Agarose-chitosan-immobilized octadecylsilyl-silica (C18) film micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) was developed and applied for the determination of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) in chrysanthemum tea samples using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The film of blended agarose and chitosan allows good dispersion of C18, prevents the leaching of C18 during application and enhances the film mechanical stability. Important μSPE parameters were optimized including amount of sorbent loading, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time. The matrix match calibration curves showed good linearity (r⩾0.994) over a concentration range of 1-500ppb. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed good limits of detection (0.549-0.673ppb), good analyte recoveries (100.8-105.99%) and good reproducibilities (RSDs⩽13.53%, n=3) with preconcentration factors of 4 and 72 for PHE and PYR, respectively.
Increasing urbanization and changes in land use in Langat river basin lead to adverse impacts on the environment compartment. One of the major challenges is in identifying sources of organic contaminants. This study presented the application of selected chemometric techniques: cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and principal component analysis (PCA) to classify the pollution sources in Langat river basin based on the analysis of water and sediment samples collected from 24 stations, monitored for 14 organic contaminants from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sterols, and pesticides groups. The CA and DA enabled to group 24 monitoring sites into three groups of pollution source (industry and urban socioeconomic, agricultural activity, and urban/domestic sewage) with five major discriminating variables: naphthalene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, coprostanol, and cholesterol. PCA analysis, applied to water data sets, resulted in four latent factors explaining 79.0% of the total variance while sediment samples gave five latent factors with 77.6% explained variance. The varifactors (VFs) obtained from PCA indicated that sterols (coprostanol, cholesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and stigmastanol) are strongly correlated to domestic and urban sewage, PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene) from industrial and urban activities and chlorpyrifos correlated to samples nearby agricultural sites. The results demonstrated that chemometric techniques can be used for rapid assessment of water and sediment contaminations.