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  1. Al Batran R, Al-Bayaty F, Al-Obaidi MM, Hussain SF, Mulok TZ
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:724718.
    PMID: 25215291 DOI: 10.1155/2014/724718
    Epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated significant associations between atherosclerosis and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg). We had investigated the effect of andrographolide (AND) on atherosclerosis induced by Pg in rabbits. For experimental purpose, we separated thirty male white New Zealand rabbits into 5 groups. Group 1 received standard food pellets; Groups 2-5 were orally challenged with Pg; Group 3 received atorvastatin (AV, 5 mg/kg), and Groups 4-5 received 10 and 20 mg/kg of AND, respectively, over 12 weeks. Groups treated with AND showed significant decrease in TC, TG, and LDL levels (P<0.05) and significant increase in HDL level in the serum of rabbits. Furthermore, the treated groups (G3-G5) exhibited reductions in interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as compared to atherogenicgroup (G2). The histological results showed that the thickening of atherosclerotic plaques were less significant in treated groups (G3-G5) compared with atherogenicgroup (G2). Also, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining decreased within the plaques of atherogenicgroup (G2), while it was increased in treated groups (G3-G5). Lastly, groups treated with AV and AND (G3-G5) showed significant reduction of CD36 expression (P<0.05) compared to atherogenicgroup (G2). These results substantially proved that AND contain antiatherogenic activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/administration & dosage
  2. Xiao Y, Zhang S, Dai N, Fei G, Goh KL, Chun HJ, et al.
    Gut, 2020 02;69(2):224-230.
    PMID: 31409606 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-318365
    OBJECTIVE: To establish the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in the treatment of Asian patients with erosive oesophagitis (EO).

    DESIGN: In this phase III, double-blind, multicentre study, patients with endoscopically confirmed EO were randomised 1:1 to receive vonoprazan 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg, once daily for up to 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was EO healing rate at 8 weeks. The secondary endpoints were EO healing rates at 2 and 4 weeks. Safety endpoints included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs).

    RESULTS: In the vonoprazan (n=238) and lansoprazole (n=230) arms, 8-week EO healing rates were 92.4% and 91.3%, respectively (difference 1.1% (95% CI -3.822% to 6.087%)). The respective 2-week EO healing rates were 75.0% and 67.8% (difference 7.2% (95% CI -1.054% to 15.371%)), and the respective 4-week EO healing rates were 85.3% and 83.5% (difference 1.8% (95% CI -4.763% to 8.395%)). In patients with baseline Los Angeles classification grade C/D, 2-week, 4-week and 8-week EO healing rates were higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole (2 weeks: 62.2% vs 51.5%, difference 10.6% (95% CI -5.708% to 27.002%); 4 weeks: 73.3% vs 67.2%, difference 6.2% (95% CI -8.884 to 21.223); and 8 weeks: 84.0% vs 80.6%, difference 3.4% (95% CI -9.187% to 15.993%)). Overall, EO healing rates appeared higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole. TEAE rates were 38.1% and 36.6% in the vonoprazan and lansoprazole group, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in terms of EO healing rate at 8 weeks in this population. Safety outcomes were similar in the two treatment arms.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02388724.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/administration & dosage
  3. Tan JR, Chakravarthi S, Judson JP, Haleagrahara N, Segarra I
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 2013 Jul;386(7):619-33.
    PMID: 23552887 DOI: 10.1007/s00210-013-0861-4
    Sunitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor for GIST and advanced renal cell carcinoma. Diclofenac is used in cancer pain management. Coadministration may mediate P450 toxicity. We evaluate their interaction, assessing biomarkers ALT, AST, BUN, creatinine, and histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen. ICR mice (male, n = 6 per group/dose) were administered saline (group A) or 30 mg/kg diclofenac ip (group B), or sunitinib po at 25, 50, 80, 100, 140 mg/kg (group C) or combination of diclofenac (30 mg/kg, ip) and sunitinib (25, 50, 80, 100, 140 mg/kg po). Diclofenac was administered 15 min before sunitinib, mice were euthanized 4 h post-sunitinib dose, and biomarkers and tissue histopathology were assessed. AST was 92.2 ± 8.0 U/L in group A and 159.7 ± 14.6 U/L in group B (p < 0.05); in group C, it the range was 105.1-152.6 U/L, and in group D, it was 156.0-209.5 U/L (p < 0.05). ALT was 48.9 ± 1.6 U/L (group A), 95.1 ± 4.5 U/L (p < 0.05) in group B, and 50.5-77.5 U/L in group C and 82.3-115.6 U/L after coadministration (p < 0.05). Renal function biomarker BUN was 16.3 ± 0.6 mg/dl (group A) and increased to 29.9 ± 2.6 mg/dl in group B (p < 0.05) and it the range was 19.1-33.3 mg/dl (p < 0.05) and 26.9-40.8 mg/dl in groups C and D, respectively. Creatinine was 5.9 pmol/ml in group A; 6.2 pmol/ml in group B (p < 0.01), and the range was 6.0-6.2 and 6.2-6.4 pmol/ml in groups C and D, respectively (p < 0.05 for D). Histopathological assessment (vascular and inflammation damages) showed toxicity in group B (p < 0.05) and mild toxicity in group C. Damage was significantly lesser in group D than group B (p < 0.05). Spleen only showed toxicity after coadministration. These results suggest vascular and inflammation protective effects of sunitinib, not shown after biomarker analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/administration & dosage*
  4. Lim AY, Segarra I, Chakravarthi S, Akram S, Judson JP
    BMC Pharmacol., 2010;10:14.
    PMID: 20950441 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2210-10-14
    BACKGROUND: Sunitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor to treat GIST and mRCC may interact with paracetamol as both undergo P450 mediated biotransformation and P-glycoprotein transport. This study evaluates the effects of sunitinib-paracetamol coadministration on liver and renal function biomarkers and liver, kidney, brain, heart and spleen histopathology. ICR male mice (n = 6 per group/dose) were administered saline (group-A) or paracetamol 500 mg/kg IP (group-B), or sunitinib at 25, 50, 80, 100, 140 mg/kg PO (group-C) or coadministered sunitinib at 25, 50, 80, 100, 140 mg/kg PO and paracetamol IP at fixed dose 500 mg/kg (group-D). Paracetamol was administered 15 min before sunitinib. Mice were sacrificed 4 h post sunitinib administration.
    RESULTS: Group-A serum ALT and AST levels were 14.29 ± 2.31 U/L and 160.37 ± 24.74 U/L respectively and increased to 249.6 ± 222.7 U/L and 377.1 ± 173.6 U/L respectively in group-B; group-C ALT and AST ranged 36.75-75.02 U/L and 204.4-290.3 U/L respectively. After paracetamol coadministration with low sunitinib doses (group-D), ALT and AST concentrations ranged 182.79-221.03 U/L and 259.7-264.4 U/L respectively, lower than group-B. Paracetamol coadministration with high sunitinib doses showed higher ALT and AST values (range 269.6-349.2 U/L and 430.2-540.3 U/L respectively), p < 0.05. Hepatic histopathology showed vascular congestion in group-B; mild congestion in group-C (but lesser than in group-B and D). In group-D, at low doses of sunitinib, lesser damage than in group-B occurred but larger changes including congestion were observed at high sunitinib doses. BUN levels were higher (p < 0.05) for group-B (33.81 ± 5.68 mg/dL) and group-D (range 35.01 ± 6.95 U/L to 52.85 ± 12.53 U/L) compared to group-A (15.60 ± 2.17 mg/dL) and group-C (range 17.50 ± 1.25 U/L to 26.68 ± 6.05 U/L). Creatinine remained unchanged. Renal congestion and necrosis was lower in group-C than group-B but was higher in group-D (p > 0.05). Mild cardiotoxicity occurred in groups B, C and D. Brain vascular congestion occurred at high doses of sunitinib administered alone or with paracetamol. Hepatic and renal biomarkers correlated with histopathology signs.
    CONCLUSIONS: Paracetamol and sunitinib coadministration may lead to dose dependent outcomes exhibiting mild hepatoprotective effect or increased hepatotoxicity. Sunitinib at high doses show renal, cardiac and brain toxicity. Liver and renal function monitoring is recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/administration & dosage
  5. Nawawi H, Osman NS, Yusoff K, Khalid BA
    Horm. Metab. Res., 2003 Aug;35(8):479-85.
    PMID: 12953165 DOI: 10.1055/s-2003-41805
    Hypercholesterolemia causes endothelial dysfunction, an early feature of atherosclerosis, leading to increased production of adhesion molecules and cytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three months of treatment with low dose atorvastatin on serum levels of adhesion molecules, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with non-familial hypercholesterolemia. Fifty-five patients with non-familial hypercholesterolemia were randomized to treatment with atorvastatin 10 mg/day or placebo for 3 months. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, IL-6 and hs-CRP levels were measured to assess the inflammatory activity of the endothelium. There was a significant reduction in ICAM-1 at 2 weeks (p<0.0001) with further reduction at 3 months (p<0.0001). At 3 months, there were significant reductions in VCAM-1 (p<0.02), IL-6 (p<0.0001) and hs-CRP (p<0.01), but an increase in E-selectin levels (p<0.002). Treatment with statin was an independent determinant of change in ICAM-1 (p<0.05) and IL-6 levels (p<0.05) after correcting for anthropometric indices, blood pressure and lipid profile. Low-dose atorvastatin treatment leads to reduction in proinflammatory markers of endothelial function, suggesting an attenuation of endothelial activation and improvement in endothelial function, independent of lipid lowering. This may lead to a reduction in the progression of atherosclerosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/administration & dosage*
  6. Nawawi H, Osman NS, Annuar R, Khalid BA, Yusoff K
    Atherosclerosis, 2003 Aug;169(2):283-91.
    PMID: 12921980
    Adhesion molecules and cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of intimal injury in atherosclerosis but their relationship with endothelial function remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of atorvastatin on soluble adhesion molecules, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow mediated dilatation (FMD) in patients with familial (FH) and non-familial hypercholesterolaemia (NFH). A total of 74 patients (27 FH and 47 NFH) were recruited. Fasting lipid profiles, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin, IL-6 and FMD were measured at baseline, 2 weeks, 3 and 9 months post-atorvastatin treatment (FH--80 mg/day, NFH--10 mg/day). In both groups, compared to baseline, sICAM-1 levels were significantly reduced at 2 weeks, further reduced at 3 months and maintained at 9 months (P<0.0001). The IL-6 levels were significantly reduced at 3 months and 9 months compared to baseline for FH (P<0.005) and NFH (P<0.0001). In both groups, the FMD at 2 weeks was higher than baseline (P<0.005), with progressive improvement up to 9 months. FMD was negatively correlated with sICAM-1 and IL-6. In conclusion, both low and high doses of atorvastatin lead to early progressive improvement in endothelial function in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia. sICAM-1 and IL-6 levels reflect endothelial dysfunction in these patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/administration & dosage
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