Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 356 in total

  1. Tran PN, Tan NE, Lee YP, Gan HM, Polter SJ, Dailey LK, et al.
    Genome Announc, 2015;3(6).
    PMID: 26586879 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.01319-15
    Here, we report the whole-genome sequences and annotation of 11 endophytic bacteria from poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) vine tissue. Five bacteria belong to the genus Pseudomonas, and six single members from other genera were found present in interior vine tissue of poison ivy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas
  2. Hrabák J, Fridrichová M, Stolbová M, Bergerová T, Zemlickova H, Urbaskova P
    Euro Surveill, 2009 Jan 29;14(4).
    PMID: 19215712
    Since 2005, invasive isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been collected in the Czech Republic as part of the European Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). Forty-eight microbiology laboratories throughout the country including approximately 81% of the population provide consecutive isolates from blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Surprisingly, no metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) was found in 1,259 invasive isolates tested over the past three years until the detection of two MBL-producing strains in mid-2008. Both strains were isolated from patients hospitalised in one regional hospital. The MBL was identified as IMP-7, which had been seen previously in Canada, Japan, Malaysia and Slovakia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classification; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology*; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification*; Pseudomonas Infections/diagnosis*; Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology*
  3. Tran PN, Savka MA, Gan HM
    Front Microbiol, 2017;8:1296.
    PMID: 28747902 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01296
    The genus Pseudomonas has one of the largest diversity of species within the Bacteria kingdom. To date, its taxonomy is still being revised and updated. Due to the non-standardized procedure and ambiguous thresholds at species level, largely based on 16S rRNA gene or conventional biochemical assay, species identification of publicly available Pseudomonas genomes remains questionable. In this study, we performed a large-scale analysis of all Pseudomonas genomes with species designation (excluding the well-defined P. aeruginosa) and re-evaluated their taxonomic assignment via in silico genome-genome hybridization and/or genetic comparison with valid type species. Three-hundred and seventy-three pseudomonad genomes were analyzed and subsequently clustered into 145 distinct genospecies. We detected 207 erroneous labels and corrected 43 to the proper species based on Average Nucleotide Identity Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) sequence similarity to the type strain. Surprisingly, more than half of the genomes initially designated as Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas fluorescens should be classified either to a previously described species or to a new genospecies. Notably, high pairwise average nucleotide identity (>95%) indicating species-level similarity was observed between P. synxantha-P. libanensis, P. psychrotolerans-P. oryzihabitans, and P. kilonensis- P. brassicacearum, that were previously differentiated based on conventional biochemical tests and/or genome-genome hybridization techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Pseudomonas fluorescens; Pseudomonas syringae
  4. Yunos NY, Tan WS, Koh CL, Sam CK, Mohamad NI, Tan PW, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(7):11595-604.
    PMID: 24984061 DOI: 10.3390/s140711595
    Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial cell-to-cell communication system controlling QS-mediated genes which is synchronized with the population density. The regulation of specific gene activity is dependent on the signaling molecules produced, namely N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). We report here the identification and characterization of AHLs produced by bacterial strain ND07 isolated from a Malaysian fresh water sample. Molecular identification showed that strain ND07 is clustered closely to Pseudomonas cremoricolorata. Spent culture supernatant extract of P. cremoricolorata strain ND07 activated the AHL biosensor Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Using high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was confirmed that P. cremoricolorata strain ND07 produced N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and N-decanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation on the production of C10-HSL in P. cremoricolorata strain ND07.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas/classification*; Pseudomonas/isolation & purification; Pseudomonas/physiology*
  5. Chan KG, Yin WF, Lim YL
    Genome Announc, 2014;2(2).
    PMID: 24699957 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00246-14
    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain YL84, which was isolated from compost. This strain was found to be a chitinase-producing quorum-sensing bacterium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  6. Wahab AA, Rahman MM
    EXCLI J, 2013;12:997-1000.
    PMID: 27034639
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacillus that causes wide spectrum clinical infections. However, it is most frequently associated with hospital-acquired infection. In this case a 58-year-old male with underlying hypertension and dyslipidaemia was admitted for acute right leg cellulitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified from the case, though it was not a usual suspected organism. It might be due to community-acquired infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa*; Pseudomonas Infections*
  7. Zaleha Shafiei, Che Nyonya Abdul Razak, Abu Bakar Salleh, Mahiran Basri, Misri Kusnan
    Pseudomonas sp. strain SS22 telah dipencilkan daripada kolam oksidasi kilang minyak kelapa sawit di Malaysia. Dalam kajian ini, keupayaaan bakteria ini mentransformasikan asid oleik kepada produk baru telah dikaji. Produk biotransformasi dianalisis dengan kromatografi lapisan nipis (KLN), kromatografi gas (KG), spektroskopi inframerah gandingan fourier (SIGF) dan kromatografi gas-spektrometri jisim (KG-s.1). Analisis KLN menunjukkan bahawa hanya satu produk baru terbentuk selepas 7 hari eraman pada suhu 37°C, goncangan pada 150 ppm. Semakin lama eraman menyebabkan pengurangan titik produk pada 14 harL Analisis KG menunjukkan bahawa 5 puncak produk baru pada masa penahanan 13.1(*A), 15.0 (*C), 15.3 (*D), 16.8 (*E) dan 18.4 (*F) minit telah terbentuk selepas 7 hari eraman. Spektrum inframerah (Im) bagi produk yang terbentuk daripada asid oleik selepas 7 hari, menunjukkan kewujudan regangan OH/NH pada 3417 cm-'. Serapan pada 2673 cm-', kemungkinan regangan CH bersama-sama dengan kumpulan karbonil. Serapan pada 1712 cm-' adalah konstan dengan regangan c=o daripada keton atau asid karboksilik. Regangan CH pada 2932, 2854, 1462 dan 1379 cm-1 merupakan kumpulan alkil, menandakan produk hidrokarbon juga wujud dalam produk campuran. Kehadiran CH/C-C pada serapan 969 dan 725 cm-', menandakan kewujudan alkena trans (C=C). Analisis KG-SJ mengesahkan bahawa produk tersebut merupakan campuran asid 9(E)- heksadekenoik, asid kaprilik, asid miristik dan hidrokarbon. Walaupun produk yang terbentuk bercampur, asid 9(E)-heksadekenoik boleh digunakan sebagai komponen membran lipidnya. Penghasilan produk tersebut boleh dipertingkatkan dengan mengoptimumkan keadaan pertumbuhan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas
  8. Anis SNS, Mohd Annuar MS, Simarani K
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2018 Nov;65(6):784-796.
    PMID: 29806235 DOI: 10.1002/bab.1666
    Biosynthesis and in vivo depolymerization of intracellular medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 grown on lauric acid were studied. Highest mcl-PHA fraction (>50 % of total biomass) and cell concentration (8 g L-1 ) were obtained at carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio 20, starting cell concentration 1 g L-1 , and 48 H fermentation. The mcl-PHA comprised of 3-hydroxyhexanoate (C6 ), 3-hydroxyoctanote (C8 ), 3-hydroxydecanoate (C10 ), and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (C12 ) monomers. In vivo action was studied in a mineral liquid medium without carbon source, and in different buffer solutions with varied pH, molarity, ionic strength, and temperature. The monomer liberation rate reflected the mol percentage distribution of the initial polymer subunit composition. Rate and percentage of in vivo depolymerization were highest in 0.2 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9, strength = 0.2 M, 30 °C) at 0.21 g L-1  H-1 and 98.6 ± 1.3 wt%, respectively. There is a congruity vis-à-vis to specific buffer type, molarity, pH, ionic strength, and temperature values for superior in vivo depolymerization activities. Direct products from in vivo depolymerization matched the individual monomeric composition of native mcl-PHA. It points to exo-type reaction for the in vivo process, and potential biological route to chiral molecules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas putida/growth & development; Pseudomonas putida/metabolism*; Pseudomonas putida/chemistry*
  9. Kareem BA, Aiyar S, Marshal DS
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Mar;50(1):116.
    PMID: 7752966
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas Infections*
  10. Kanamori T, Kuze N, Bernard H, Malim TP, Kohshima S
    Primates, 2012 Jul;53(3):221-6.
    PMID: 22350273 DOI: 10.1007/s10329-012-0297-3
    Reports of wild great ape fatalities have been very limited, and only two have described wild orangutan deaths. We found a wounded juvenile female Bornean orangutan on 7 October 2006 in the Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia, and observed the individual's behavior for 7 days until her death on 13 October 2006. The 5-6-year-old orangutan, which we had observed since 2004, was wounded in the left brachium, back, and right hand. The individual's behavior changed after injury; the mean nest-nest active time became significantly shorter than before injury (from 12 h 3 min to 9 h 33 min), the mean waking time became significantly later (0552-0629 hours) and the mean bedtime became significantly earlier (from 1747 to 1603 hours). In the activity budget, resting increased significantly from 28.0 to 53.3%. Traveling and feeding decreased significantly from 23.5 to 12.7% and from 45.6 to 32.8%, respectively. The rate of brachiation during traveling and nest making decreased, whereas ground activity increased from 0 to 9%. We observed one vomiting incident and four occurrences of watery diarrhea during the 7 days before the individual died. The results of an autopsy performed by a local veterinarian suggested that the cause of death was septicemia because of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the severely contaminated wounds. The morphology and distribution of the wounds suggested they had been incurred during an attack by a large animal with fangs and/or claws. This juvenile female became independent of its mother at ~4-5 years of age, slightly earlier than average. This individual might have been vulnerable to predatory attack because of her small body size (~5 kg at death) and lack of the mother's protection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification; Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology; Pseudomonas Infections/mortality; Pseudomonas Infections/veterinary*
  11. Popat R, Pollitt EJ, Harrison F, Naghra H, Hong KW, Chan KG, et al.
    Evolution, 2015 Sep;69(9):2371-83.
    PMID: 26282874 DOI: 10.1111/evo.12751
    Animals use signals to coordinate a wide range of behaviors, from feeding offspring to predator avoidance. This poses an evolutionary problem, because individuals could potentially signal dishonestly to coerce others into behaving in ways that benefit the signaler. Theory suggests that honest signaling is favored when individuals share a common interest and signals carry reliable information. Here, we exploit the opportunities offered by bacterial signaling to test these predictions with an experimental evolution approach. We show that: (1) reduced relatedness leads to the relative breakdown of signaling, (2) signaling breaks down by the invasion of mutants that show both reduced signaling and reduced response to signal, (3) the genetic route to signaling breakdown is variable, and (4) the addition of artificial signal, to interfere with signal information, also leads to reduced signaling. Our results provide clear support for signaling theory, but we did not find evidence for previously predicted coercion at intermediate relatedness, suggesting that mechanistic details can alter the qualitative nature of specific predictions. Furthermore, populations evolved under low relatedness caused less mortality to insect hosts, showing how signal evolution in bacterial pathogens can drive the evolution of virulence in the opposite direction to that often predicted by theory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/physiology*; Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology
  12. Thong ML
    PMID: 1025737
    Three strains of Pseudomonas putrefaciens were isolated from routine clinical specimens at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Their cultural and biochemical characteristic, and antibiotic susceptibilities are presented. Characteristics of diagnostic value were stressed. Two isolates appeared to have played a pathogenic role in chronic otitis media.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas/drug effects; Pseudomonas/growth & development; Pseudomonas/isolation & purification*; Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology*
  13. Ismail NS, Subbiah SK, Taib NM
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2020;21(14):1539-1550.
    PMID: 32598252 DOI: 10.2174/1389201021666200629145217
    BACKGROUND: This is the fastest work in obtaining the metabolic profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in order to combat the infection diseases which leads to high morbidity and mortality rates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a high versatility of gram-negative bacteria that can undergo aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Capabilities in deploying different carbon sources, energy metabolism and regulatory system, ensure the survival of this microorganism in the diverse environment condition. Determination of differences in carbon sources utilization among biofilm and non-biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa provides a platform in understanding the metabolic activity of the microorganism.

    METHODS: The study was carried out from September 2017 to February 2019. Four archive isolates forming strong and intermediate biofilm and non-biofilms producer were subcultured from archive isolates. ATCC 27853 P. aeruginosa was used as a negative control or non-biofilm producing microorganism. Biofilm formation was confirmed by Crystal Violet Assay (CVA) and Congo Red Agar (CRA). Metabolic profiles of the biofilm and non-biofilms isolates were determined by phenotype microarrays (Biolog Omnilog).

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm isolates utilized uridine, L-threonine and L-serine while non-biofilm utilized adenosine, inosine, monomethyl, sorbic acid and succinamic acid.

    CONCLUSION: The outcome of this result will be used for future studies to improve detection or inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa biofilm and non-biofilm respectively.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/growth & development*; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism; Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology*
  14. Kim MJ, Bae IK, Jeong SH, Kim SH, Song JH, Choi JY, et al.
    J Antimicrob Chemother, 2013 Dec;68(12):2820-4.
    PMID: 23843299 DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkt269
    To investigate the epidemiological traits of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MPPA) clinical isolates collected by the Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP).
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classification*; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology*; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification; Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology*; Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology*; Pseudomonas Infections/transmission
  15. Palanisamy NK, Ferina N, Amirulhusni AN, Mohd-Zain Z, Hussaini J, Ping LJ, et al.
    PMID: 24422704 DOI: 10.1186/1477-3155-12-2
    Nanomedicine is now being introduced as a recent trend in the field of medicine. It has been documented that metal nanoparticles have antimicrobial effects for bacteria, fungi and viruses. Recent advances in technology has revived the use of silver nanoparticles in the medical field; treatment, diagnosis, monitoring and control of disease. It has been used since ancient times for treating wide range of illnesses. Bacterial cells adheres to surfaces and develop structures known as biofilms. These structures are natural survival strategy of the bacteria to invade the host. They are more tolerant to commonly used antimicrobial agents, thus being more difficult to be controlled. This leads to increase in severity of infection. In this study, we have investigated the effect of silver nanoparticles in the formation of biofilm in multidrug resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Observation showed that biofilm formation occurred at bacterial concentration of 10(6) cfu/ml for the sensitive strain of P. aeruginosa while in the resistant strain, the biofilm was evident at bacterial concentration of about 10(3) cfu/ml. The biofilm were then tested against various concentrations of silver nanoparticles to determine the inhibitory effect of the silver nanoparticles. In the sensitive strain, 20 μg/ml of silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth optimally at bacterial concentration of 10(4) cfu/ml with an inhibition rate of 67%. Similarly, silver nanoparticles inhibited the formation of biofilm in the resistant strain at an optimal bacterial concentration of 10(5) cfu/ml with an inhibition rate of 56%. Thus, silver nanoparticles could be used as a potential alternative therapy to reduce severity of disease due to P. aeruginosa infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects*; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/physiology*; Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy*
  16. Zamzuri NA, Abd-Aziz S, Rahim RA, Phang LY, Alitheen NB, Maeda T
    J Appl Microbiol, 2014 Apr;116(4):903-10.
    PMID: 24314059 DOI: 10.1111/jam.12410
    To isolate a bacterial strain capable of biotransforming ferulic acid, a major component of lignin, into vanillin and vanillic acid by a rapid colorimetric screening method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas/isolation & purification; Pseudomonas/metabolism*
  17. Noh NA, Salleh SM, Yahya AR
    Lett Appl Microbiol, 2014 Jun;58(6):617-23.
    PMID: 24698293 DOI: 10.1111/lam.12236
    A fed-batch strategy was established based on the maximum substrate uptake rate (MSUR) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 grown in diesel to produce rhamnolipid. This strategy matches the substrate feed rates with the substrate demand based on the real-time measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO). The MSUR was estimated by determining the time required for consumption of a known amount of diesel. The MSUR trend paralleled the biomass profile of Ps. aeruginosa USM-AR2, where the MSUR increased throughout the exponential phase indicating active substrate utilization and then decreased when cells entered stationary phase. Rhamnolipid yield on diesel was enhanced from 0·047 (g/g) in batch to 0·110 (g/g) in pulse-pause fed-batch and 0·123 (g/g) in MSUR fed-batch. Rhamnolipid yield on biomass was also improved from 0·421 (g/g) in batch, 3·098 (g/g) in pulse-pause fed-batch to 3·471 (g/g) using MSUR-based strategy. Volumetric productivity increased from 0·029 g l(-1) h(-1) in batch, 0·054 g l(-1) h(-1) in pulse-pause fed-batch to 0·076 g l(-1) h(-1) in MSUR fed-batch.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/growth & development; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism*
  18. Raja NS, Singh NN
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2007 Feb;40(1):45-9.
    PMID: 17332906
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized, critically ill patients and patients with underlying medical conditions such as cystic fibrosis, neutropenia, and iatrogenic immunosuppression. The prevalence of multiresistant P. aeruginosa isolates has been increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in P. aeruginosa strains isolated at a university teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    METHODS: The Laboratory Information System of the microbiology department was retrospectively reviewed to determine the susceptibility patterns of P. aeruginosa isolates to anti-pseudomonal antibiotics, from January to June 2005. Disk diffusion methods were employed and results were interpreted according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines.
    RESULTS: 505 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were tested. Major sources of these isolates included respiratory tract, wound, urine and blood. The rates of antimicrobial resistance of isolates were 6.73% to amikacin, 12.9% to gentamicin, 10.1% to netilmicin, 10.9% to ceftazidime, 11.3% to ciprofloxacin, 9.9% to imipenem, 10.8% to piperacillin, 9.4% to piperacillin-tazobactam and 0% to polymyxin B. Of the 505 isolates, 29 (5.74%) were found to be multidrug-resistant; these were most commonly isolated from respiratory tract specimens of patients in surgical units, followed by respiratory tract specimens in patients in medical units.
    CONCLUSIONS: The data in this study showed low rates of antibiotic resistance among P. aeruginosa isolates. Combinations of aminoglycosides plus beta-lactams or quinolones should be the appropriate choice for empirical therapy in P. aeruginosa infections. Active antibiotic susceptibility testing and surveillance should be continued in order to curtail the problem of antibiotic resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects*; Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy; Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology; Pseudomonas Infections/prevention & control*
  19. Ramanathan B, Jindal HM, Le CF, Gudimella R, Anwar A, Razali R, et al.
    PLoS One, 2017;12(8):e0182524.
    PMID: 28797043 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182524
    Rapid progress in next generation sequencing and allied computational tools have aided in identification of single nucleotide variants in genomes of several organisms. In the present study, we have investigated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in ten multi-antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates. All the draft genomes were submitted to Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology (RAST) web server and the predicted protein sequences were used for comparison. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP) found in the clinical isolates compared to the reference genome (PAO1), and the comparison of nsSNPs between antibiotic resistant and susceptible clinical isolates revealed insights into the genome variation. These nsSNPs identified in the multi-drug resistant clinical isolates were found to be altering a single amino acid in several antibiotic resistant genes. We found mutations in genes encoding efflux pump systems, cell wall, DNA replication and genes involved in repair mechanism. In addition, nucleotide deletions in the genome and mutations leading to generation of stop codons were also observed in the antibiotic resistant clinical isolates. Next generation sequencing is a powerful tool to compare the whole genomes and analyse the single base pair variations found within the antibiotic resistant genes. We identified specific mutations within antibiotic resistant genes compared to the susceptible strain of the same bacterial species and these findings may provide insights to understand the role of single nucleotide variants in antibiotic resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics*; Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy; Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology
  20. Thong KL, Lai KS, Ganeswrie R, Puthucheary SD
    Jpn J Infect Dis, 2004 Oct;57(5):206-9.
    PMID: 15507777
    Over a period of 6 months from January to June 2002, an unusual increase in the isolation of highly resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains was observed in the various wards and intensive care units of a large general hospital in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. An equal number of multidrug resistant (MDR) and drug-susceptible strains were collected randomly from swabs, respiratory specimens, urine, blood, cerebral spinal fluid, and central venous catheters to determine the clonality and genetic variation of the strains. Macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the 19 MDR strains were genetically very homogenous; the majority showed the dominant profile S1 (n = 10), the rest very closely related profiles S1a (n = 1), S2 (n = 4), and S2a (n = 3), indicating the endemicity of these strains. In contrast, the 19 drug-sensitive strains isolated during the same time period were genetically more diverse, showing 17 pulsed-field profiles (F = 0.50-1.00), and probably derived from the patients themselves. The presence of the MDR clone poses serious therapeutic problems as it may become endemic in the hospital and give rise to future clonal outbreaks. There is also the potential for wider geographical spread.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics*; Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy; Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology*; Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology*
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