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  1. Thong BKS, Ima-Nirwana S, Chin KY
    PMID: 31060319 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16091571
    The number of patients with gastroesophageal problems taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is increasing. Several studies suggested a possible association between PPIs and fracture risk, especially hip fractures, but the relationship remains contentious. This review aimed to investigate the longitudinal studies published in the last five years on the relationship between PPIs and fracture risk. The mechanism underlying this relationship was also explored. Overall, PPIs were positively associated with elevated fracture risk in multiple studies (n = 14), although some studies reported no significant relationship (n = 4). Increased gastrin production and hypochlorhydria are the two main mechanisms that affect bone remodeling, mineral absorption, and muscle strength, contributing to increased fracture risk among PPI users. As a conclusion, there is a potential relationship between PPIs and fracture risks. Therefore, patients on long-term PPI treatment should pay attention to bone health status and consider prophylaxis to decrease fracture risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects*
  2. Kow CS, Hasan SS
    J Intern Med, 2021 01;289(1):125-128.
    PMID: 33078881 DOI: 10.1111/joim.13183
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects
  3. Tan HJ
    J Dig Dis, 2010 Dec;11(6):334-42.
    PMID: 21091895 DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-2980.2010.00466.x
    A proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is often co-prescribed with clopidogrel to reduce the gastrointestinal risk of bleeding ulcers in patients following acute coronary syndrome or a stent implant. However, the safety issue of such practice has been scrutinized after some studies reporting an increased incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, although there have also been contrary research reports. This has lead to a warning statement from the US Food and Drug Administration cautioning the concomitant use of PPI and clopidogrel. This review examines the evidence of PPI as gastroprotective agent, histamine H(2) antagonists as an alternative therapy, the influence of PPI on the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel, and the controversies of various studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects*
  4. Xiao Y, Zhang S, Dai N, Fei G, Goh KL, Chun HJ, et al.
    Gut, 2020 02;69(2):224-230.
    PMID: 31409606 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-318365
    OBJECTIVE: To establish the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in the treatment of Asian patients with erosive oesophagitis (EO).

    DESIGN: In this phase III, double-blind, multicentre study, patients with endoscopically confirmed EO were randomised 1:1 to receive vonoprazan 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg, once daily for up to 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was EO healing rate at 8 weeks. The secondary endpoints were EO healing rates at 2 and 4 weeks. Safety endpoints included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs).

    RESULTS: In the vonoprazan (n=238) and lansoprazole (n=230) arms, 8-week EO healing rates were 92.4% and 91.3%, respectively (difference 1.1% (95% CI -3.822% to 6.087%)). The respective 2-week EO healing rates were 75.0% and 67.8% (difference 7.2% (95% CI -1.054% to 15.371%)), and the respective 4-week EO healing rates were 85.3% and 83.5% (difference 1.8% (95% CI -4.763% to 8.395%)). In patients with baseline Los Angeles classification grade C/D, 2-week, 4-week and 8-week EO healing rates were higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole (2 weeks: 62.2% vs 51.5%, difference 10.6% (95% CI -5.708% to 27.002%); 4 weeks: 73.3% vs 67.2%, difference 6.2% (95% CI -8.884 to 21.223); and 8 weeks: 84.0% vs 80.6%, difference 3.4% (95% CI -9.187% to 15.993%)). Overall, EO healing rates appeared higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole. TEAE rates were 38.1% and 36.6% in the vonoprazan and lansoprazole group, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in terms of EO healing rate at 8 weeks in this population. Safety outcomes were similar in the two treatment arms.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02388724.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects
  5. Hassan SA, Rahman RA, Huda N, Wan Bebakar WM, Lee YY
    J R Coll Physicians Edinb, 2013;43(2):103-7.
    PMID: 23734349 DOI: 10.4997/JRCPE.2013.203
    Clostridum difficile (C. difficile) infection is increasingly seen among hospitalised patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus but its rate and associated risk factors are not known. We aimed to determine the rate and characteristics of hospital-acquired C. difficile infection in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted into acute medical wards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects*
  6. Qua CS, Manikam J, Goh KL
    J Dig Dis, 2010 Aug;11(4):244-8.
    PMID: 20649738 DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-2980.2010.00445.x
    OBJECTIVE:
    To re-examine the efficacy and tolerability of 1-week proton pump inhibitor triple therapy as a first-line Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy.

    METHODS:
    Consecutive participants with a positive rapid urease test during an outpatient upper endoscopy were included. All participants were given pantoprazole 40 mg b.i.d., amoxycillin 1 g b.i.d. and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. for 1 week. They were asked to return after 1 week to report any side effects related to the medications and to check for compliance. Successful eradication was defined by negative (13)C-urea breath test at least 4 weeks after the completion of therapy.

    RESULTS:
    A total of 191 patients were recruited into the study, of whom 81 were male (42.4%) and 110 female (57.6%), with a mean age of 55.6 (range 21-88) years. Overall 26 patients (13.6%) defaulted follow up and five patients were not compliant (taking less than 85%) with the medications. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 84.4% (95% CI: 78.6-89.9%) and 71.2% (95% CI: 64.5-77.6%), respectively. Overall 68 participants (42.5%) reported no side effects, followed by 58 (36.3%) with a taste disturbance, 16 (10.0%) with epigastric pain, 15 (9.4%) with diarrhea, 13 (8.1%) with nausea or vomiting, 12 (7.5%) with loss of appetite, nine (5.6%) with dizziness and two (1.3%) with an allergic skin rash, none of which was severe.

    CONCLUSION:
    The current regime using pantoprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin is highly tolerable and effective and should continue to be recommended as a first-line therapy for H. pylori eradication in our setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects
  7. Moayyedi P, Eikelboom JW, Bosch J, Connolly SJ, Dyal L, Shestakovska O, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2019 09;157(3):682-691.e2.
    PMID: 31152740 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.05.056
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial.

    METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up.

    RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.

    Matched MeSH terms: Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects
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