Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 30 in total

  1. Ng DC, Shangkeree RP, Khoo EJ
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2017 10;53(10):1024-1025.
    PMID: 28975762 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.1_13531
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil Disorders/etiology*
  2. Peyman A, Kabiri M, Peyman M
    Breast J, 2015 Sep-Oct;21(5):543-4.
    PMID: 26174775 DOI: 10.1111/tbj.12451
    Here, we present a case of tonic pupil associated with occult breast cancer as a paraneoplastic neuro-ophthalmology syndrome. A 45-year-old woman developed progressive photophobia and blurred vision due to unilateral Adie's tonic pupil. Magnetic resonance image of her brain and neurological examination (including deep tendon reflexes) were normal at first visit. Follow-up examinations performed by ophthalmologist every 6 month without any change in her condition. After 2 years, patient discovered a mass in her breast which identified to be malignant after diagnostic procedures. Despite surgical and medical treatment for cancer, no change in the ocular condition was happened.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tonic Pupil/diagnosis; Tonic Pupil/etiology*; Tonic Pupil/therapy
  3. Bariah Mohd-Ali, Muhammad Afzam Shah Abdul-Rahim, Zainora Mohammed, Norhani Mohidin
    Kajian terdahulu banyak menunjukkan perbezaan dalam dimensi okular mengikut kaum. Walau bagaimanapun hanya terdapat sedikit data mengenai dimensi okular bangsa Melayu di Malaysia yang dilaporkan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menetapkan nilai normal dimensi okular bangsa Melayu muda di Malaysia. Seramai 584 orang telah diundang untuk menjadi subjek untuk kajian secara sukarela. Pengukuran yang dilakukan meliputi kelengkungan dan ketebalan tengah kornea, nilai esentrisiti kornea (e), diameter iris horizontal dan vertikal yang kelihatan, saiz pupil dan bukaan palpebral. Subjek dibahagikan kepada 3 kumpulan berikut mengikut umur dan dipadankan mengikut jantina dan umur: Kumpulan 1 (7-12 tahun, n = 188), Kumpulan 2 (13 to 18 tahun, n = 196) and Kumpulan 3 (19 to 24 tahun, n = 200). Pengukuran dilakukan menggunakan topografer kornea (CTK 922 dari Haag Streit, Jerman), pakometer ultrasonik (Corneo-Gage Plus 2 dari Sonogage Incorporated) dan auto refraktometer (Auto-Ref R1 dari Canon, Jepun). Dimensi okular bangsa Melayu yang diukur didapati lebih kecil dari bangsa lain di seluruh dunia. Perbezaan yang signifikan juga didapati untuk semua pengukuran dengan peningkatan umur (p < 0.05). Keputusan kajian ini boleh dijadikan rujukan untuk nilai dimensi okular populasi Melayu muda Malaysia di masa hadapan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil
  4. Janssen SMJ, Foo A, Johnson SN, Lim A, Satel J
    Conscious Cogn, 2021 Mar;89:103089.
    PMID: 33607423 DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2021.103089
    To examine the relationship between visual imagery and autobiographical memory, eye position and pupil size were recorded while participants first searched for memories and then reconstructed the retrieved memories (Experiment 1), or only searched for memories (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, we observed that, although recollective experience was not associated with the number of fixations per minute, memories that took longer to retrieve were linked to increased pupil size. In Experiment 2, we observed that directly retrieved memories were recalled more quickly and were accompanied by smaller pupils than generatively retrieved memories. After correcting for response time, retrieval mode also produced an effect, showing that decreased pupil size is not simply due to directly retrieved memories being recalled more quickly. These findings provide compelling evidence that objective measures, such as pupil size, can be used alongside subjective measures, such as self-reports, to distinguish between directly retrieved and generatively retrieved memories.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil
  5. Babiker A, Faye I, Prehn K, Malik A
    Front Psychol, 2015;6:1921.
    PMID: 26733912 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01921
    Pupil diameter (PD) has been suggested as a reliable parameter for identifying an individual's emotional state. In this paper, we introduce a learning machine technique to detect and differentiate between positive and negative emotions. We presented 30 participants with positive and negative sound stimuli and recorded pupillary responses. The results showed a significant increase in pupil dilation during the processing of negative and positive sound stimuli with greater increase for negative stimuli. We also found a more sustained dilation for negative compared to positive stimuli at the end of the trial, which was utilized to differentiate between positive and negative emotions using a machine learning approach which gave an accuracy of 96.5% with sensitivity of 97.93% and specificity of 98%. The obtained results were validated using another dataset designed for a different study and which was recorded while 30 participants processed word pairs with positive and negative emotions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil
  6. Rosli Y, Bedford SM, James AC, Maddess T
    Vision Res, 2012 Sep 15;69:42-8.
    PMID: 22898702 DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2012.07.019
    We compared photopic and scotopic multifocal pupillographic stimuli in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Both eyes of 18 normal and 14 AMD subjects were tested with four stimulus variants presented at photopic and 126 times lower luminances. The multifocal stimuli presented 24 test regions/eye to the central 60°. The stimulus variants had two different check sizes, and when presented either flickered (15 Hz) for 266 ms, or were steady for 133 ms. Mean differences from normal of 5 to 7 dB were observed in the central visual field for both photopic and scotopic stimuli (all p < 0.00002). The best areas under receiver operating characteristic plots for exudative AMD in the photopic and scotopic conditions were 92.9 ± 8.0 and 90.3 ± 5.7% respectively, and in less severely affected eyes 83.8 ± 9.7% and 76.9 ± 8.2%. Damage recorded at photopic levels was possibly more diffusely distributed across the visual field. Sensitivity and specificity was similar at photopic and scotopic levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil/physiology*
  7. Rosli Y, Carle CF, Ho Y, James AC, Kolic M, Rohan EMF, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 02 14;8(1):2991.
    PMID: 29445236 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21196-1
    Multifocal pupillographic objective perimetry (mfPOP) has recently been shown to be able to measure cortical function. Here we assessed 44 regions of the central 60 degrees of the visual fields of each eye concurrently in 7 minutes/test. We examined how foveally- and peripherally-directed attention changed response sensitivity and delay across the 44 visual field locations/eye. Four experiments were completed comparing white, yellow and blue stimulus arrays. Experiments 1 to 4 tested 16, 23, 9 and 6 subjects, 49/54 being unique. Experiment 1, Experiments 2 and 3, and Experiment 4 used three variants of the mfPOP method that provided increasingly improved signal quality. Experiments 1 to 3 examined centrally directed attention, and Experiment 4 compared effects of attention directed to different peripheral targets. Attention reduced the sensitivity of the peripheral locations in Experiment 1, but only for the white stimuli not yellow. Experiment 2 confirmed that result. Experiment 3 showed that blue stimuli behaved like white. Peripheral attention showed increased sensitivity around the attentional targets. The results are discussed in terms of the cortical inputs to the pupillary system. The results agree with those from multifocal and other fMRI and VEP studies. mfPOP may be a useful adjunct to those methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil/physiology*
  8. Zuhaimy H, Aziz HA, Vasudevan S, Hui Hui S
    GMS Ophthalmol Cases, 2017;7:Doc04.
    PMID: 28194321 DOI: 10.3205/oc000055
    Objective: To report an aggressive case of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) of the ethmoid sinus presenting as orbital cellulitis Method: Case report Results: A 56-year-old male presented with right eye redness, reduced vision, and periorbital swelling for 5 weeks duration associated with a two-month history of blocked nose. The visual acuity of the right eye was 6/18. The eye was proptosed with periorbital oedema and conjunctival chemosis. The pupil was mid-dilated but there was no relative afferent pupillary defect. The fundus was normal. The extraocular movements were restricted in all directions of gaze. Nasal endoscopy revealed pansinusitis that corresponded with CT scan orbit and paranasal sinuses findings. Despite treatment, he showed no clinical improvement. Ethmoidal sinus biopsies performed revealed extranodal NKTCL. Further imaging showed involvement of the right orbital contents and its adnexa with intracranial extension into the right cavernous sinus and meninges over right temporal fossa. The patient underwent chemotherapy. However he succumbed to his illness two months after the diagnosis. Conclusion: Extranodal NKTCL is a great mimicker. This case demonstrated how an acute initial presentation of extranodal NKTCL can present as orbital cellulitis with pansinusitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil; Pupil Disorders
  9. Koh KC, Wong MH
    Malays Fam Physician, 2011;6(1):29-31.
    PMID: 25606217 MyJurnal
    A 19-year-old man presented with sudden onset of right eye ptosis, diplopia and giddiness. He had no previous medical illnesses with negative history of exertional dyspnoea, epistaxis, haemoptysis, palpitations, chest pain and chronic cough. Examination revealed central cyanosis, digital clubbing, polycythaemia, partial ptosis of right eye, diplopia on right gaze and dilated right pupil. Examination of the chest revealed pectus excavatum but no cardiac murmurs were heard. Investigations revealed a solitary right pulmonary arteriovenous malformation with two feeder vessels which were successfully embolized surgically.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil
  10. Raajini, Devi K., Safinaz, M.K., Hazlita, M.I.
    An 18-year-old Malay gentleman was noted to have profound bilateral blurred vision for one month duration, associated with loss of weight, appetite, low grade fever and abdominal distension. Visual acuity on presentation was 6/60 on the right, counting finger on the left with no afferent pupillary defect. Anterior segments were unremarkable. Vitreous cells were occasional bilaterally. Fundus revealed multiple choroidal and sub-retinal Roth spots with areas of pre-retinal and intra-retinal haemorrhages, involving the macula in the left eye. Vessels were dilated and tortuous in all quadrants of the right eye. Many areas of capillary fall out at peripheral retina were demonstrated in fundus fluorescein angiogram. Further systemic and laboratory review confirmed the diagnosis of CML and chemotherapy was initiated. Both eye ischaemic retinopathy secondary to CML was confirmed and scatter pan retinal photocoagulation was performed bilaterally. Good improvement in vision noted during subsequent follow up to 6/24 on the right, 6/60 on the left. High levels of suspicion and accurate early recognition of fundus changes are vital in these types of cases to ensure the institution of prompt treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil Disorders
  11. Azhany Y, Hemalatha C, Nani D, Rosediani M, Liza-Sharmini A
    Malays Fam Physician, 2013;8(1):33-7.
    PMID: 25606266 MyJurnal
    Cataract is the most common cause of blindness in the world. An attack of phacolytic and phacomorphic glaucoma as a result of neglected cataract constitutes a medical emergency that must be addressed immediately. Ocular emergencies such as these is challenging for the surgeon with guarded or poor prognosis. We describe the presentation, management and prognosis of three cases of phacomorphic and phacolytic glaucoma. All three patients underwent aggressive management of intraocular pressure. Despite successful cataract operation with implantation of intraocular lens, there was only mild improvement of the vision. Optic nerve and pupil functions were permanently affected following the insult. Phacomorphic and phacolytic glaucoma present a very challenging problem to the surgeon with poor visual outcome. Public health education and awareness are important and health workers should encourage patients with cataract to seek early treatment for better prognosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil
  12. Chandran S
    Br J Ophthalmol, 1974 Aug;58(8):757-60.
    PMID: 4433488
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil
  13. Pei, Fang Neoh, Tai, Evelyn L.M., Liza-Sharmini A.T.
    A 65-year-old lady complained of occasional flashes of light over her left eye for 2 months. She was referred for ocular assessment after she underwent refractive assessment at the optometrist. On examination, best corrected visual acuity in both eyes was 6/9. Both eyes anterior segments were normal, with normal intraocular pressure. The pupils were equal with no relative afferent pupillary defect. Left eye fundus examination was normal. On the contrary, the "normal" right eye fundus examination revealed a huge, well-circumscribed hypo-pigmented elevated choroidal mass. B scan ultrasonography of the right eye showed a mushroom-shaped intraocular mass. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intraocular lesion. Comprehensive systemic examination and investigations to rule out distant primary malignancy were unremarkable. A provisional diagnosis of right eye primary choroidal melanoma was made. Despite good vision in the affected eye, she underwent right eye enucleation in view of the large intraocular mass. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil Disorders
  14. Chua PY, Day AC, Lai KL, Hall N, Tan LL, Khan K, et al.
    Br J Ophthalmol, 2018 Apr;102(4):539-543.
    PMID: 28794074 DOI: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-310725
    PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence, and describe the clinical features and short-term clinical outcomes of acute angle closure (AAC).

    METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed AAC were identified prospectively over a 12-month period (November 2011 to October 2012) by active surveillance through the Scottish Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit reporting system. Data were collected at case identification and at 6 months follow-up.

    RESULTS: There were 114 cases (108 patients) reported, giving an annual incidence of 2.2 cases (95% CI 1.8 to 2.6) or 2 patients (95% CI 1.7 to 2.4) per 1 00 000 in the whole population in Scotland. Precipitating factors were identified in 40% of cases. Almost one in five cases was associated with topical dilating drops. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation ranged from 6/6 to perception of light. The mean presenting intraocular pressure (IOP) was 52 mm Hg (SD 11). Almost 30% cases had a delayed presentation of 3 or more days. At 6 months follow-up, 75% had BCVA of 6/12 or better and 30% were found to have glaucoma at follow-up. Delayed presentation (≥3 days) was associated with higher rate of glaucoma at follow-up (22.6% vs 60.8%, p<0.001), worse VA (0.34 vs 0.74 LogMAR, p<0.0001) and need for more topical medication (0.52 vs 1.2, p=0.003) to control IOP.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of AAC in Scotland is relatively low compared with the Far East countries, but in line with previous European data. Almost one in five cases were associated with pupil dilation for retinal examination.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil
  15. Lay Suan AL, Hamzah JC, Ken TS, Mansurali VN
    J Cataract Refract Surg, 2017 08;43(8):1031-1035.
    PMID: 28917402 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2017.05.031
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intracameral mydriatics (lidocaine 1.0% and phenylephrine 1.5%) versus topical mydriatics (phenylephrine 2.5% and tropicamide 1.0%) in pupil dilation for phacoemulsification surgery in Malaysians.

    SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Penang General Hospital, Georgetown Penang, Malaysia.

    DESIGN: Prospective comparative case series.

    METHOD: Patients with immature cataract were randomized to the topical mydriatic group (topical group) or intracameral mydriatic group (intracameral group). Patients with small pupils and complicated cataracts were excluded. Pupil diameter changes were measured throughout the surgery. Additional pupil dilation maneuvers and complications were recorded.

    RESULTS: The study comprised 112 patients. There was no difference in mean pupil dilation between the intracameral group (4.86 mm ± 0.74 [SD]) and the topical group (4.88 ± 0.91 mm) (P = .86). However, the mean pupil size before capsulorhexis in the topical group (7.23 ± 1.08 mm) was significantly larger than in the intracameral group (6.40 ± 0.80 mm) (P = .01). The pupils in the intracameral group continued to dilate during surgery (0.44 ± 0.62 mm), while those in the topical group constricted (-0.41 ± 1.04 mm) (P pupil dilation (P = .49). Each group had 1 complication (P = 1.00).

    CONCLUSIONS: Intracameral mydriatic agents dilated heavily pigmented pupils for phacoemulsification cataract surgery. However, in the early stages of surgery, pupil dilation was slower than with topical agents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil
  16. Tevaraj JM, Tai Li Min E, Mohd-Noor RA, Thavaratnam LK, Salmah WM, Wan Hitam WH
    PMID: 28078151 DOI: 10.1155/2016/6741925
    A previously healthy 27-year-old Malay male presented with acute onset of painless, severe blurring of vision in his right eye. It was associated with headache and vomiting for the past week. Relative afferent pupillary defect was present in the right eye, with reduced optic nerve function. Patient also had bilateral generalised optic disc swelling, splinter haemorrhages, and tortuous vessels. Initial examination was suggestive of either optic neuritis or raised intracranial pressure. Typical features of bilateral optic perineuritis (OPN) such as tram track and doughnut sign were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. Connective tissue and infective screening were negative. He was diagnosed with bilateral optic perineuritis and treated with high dose intravenous corticosteroids followed by a three-month course of oral steroids. His vision and optic nerve function recovered to baseline levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil Disorders
  17. Choong YF, Chen AH, Goh PP
    Am J Ophthalmol, 2006 Jul;142(1):68-74.
    PMID: 16815252 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2006.01.084
    To evaluate the accuracy of autorefraction using three autorefractors comparing to subjective refraction in diagnosing refractive error in children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil/drug effects
  18. Chew C, Rahman RA, Shafie SM, Mohamad Z
    J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus, 2005 May-Jun;42(3):166-73.
    PMID: 15977870
    To determine the mydriatic regimen that provides optimal dilation of the pupil with minimal systemic side effects for screening of retinopathy of prematurity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil/drug effects*
  19. Gill JS, Jambunathan S, Wong S, Wong A
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2015 Jun;7(2):230.
    PMID: 25923587 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12171
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil/drug effects*
  20. Guan-Fook N, Hayati AA, Raja-Azmi MN, Liza-Sharmini AT, Wan-Hazabbah WH, Zunaina E
    PMID: 22536041 DOI: 10.2147/OPTH.S29806
    We report a case of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in a young boy with no clinical visualization of nematode. The diagnosis was made based on clinical findings and detection of Toxocara immunoglobulin G by Western blot test. An 11-year-old Malay boy presented with progressive blurring of vision in the left eye for a duration of 1 year. It was associated with intermittent floaters. Visual acuity in the left eye was 6/45 and improved to 6/24 with pinhole. There was positive relative afferent pupillary defect, impaired color vision, and presence of red desaturation in the left eye. There were occasional cells in the anterior chamber with no conjunctiva injection. Posterior segment examination revealed mild-to-moderate vitritis and generalized pigmentary changes of the retina with attenuated vessels. The optic disk was slightly hyperemic with mild edema. There was presence of multiple, focal, gray-white subretinal lesions at the inferior part of the retina. Full blood picture results showed eosinophilia with detection of Toxocara immunoglobulin G by Western blot test. Investigations for other infective causes and connective tissue diseases were negative. The diagnosis of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis secondary to Toxocara was made based on clinical findings and laboratory results. He was treated with oral albendazole 400 mg daily for 5 days and oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg with tapering doses over 6 weeks. At 1 month follow-up, the inflammation had reduced, and multiple, focal, gray-white subretinal lesions were resolved; however there was no improvement of vision.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pupil Disorders
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