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  1. Tan HJ
    J Dig Dis, 2010 Dec;11(6):334-42.
    PMID: 21091895 DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-2980.2010.00466.x
    A proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is often co-prescribed with clopidogrel to reduce the gastrointestinal risk of bleeding ulcers in patients following acute coronary syndrome or a stent implant. However, the safety issue of such practice has been scrutinized after some studies reporting an increased incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, although there have also been contrary research reports. This has lead to a warning statement from the US Food and Drug Administration cautioning the concomitant use of PPI and clopidogrel. This review examines the evidence of PPI as gastroprotective agent, histamine H(2) antagonists as an alternative therapy, the influence of PPI on the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel, and the controversies of various studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage
  2. Mahachai V, Vilaichone RK, Pittayanon R, Rojborwonwitaya J, Leelakusolvong S, Maneerattanaporn M, et al.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2018 Jan;33(1):37-56.
    PMID: 28762251 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.13911
    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection remains to be the major cause of important upper gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H. pylori management in ASEAN: the Bangkok consensus report gathered key opinion leaders for the region to review and evaluate clinical aspects of H. pylori infection and to develop consensus statements, rationales, and grades of recommendation for the management of H. pylori infection in clinical practice in ASEAN countries. This ASEAN Consensus consisted of 34 international experts from 10 ASEAN countries, Japan, Taiwan, and the United States. The meeting mainly focused on four issues: (i) epidemiology and disease association; (ii) diagnostic tests; (iii) management; and (iv) follow-up after eradication. The final results of each workshop were presented for consensus voting by all participants. Statements, rationale, and recommendations were developed from the available current evidence to help clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori and its clinical diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage
  3. Xiao Y, Zhang S, Dai N, Fei G, Goh KL, Chun HJ, et al.
    Gut, 2020 02;69(2):224-230.
    PMID: 31409606 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-318365
    OBJECTIVE: To establish the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in the treatment of Asian patients with erosive oesophagitis (EO).

    DESIGN: In this phase III, double-blind, multicentre study, patients with endoscopically confirmed EO were randomised 1:1 to receive vonoprazan 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg, once daily for up to 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was EO healing rate at 8 weeks. The secondary endpoints were EO healing rates at 2 and 4 weeks. Safety endpoints included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs).

    RESULTS: In the vonoprazan (n=238) and lansoprazole (n=230) arms, 8-week EO healing rates were 92.4% and 91.3%, respectively (difference 1.1% (95% CI -3.822% to 6.087%)). The respective 2-week EO healing rates were 75.0% and 67.8% (difference 7.2% (95% CI -1.054% to 15.371%)), and the respective 4-week EO healing rates were 85.3% and 83.5% (difference 1.8% (95% CI -4.763% to 8.395%)). In patients with baseline Los Angeles classification grade C/D, 2-week, 4-week and 8-week EO healing rates were higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole (2 weeks: 62.2% vs 51.5%, difference 10.6% (95% CI -5.708% to 27.002%); 4 weeks: 73.3% vs 67.2%, difference 6.2% (95% CI -8.884 to 21.223); and 8 weeks: 84.0% vs 80.6%, difference 3.4% (95% CI -9.187% to 15.993%)). Overall, EO healing rates appeared higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole. TEAE rates were 38.1% and 36.6% in the vonoprazan and lansoprazole group, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in terms of EO healing rate at 8 weeks in this population. Safety outcomes were similar in the two treatment arms.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02388724.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage
  4. Goh KL, Manikam J, Qua CS
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 2012 May;35(9):1097-102.
    PMID: 22404486 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2012.05054.x
    BACKGROUND:
    H. pylori eradication failures are difficult to treat and rescue therapies often consist of complex treatment regimens.

    AIM:
    To determine an effective and practical rescue therapeutic strategy for H. pylori treatment failures using two consecutive regimens: first rescue therapy - rabeprazole 20 mg t.d.s. and amoxicillin 1 g t.d.s. for 2 weeks and for failures a further second rescue therapy - rabeprazole 20 mg b.d., levofloxacin 500 mg b.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.d. for a further 2 weeks.

    METHODS:
    Consecutive patients who failed the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) 1-week triple therapy were recruited for the study. H. pylori status was determined by a C(13) urea breath test.

    RESULTS:
    One hundred and forty-nine patients received the first rescue therapy. Seven were not compliant to medication/defaulted follow-up. Eradication success- first rescue therapy: per protocol (PP) analysis-107/142 (75.4%) (95% CI (68.3-82.4%) and intention to treat (ITT) analysis-107/149 (71.8%) 95% CI (64.6-79.0%). Thirty-one of 35 patients who failed the first rescue therapy received the second rescue therapy. All were compliant with medications. Eradication success- PP and ITT was 28/31 (90.3%) 95% CI (74.2-98.0%). The cumulative eradication rate using both rescue therapies: PP analysis- 135/138 (97.8%) 95% CI: (93.8-99.6%), ITT analysis- 135/149 (90.6%) 95% CI: (84.7-94.8%).

    CONCLUSIONS:
    A 2-week high dose PPI-amoxicillin dual therapy followed by a PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin triple therapy were highly successful in achieving eradication in H. pylori treatment failures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage
  5. Zou D, Goh KL
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2017 Jun;32(6):1152-1159.
    PMID: 28024166 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.13712
    Both proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and clopidogrel are widely prescribed in the Asia-Pacific population. PPIs are the mainstay therapeutic agents for prophylaxis against aspirin gastropathy and for acid-related disorders including gastroesophageal reflux disease. They are also co-prescribed with oral anticoagulant agents and with dual-antiplatelet therapy for the treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding. Clopidogrel belongs to the drug class of thienopyridines and is currently the most widely prescribed oral anticoagulant agent either alone or in combination with aspirin. Platelet inhibition by clopidogrel is prone to significant inter-individual variability and is believed to be affected by several factors such as genetics and drug-drug interactions. Since it was first reported in 2009, the potential for drug-drug interactions between PPIs and clopidogrel has remained headline news, and its significance in clinical practice is the subject of an ongoing debate. For East Asian patients in particular, the clinical relevance of the interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel remains unclear because of conflicting data, as well as underrepresentation of East Asian subjects in landmark trials. Increased CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms in individuals from Asia-Pacific countries only fuel the confusion. Recent studies in East Asian cohorts suggests that the potential of PPIs to attenuate the efficacy of clopidogrel could be minimized by the use of newer PPIs with weaker affinity for the CYP2C19 isoenzyme, namely, pantoprazole, dexlansoprazole, and rabeprazole. This review aims to help clinicians choose the most appropriate PPI for co-prescription with clopidogrel in patients from Asia-Pacific countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage*
  6. Moayyedi P, Eikelboom JW, Bosch J, Connolly SJ, Dyal L, Shestakovska O, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2019 08;157(2):403-412.e5.
    PMID: 31054846 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.04.041
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk.

    METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation.

    RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).

    CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage*
  7. Moayyedi P, Eikelboom JW, Bosch J, Connolly SJ, Dyal L, Shestakovska O, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2019 09;157(3):682-691.e2.
    PMID: 31152740 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.05.056
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial.

    METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up.

    RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage*
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