Antibiotic resistance is a problem that continues to challenge the healthcare sector, especially in clinically significant pathogens like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Herein is described the isolation and structure elucidation of a bioactive compound from Allium stipitatum with antimicrobial activity. Crude Allium stipitatum dichloromethane extract (ASDE) was subjected to systematic purification by chromatographic procedures to afford various bioactive fractions. A fraction that exhibited anti-MRSA activity (4 µg·mL-1) was further characterized to determine the structure. The structure of the compound was elucidated as 2-(methyldithio)pyridine-3-carbonitrile (2-Medpy-3-CN). The 2-Medpy-3-CN compound, which was screened for antimicrobial activity, exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 0.5 to >64 µg·mL-1 for tested bacterial species and 0.25 to 2 µg·mL-1 for Candida spp. Further studies are important to confirm the drug target and mechanism of action.
Improved methods for extraction and clean up of fluroxypyr residue in water have been established. Two methods of fluroxypyr extraction were used, namely, Direct Measurement of fluroxypyr and Concentration of fluroxypyr onto A Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Adsorbent, followed by elution with solvent before determination of fluroxypyr. The recovery for Direct Measurement of fluroxypyr in water containing 8-100 microg L(-1), ranged from 86 to 110% with relative standard deviation of 0.7 to 2.15%. For the second method, three types of SPE were used, viz. C18, C18 end-capped and polyvinyl dibenzene (ISOLUTE ENV+). The procedure involved concentrating the analyte from fluroxypyr-spiked water at pH 3, followed by elution of the analyte with 4 mL of acentonitrile. The recovery of fluroxypyr from the spiked sample at 1 to 50 microg L(-1) after eluting through either C18 or C18 end-capped ranged from 40-64% (with relative standard deviation of 0.7 to 2.15) and 41-65% (with standard deviation of 1.52 to 11.9). The use of ISOLUTE ENV+, gave better results than the C18, C18 end-capped or the Direct Measurement Methods. The recovery and standard deviation of fluroxypyr from spiked water using ISOLUTE ENV+ ranged from 91-102% and 2.5 to 5.3, respectively.