikegami K, Chuang VTG, et al.
    J Control Release, 2019 06 28;304:156-163.
    PMID: 31082432 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.05.015
    We recently developed a cell-penetrating drug carrier composed of albumin (HSA) combined with palmitoyl-cyclic-(D-Arg)12. While it is possible that the palmitoyl-cyclic-(D-Arg)12/HSA enters the cell mainly via macropinocytosis, the mechanism responsible for the induction of macropinocytosis and endosomal escape remain unknown. We report herein that palmitoyl-cyclic-(D-Arg)12/HSA might interact with heparan sulfate proteoglycan and the chemokine receptor CXCR4 followed by multiple activations of the PKC/PI3K/JNK/mTOR signaling pathways to induce macropinocytosis. This result was further confirmed by a co-treatment with 70 kDa dextran, a macropinocytosis marker. Using liposomes that mimic endosomes, the leakage of 5,6-carboxyfluorescein from liposome was observed in the presence of palmitoyl-cyclic-(D-Arg)12/HSA only in the case of the anionic late endosome-like liposomes but not the neutral early endosome-like liposomes. Heparin largely inhibited this leakage, suggesting the importance of electrostatic interactions between palmitoyl-cyclic-(D-Arg)12/HSA and the late-endosomal membrane. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting data indicated that the intact HSA could be transferred from endosomes to the cytosol. These collective data suggest that the palmitoyl-cyclic-(D-Arg)12/HSA is internalized via macropinocytosis and intact HSA is released from the late endosomes to the cytoplasm before the endosomes fuse with lysosomes. Palmitoyl-cyclic-(D-Arg)12/HSA not only functions as an intracellular drug delivery carrier but also as an inducer of macropinocytosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/metabolism
  5. Maherally Z, Fillmore HL, Tan SL, Tan SF, Jassam SA, Quack FI, et al.
    FASEB J, 2018 01;32(1):168-182.
    PMID: 28883042 DOI: 10.1096/fj.201700162R
    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of endothelial cells, astrocytes, and pericytes embedded in basal lamina (BL). Most in vitro models use nonhuman, monolayer cultures for therapeutic-delivery studies, relying on transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements without other tight-junction (TJ) formation parameters. We aimed to develop reliable, reproducible, in vitro 3-dimensional (3D) models incorporating relevant human, in vivo cell types and BL proteins. The 3D BBB models were constructed with human brain endothelial cells, human astrocytes, and human brain pericytes in mono-, co-, and tricultures. TEER was measured in 3D models using a volt/ohmmeter and cellZscope. Influence of BL proteins-laminin, fibronectin, collagen type IV, agrin, and perlecan-on adhesion and TEER was assessed using an electric cell-substrate impedance-sensing system. TJ protein expression was assessed by Western blotting (WB) and immunocytochemistry (ICC). Perlecan (10 µg/ml) evoked unreportedly high, in vitro TEER values (1200 Ω) and the strongest adhesion. Coculturing endothelial cells with astrocytes yielded the greatest resistance over time. ICC and WB results correlated with resistance levels, with evidence of prominent occludin expression in cocultures. BL proteins exerted differential effects on TEER, whereas astrocytes in contact yielded higher TEER values and TJ expression.-Maherally, Z., Fillmore, H. L., Tan, S. L., Tan, S. F., Jassam, S. A., Quack, F. I., Hatherell, K. E., Pilkington, G. J. Real-time acquisition of transendothelial electrical resistance in an all-human, in vitro, 3-dimensional, blood-brain barrier model exemplifies tight-junction integrity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/metabolism
  6. Choong PF, Teh HX, Teoh HK, Ong HK, Choo KB, Sugii S, et al.
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(11):1154-60.
    PMID: 25170299 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.8281
    Four osteosarcoma cell lines, Saos-2, MG-63, G-292 and U-2 OS, were reprogrammed to pluripotent state using Yamanaka factors retroviral transduction method. Embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like clusters started to appear between 15 to 20 days post transduction. Morphology of the colonies resembled that of ESC colonies with defined border and tightly-packed cells. The reprogrammed sarcomas expressed alkaline phosphatase and pluripotency markers, OCT4, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81, as in ESC up to Passage 15. All reprogrammed sarcomas could form embryoid body-like spheres when cultured in suspension in a low attachment dish for up to 10 days. Further testing on the directed differentiation capacity of the reprogrammed sarcomas showed all four reprogrammed sarcoma lines could differentiate into adipocytes while reprogrammed Saos-2-REP, MG-63-REP and G-292-REP could differentiate into osteocytes. Among the 4 osteosarcoma cell lines, U-2 OS reported the highest transduction efficiency but recorded the lowest reprogramming stability under long term culture. Thus, there may be intrinsic differences governing the variable responses of osteosarcoma cell lines towards reprogramming and long term culture effect of the reprogrammed cells. This is a first report to associate intrinsic factors in different osteosarcoma cell lines with variable reprogramming responses and effects on the reprogrammed cells after prolonged culture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proteoglycans/metabolism
  7. Liew K, Yong PV, Lim YM, Navaratnam V, Ho AS
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2014 Apr;28(3):335-9.
    PMID: 24291160 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2013.11.008
    Metastasis contributes to the escalating mortality rate among cancer patients worldwide. The search for novel and more effective anti-metastatic agent is crucial owing to the lack of anticancer drugs that can successfully combat metastasis. Hence, this study aims to examine the effects of 2-Methoxy-1,4-Naphthoquinone (MNQ) towards the metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells. In invasion assays, the number of cells permeating across a Matrigel barrier was found to be decreased in a dose-dependent manner upon treatment with MNQ (0-7.5 μM). In wound-healing migration assays, MNQ exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of cell migration in which significant reduction in the zone of closure was observed as compared to untreated controls. Furthermore, the proteolytic activity of a pivotal metastatic mediator, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was also downregulated by MNQ as determined by gelatin zymography. This study reports for the first time, the ability of MNQ to inhibit the invasion and migration characteristics of a highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proteoglycans/metabolism
  8. Ab-Rahim S, Selvaratnam L, Raghavendran HR, Kamarul T
    Mol Cell Biochem, 2013 Apr;376(1-2):11-20.
    PMID: 23238871 DOI: 10.1007/s11010-012-1543-0
    Tissue engineering approaches often require expansion of cell numbers in vitro to accelerate tissue regenerative processes. Although several studies have used this technique for therapeutic purposes, a major concern involving the use of isolated chondrocyte culture is the reduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) protein expressed due to the transfer of cells from the normal physiological milieu to the artificial 2D environment provided by the cell culture flasks. To overcome this issue, the use of alginate hydrogel beads as a substrate in chondrocyte cultures has been suggested. However, the resultant characteristics of cells embedded in this bead is elusive. To elucidate this, a study using chondrocytes isolated from rabbit knee articular cartilage expanded in vitro as monolayer and chondrocyte-alginate constructs was conducted. Immunohistochemical evaluation and ECM distribution was examined with or without transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) supplement to determine the ability of cells to express major chondrogenic proteins in these environments. Histological examination followed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was performed to determine the morphology and the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells. Results demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan/mg protein levels in chondrocyte cultures grown in alginate construct than in monolayer cultures. In addition, an abundance of ECM protein distribution surrounding chondrocytes cultured in alginate hydrogel was observed. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that the use of alginate hydrogel beads in chondrocyte cultures with or without TGF-β1 supplement provided superior ECM expression than monolayer cultures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proteoglycans/metabolism
  9. Lai SL, Cheah SC, Wong PF, Noor SM, Mustafa MR
    PLoS One, 2012;7(5):e38103.
    PMID: 22666456 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038103
    BACKGROUND: Targeting angiogenesis has emerged as an attractive and promising strategy in anti-cancer therapeutic development. The present study investigates the anti-angiogenic potential of Panduratin A (PA), a natural chalcone isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda by using both in vitro and in vivo assays.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PA exerted selective cytotoxicity on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with IC(50) value of 6.91 ± 0.85 µM when compared to human normal fibroblast and normal liver epithelial cells. Assessment of the growth kinetics by cell impedance-based Real-Time Cell Analyzer showed that PA induced both cytotoxic and cytostatic effects on HUVECs, depending on the concentration used. Results also showed that PA suppressed VEGF-induced survival and proliferation of HUVECs. Furthermore, endothelial cell migration, invasion, and morphogenesis or tube formation demonstrated significant time- and dose-dependent inhibition by PA. PA also suppressed matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) secretion and attenuated its activation to intermediate and active MMP-2. In addition, PA suppressed F-actin stress fiber formation to prevent migration of the endothelial cells. More importantly, anti-angiogenic potential of PA was also evidenced in two in vivo models. PA inhibited neo-vessels formation in murine Matrigel plugs, and angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our study demonstrated the distinctive anti-angiogenic properties of PA, both in vitro and in vivo. This report thus reveals another biological activity of PA in addition to its reported anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities, suggestive of PA's potential for development as an anti-angiogenic agent for cancer therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proteoglycans/metabolism
  10. Lim MN, Hussin NH, Othman A, Umapathy T, Baharuddin P, Jamal R, et al.
    Mol. Vis., 2012;18:1289-300.
    PMID: 22665977
    The presence of multipotent human limbal stromal cells resembling mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) provides new insights to the characteristic of these cells and its therapeutic potential. However, little is known about the expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 (SSEA-4) and the embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like properties of these cells. We studied the expression of SSEA-4 surface protein and the various ESC and MSC markers in the ex vivo cultured limbal stromal cells. The phenotypes and multipotent differentiation potential of these cells were also evaluated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proteoglycans/metabolism
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