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  1. Noh NA, Salleh SM, Yahya AR
    Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 2014 Jun;58(6):617-23.
    PMID: 24698293 DOI: 10.1111/lam.12236
    A fed-batch strategy was established based on the maximum substrate uptake rate (MSUR) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 grown in diesel to produce rhamnolipid. This strategy matches the substrate feed rates with the substrate demand based on the real-time measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO). The MSUR was estimated by determining the time required for consumption of a known amount of diesel. The MSUR trend paralleled the biomass profile of Ps. aeruginosa USM-AR2, where the MSUR increased throughout the exponential phase indicating active substrate utilization and then decreased when cells entered stationary phase. Rhamnolipid yield on diesel was enhanced from 0·047 (g/g) in batch to 0·110 (g/g) in pulse-pause fed-batch and 0·123 (g/g) in MSUR fed-batch. Rhamnolipid yield on biomass was also improved from 0·421 (g/g) in batch, 3·098 (g/g) in pulse-pause fed-batch to 3·471 (g/g) using MSUR-based strategy. Volumetric productivity increased from 0·029 g l(-1) h(-1) in batch, 0·054 g l(-1) h(-1) in pulse-pause fed-batch to 0·076 g l(-1) h(-1) in MSUR fed-batch.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism*
  2. V K, Neela VK
    Virulence, 2020 12;11(1):104-112.
    PMID: 31957553 DOI: 10.1080/21505594.2020.1713649
    This study investigates the twitching ability of 28 clinical and five environmental strains of S. maltophilia grown under iron-depleted condition through in-silico, phenotypic and proteomics approaches. Rapid Annotations using Subsystem Technology (RAST) analysis revealed the presence of 21 targets of type IV pilus shared across S. maltophilia strains K279a, R551-3, D457 and JV3. The macroscopic twitching assay showed that only clinical isolates produced a zone of twitching with a mean of 22.00 mm under normal and 25.00 mm under iron-depleted conditions. (p = 0.002). Environmental isolates did not show any significant twitching activity in both conditions tested. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (ITRAQ) analysis showed altered expression of twitching motility protein PilT (99.08-fold change), flagellar biosynthesis protein FliC (20.14-fold change), and fimbrial protein (0.70-fold change) in response to iron-depleted condition. Most of the strains that have the ability to twitch under the normal condition, exhibit enhanced twitching during iron limitation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism
  3. Krishnan T, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(4):4016-30.
    PMID: 22666015 DOI: 10.3390/s120404016
    Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum), shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract), swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract), pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract). This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism*
  4. Wong CS, Yin WF, Sam CK, Koh CL, Chan KG
    New Microbiol., 2012 Jan;35(1):43-51.
    PMID: 22378552
    Most Proteobacteria produce N-acylhomoserine lactones for bacterial cell-to-cell communication, a process called quorum sensing. Interference of quorum sensing, commonly known as quorum quenching, represents an important way to control quorum sensing. This work reports the isolation of quorum quenching bacterium strain 2WS8 from Malaysia tropical wetland water (2°11'8"N, 102°15'2"E, in 2007) by using a modified version of a previously reported KG medium. Strain 2WS8 was isolated based on its ability to utilize N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) as the sole source of energy. This bacterium clustered closely to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Strain 2SW8 possesses both quiP and pvdQ homologue acylase genes. Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography analysis confirmed that strain 2SW8 preferentially degraded N-acylhomoserine lactones with 3-oxo group substitution but not those with unsubstituted groups at C3 position in the acyl side chain. Strain 2SW8 also showed 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism*
  5. Wong CS, Yin WF, Choo YM, Sam CK, Koh CL, Chan KG
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2012 Feb;28(2):453-61.
    PMID: 22806840 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-011-0836-x
    A chemically defined medium called KGm medium was used to isolate from a sample of sea water a bacterial strain, MW3A, capable of using N-3-oxohexanoyl-L: -homoserine lactone as the sole carbon source. MW3A was clustered closely to Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. It degraded both N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) with a 3-oxo group substitution and, less preferably, AHLs with unsubstituted groups at C3 position in the acyl side chain, as determined by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography. Its quiP and pvdQ homologue gene sequences showed high similarities to those of known acylases. Spent supernatant of MW3A harvested at 8-h post inoculation was shown to contain long-chain AHLs when assayed with the biosensor Escherichia coli [pSB1075], and specifically N-dodecanoyl-L: -homoserine lactone and N-3-oxotetradecanoyl-L: -homoserine lactone by high resolution mass spectrometry. Hence, we report here a novel marine P. aeruginosa strain MW3A possessing both quorum-quenching and quorum-sensing properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism*
  6. Asshifa Md Noh N, Al-Ashraf Abdullah A, Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim M, Ramli Mohd Yahya A
    J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 2012;58(2):153-61.
    PMID: 22688247
    A biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2, was used to assist conventional distillation. Batch cultivation in a bioreactor gave a biomass of 9.4 g L(-1) and rhamnolipid concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) achieved after 72 h. Biosurfactant activity (rhamnolipid) was detected by the orcinol assay, emulsification index and drop collapse test. Pretreatment of crude oil TK-1 and AG-2 with a culture of P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 that contains rhamnolipid was proven to facilitate the distillation process by reducing the duration without reducing the quality of petroleum distillate. It showed a potential in reducing the duration of the distillation process, with at least 2- to 3-fold decreases in distillation time. This is supported by GC-MS analysis of the distillate where there was no difference between compounds detected in distillate obtained from treated or untreated crude oil. Calorimetric tests showed the calorie value of the distillate remained the same with or without treatment. These two factors confirmed that the quality of the distillate was not compromised and the incubation process by the microbial culture did not over-degrade the oil. The rhamnolipid produced by this culture was the main factor that enhanced the distillation performance, which is related to the emulsification of hydrocarbon chains in the crude oil. This biotreatment may play an important role to improve the existing conventional refinery and distillation process. Reducing the distillation times by pretreating the crude oil with a natural biosynthetic product translates to energy and cost savings in producing petroleum products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism*
  7. Rahman RN, Ghaza FM, Salleh AB, Basri M
    J Microbiol, 2006 Jun;44(3):354-9.
    PMID: 16820766
    This study examined the capacity of immobilized bacteria to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. A mixture of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strains was immobilized in alginate and incubated in crude oil-contaminated artificial seawater (ASW). Analysis of hydrocarbon residues following a 30-day incubation period demonstrated that the biodegradation capacity of the microorganisms was not compromised by the immobilization. Removal of n-alkanes was similar in immobilized cells and control cells. To test reusability, the immobilized bacteria were incubated for sequential increments of 30 days. No decline in biodegradation capacity of the immobilized consortium of bacterial cells was noted over its repeated use. We conclude that immobilized hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria represent a promising application in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism
  8. Agamuthu P, Faizura PN
    Waste Manag Res, 2005 Apr;23(2):95-100.
    PMID: 15864950
    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism*
  9. Sun S, Tan LT, Fang YL, Jin ZJ, Zhou L, Goh BH, et al.
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 2020 Mar;33(3):488-498.
    PMID: 31710580 DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-09-19-0264-R
    Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is the primary active component in the newly registered, commercial biopesticide Shenqinmycin and is produced during fermentation by the engineered rhizobacterium strain Pseudomonas PA1201. Both phz1 and phz2 gene clusters contribute to PCA biosynthesis. In this study, we evaluated the role of OxyR in the regulation of PCA biosynthesis in PA1201. We first showed a functional link between oxyR expression and PCA biosynthesis. Deletion of oxyR and overexpression of oxyR both increase PCA biosynthesis. The molecular mechanisms underlying OxyR regulation of PCA production were investigated using several approaches. OxyR acts divergently in phz1 and phz2. Overexpression of oxyR activated the expression of phz1 and phz1-dependent PCA production. However, overexpression of oxyR had little effect on phz2-dependent PCA biosynthesis, while deletion of oxyR promoted phz2-dependent PCA production and exerted a negative effect on phz2 expression. Further, OxyR directly bound to the phz2 promoter region. In addition, the regulation of PCA biosynthesis by OxyR was associated with quorum sensing (QS) systems. Overexpression of OxyR positively regulated pqs QS system. Finally, transcriptomic analysis and subsequent genetic analysis revealed the small RNA phrS plays a key role in OxyR-dependent PCA accumulation. Specifically, OxyR directly binds to the phrS promoter region to positively regulate phrS expression wherein PhrS regulates the PCA positive regulator MvfR in order to control PCA biosynthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism
  10. Norina TJ, Raihan S, Bakiah S, Ezanee M, Liza-Sharmini AT, Wan Hazzabah WH
    Singapore Med J, 2008 Jan;49(1):67-71.
    PMID: 18204773
    Corneal ulceration remains one of the major causes of blindness in developing countries, including Malaysia. Our objective is to determine the epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, risk factors and the aetiology of microbial keratitis in patients admitted to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism
  11. Radzuan MN, Banat IM, Winterburn J
    Bioresour Technol, 2017 Feb;225:99-105.
    PMID: 27888734 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.11.052
    In this research we assess the feasibility of using palm oil agricultural refinery waste as a carbon source for the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant through fermentation. The production and characterization of rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grown on palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) under batch fermentation were investigated. Results show that P. aeruginosa PAO1 can grow and produce 0.43gL(-1) of rhamnolipid using PFAD as the sole carbon source. Identification of the biosurfactant product using mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of monorhamnolipid and dirhamnolipid. The rhamnolipid produced from PFAD were able to reduce surface tension to 29mNm(-1) with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) 420mgL(-1) and emulsify kerosene and sunflower oil, with an emulsion index up to 30%. Results demonstrate that PFAD could be used as a low-cost substrate for rhamnolipid production, utilizing and transforming it into a value added biosurfactant product.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism*
  12. Ismail NS, Subbiah SK, Taib NM
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2020;21(14):1539-1550.
    PMID: 32598252 DOI: 10.2174/1389201021666200629145217
    BACKGROUND: This is the fastest work in obtaining the metabolic profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in order to combat the infection diseases which leads to high morbidity and mortality rates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a high versatility of gram-negative bacteria that can undergo aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Capabilities in deploying different carbon sources, energy metabolism and regulatory system, ensure the survival of this microorganism in the diverse environment condition. Determination of differences in carbon sources utilization among biofilm and non-biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa provides a platform in understanding the metabolic activity of the microorganism.

    METHODS: The study was carried out from September 2017 to February 2019. Four archive isolates forming strong and intermediate biofilm and non-biofilms producer were subcultured from archive isolates. ATCC 27853 P. aeruginosa was used as a negative control or non-biofilm producing microorganism. Biofilm formation was confirmed by Crystal Violet Assay (CVA) and Congo Red Agar (CRA). Metabolic profiles of the biofilm and non-biofilms isolates were determined by phenotype microarrays (Biolog Omnilog).

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm isolates utilized uridine, L-threonine and L-serine while non-biofilm utilized adenosine, inosine, monomethyl, sorbic acid and succinamic acid.

    CONCLUSION: The outcome of this result will be used for future studies to improve detection or inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa biofilm and non-biofilm respectively.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism
  13. Chang CY, Krishnan T, Wang H, Chen Y, Yin WF, Chong YM, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2014;4:7245.
    PMID: 25430794 DOI: 10.1038/srep07245
    N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) is important for the regulation of proteobacterial virulence determinants. Thus, the inhibition of AHL synthases offers non-antibiotics-based therapeutic potentials against QS-mediated bacterial infections. In this work, functional AHL synthases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasI and RhlI were heterologously expressed in an AHL-negative Escherichia coli followed by assessments on their AHLs production using AHL biosensors and high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). These AHL-producing E. coli served as tools for screening AHL synthase inhibitors. Based on a campaign of screening synthetic molecules and natural products using our approach, three strongest inhibitors namely are salicylic acid, tannic acid and trans-cinnamaldehyde have been identified. LCMS analysis further confirmed tannic acid and trans-cinnemaldehyde efficiently inhibited AHL production by RhlI. We further demonstrated the application of trans-cinnemaldehyde inhibiting Rhl QS system regulated pyocyanin production in P. aeruginosa up to 42.06%. Molecular docking analysis suggested that trans-cinnemaldehyde binds to the LasI and EsaI with known structures mainly interacting with their substrate binding sites. Our data suggested a new class of QS-inhibiting agents from natural products targeting AHL synthase and provided a potential approach for facilitating the discovery of anti-QS signal synthesis as basis of novel anti-infective approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism
  14. Khosravi Y, Tay ST, Vadivelu J
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2011 Jul;60(Pt 7):988-994.
    PMID: 21436370 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.029868-0
    In this study, 90 non-replicate imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA) Malaysian isolates collected between October 2005 and March 2008 were subjected to a screening test for detection of the integron and the gene cassette. Class 1 integrons were detected in 54 IRPA clinical isolates, whilst three isolates contained class 2 integrons. Analysis of the gene cassettes associated with the class 1 integrons showed the detection of accC1 in isolates carrying bla(IMP-7) and aacA7 in isolates carrying bla(VIM-2). aadA6 was detected in two isolates carrying bla(IMP-4). Using random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis, 14 PCR fingerprint patterns were generated from the 32 isolates carrying metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes (35.5 %), whilst 20 patterns were generated from the 58 non-MBL gene isolates (64.4 %). Based on the differences in the fingerprinting patterns, two clusters (A and B) were identified among the MBL-producing isolates. Cluster A comprised 18 isolates (56 %) carrying the bla(VIM) gene, whereas cluster B comprised 14 (44 %) isolates carrying the bla(IMP) gene. The non-MBL isolates were divided into clusters C and D. Cluster C comprised 22 non-MBL isolates harbouring class 1 integrons, whilst cluster D consisted of three isolates carrying class 2 integrons. These findings suggest that the class 1 integron is widespread among P. aeruginosa isolated in Malaysia and that characterization of cassette arrays of integrons will be a useful epidemiological tool to study the evolution of multidrug resistance and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism*
  15. Wong CF, Salleh AB, Basri M, Abd Rahman RN
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2010 Sep;57(1):1-7.
    PMID: 20726840 DOI: 10.1042/BA20100224
    The structural gene of elastase strain K (elastase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K), namely HindIII1500PstI, was successfully sequenced to contain 1497 bp. The amino acid sequence, deduced from the nucleotide sequence, revealed that the mature elastase consists of 301 amino acids, with a molecular mass of 33.1 kDa, and contains a conserved motif HEXXH, zinc ligands and residues involved in the catalysis of elastase strain K. The structural gene was successfully cloned to a shuttle vector, pUCP19, and transformed into Escherichia coli strains TOP10, KRX, JM109 and Tuner™ pLacI as well as P. aeruginosa strains PA01 (A.T.C.C. 47085) and S5, with detection of significant protein expression. Overexpression was detected from transformants KRX/pUCP19/HindIII1500PstI of E. coli and PA01/pUCP19/HindIII1500PstI of P. aeruginosa, with increases in elastolytic activity to 13.83- and 5.04-fold respectively relative to their controls. In addition, recombinant elastase strain K showed considerable stability towards numerous organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, acetone, toluene, undecan-1-ol and n-dodecane, which typically pose a detrimental effect on enzymes; our finding provides further information to support the potential application of the enzyme in synthetic industries, particularly peptide synthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism
  16. Romero M, Silistre H, Lovelock L, Wright VJ, Chan KG, Hong KW, et al.
    Nucleic Acids Res, 2018 07 27;46(13):6823-6840.
    PMID: 29718466 DOI: 10.1093/nar/gky324
    Pseudomonads typically carry multiple non-identical alleles of the post-transcriptional regulator rsmA. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, RsmN is notable in that its structural rearrangement confers distinct and overlapping functions with RsmA. However, little is known about the specificities of RsmN for its target RNAs and overall impact on the biology of this pathogen. We purified and mapped 503 transcripts directly bound by RsmN in P. aeruginosa. About 200 of the mRNAs identified encode proteins of demonstrated function including some determining acute and chronic virulence traits. For example, RsmN reduces biofilm development both directly and indirectly via multiple pathways, involving control of Pel exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and c-di-GMP levels. The RsmN targets identified are also shared with RsmA, although deletion of rsmN generally results in less pronounced phenotypes than those observed for ΔrsmA or ΔrsmArsmNind mutants, probably as a consequence of different binding affinities. Targets newly identified for the Rsm system include the small non-coding RNA CrcZ involved in carbon catabolite repression, for which differential binding of RsmN and RsmA to specific CrcZ regions is demonstrated. The results presented here provide new insights into the intricacy of riboregulatory networks involving multiple but distinct RsmA homologues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism
  17. Idris SN, Desa MN, Aziz MN, Taib NM
    PMID: 23082561
    This study was conducted to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and distribution of exoU and exoS among 44 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa collected from different patients over a 3-month period in 2010 at a major Malaysian hospital. Susceptibility data by disk diffusion method for cefepime (30 microg), ceftazidime (30 microg), gentamicin (10 microg), piperacillin-tazobactam (100/10 microg) and ciprofloxacin (5 microg) were available for 38 isolates. Resistance to ceftazidime and piperacillin-tazobactam was the most common (74%) with five isolates not susceptible to three or more different antibiotics. PCR detection of exoU and exoS of all 44 isolates showed the former gene to be present in 18 and exoS in 41. In analyzing the two genes together, 17 isolates were detected for exoU and exoS with only two being negative for both genes. Only one isolate was detected for exoU alone whereas 24 for exoS alone. Distribution of the genes in relation to antibiotic susceptibility was inapplicable due to the majority of the isolates having similar susceptibility patterns, but the tendency of exoU-carrying isolates to be present in male patients (83%) and respiratory sites (61%) was observed (p < 0.050). The finding warrants further investigation in a larger sample of isolates.\

    Study site: Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL)
    Matched MeSH terms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism*
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