The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 for bioremediation of textile wastewater (TW) was investigated using four batches of cultures in high rate algae ponds (HRAP) containing textile dye (Supranol Red 3BW) or TW. The biomass attained ranged from 0.17 to 2.26 mg chlorophyll a/L while colour removal ranged from 41.8% to 50.0%. There was also reduction of NH(4)-N (44.4-45.1%), PO(4)-P (33.1-33.3%) and COD (38.3-62.3%) in the TW. Supplementation of the TW with nutrients of Bold's Basal Medium (BBM) increased biomass production but did not improve colour removal or reduction of pollutants. The mechanism of colour removal by C. vulgaris is biosorption, in accordance with both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The HRAP using C. vulgaris offers a good system for the polishing of TW before final discharge.
An optical biosensor based on glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) immobilized in a chitosan film for the determination of ammonium in water samples is described. The biosensor film was deposited on a glass slide via a spin-coating method. The ammonium was measured based on beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidation in the presence of alpha-ketoglutaric acid at a wavelength of 340 nm. The biosensor showed optimum activity at pH 8. The optimum chitosan concentrations and enzyme loading were found to be at 2% (w/v) and 0.08 mg, respectively. Optimum concentrations of NADH and alpha-ketoglutaric acid both were obtained at 0.15 mM. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in the ammonium concentration range of 0.005 to 0.5 mM with a detection limit of 0.005 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor was good, with an observed relative standard deviation of 5.9% (n=8). The biosensor was found to be stable for at least 1 month when stored dry at 4 degrees C.
A field investigation was conducted at all water treatment plants throughout 11 states and Federal Territory in Peninsular Malaysia. The sampling points in this study include treatment plant operation, service reservoir outlet and auxiliary outlet point at the water pipelines. Analysis was performed by solid phase micro-extraction technique with a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fibre using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection to analyse 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of different chemical families in drinking water. The concentration of VOCs ranged from undetectable to 230.2 microg/l. Among all of the VOCs species, chloroform has the highest concentration and was detected in all drinking water samples. Average concentrations of total trihalomethanes (THMs) were almost similar among all states which were in the range of 28.4--33.0 microg/l. Apart from THMs, other abundant compounds detected were cis and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dibromoethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and 1,2-dichloro - benzene. Principal component analysis (PCA) with the aid of varimax rotation, and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) method were used to statistically verify the correlation between VOCs and the source of pollution. The multivariate analysis pointed out that the maintenance of auxiliary pipelines in the distribution systems is vital as it can become significant point source pollution to Malaysian drinking water.
Jakara River Basin has been extensively studied to assess the overall water quality and to identify the major variables responsible for water quality variations in the basin. A total of 27 sampling points were selected in the riverine network of the Upper Jakara River Basin. Water samples were collected in triplicate and analyzed for physicochemical variables. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship of water quality parameters and revealed a significant relationship between salinity, conductivity with dissolved solids (DS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nitrogen in form of ammonia (NH4). Partial correlation analysis (r p) results showed that there is a strong relationship between salinity and turbidity (r p=0.930, p=0.001) and BOD5 and COD (r p=0.839, p=0.001) controlling for the linear effects of conductivity and NH4, respectively. Principal component analysis and or factor analysis was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter in the Jakara Basin and identified three major factors explaining 68.11 % of the total variance in water quality. The major variations are related to anthropogenic activities (irrigation agricultural, construction activities, clearing of land, and domestic waste disposal) and natural processes (erosion of river bank and runoff). Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied on the dataset to maximize the similarities between group relative to within-group variance of the parameters. DA provided better results with great discriminatory ability using eight variables (DO, BOD5, COD, SS, NH4, conductivity, salinity, and DS) as the most statistically significantly responsible for surface water quality variation in the area. The present study, however, makes several noteworthy contributions to the existing knowledge on the spatial variations of surface water quality and is believed to serve as a baseline data for further studies. Future research should therefore concentrate on the investigation of temporal variations of water quality in the basin.
The use of the enzyme alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) for the determination of ammonium ion (NH(4)(+)) usually requires the addition of pyruvate substrate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) simultaneously to effect the reaction. This addition of reagents is inconvenient when an enzyme biosensor based on AlaDH is used. To resolve the problem, a novel reagentless amperometric biosensor using a stacked methacrylic membrane system coated onto a screen-printed carbon paste electrode (SPE) for NH(4)(+) ion determination is described. A mixture of pyruvate and NADH was immobilized in low molecular weight poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) membrane, which was then deposited over a photocured pHEMA membrane (photoHEMA) containing alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) enzyme. Due to the enzymatic reaction of AlaDH and the pyruvate substrate, NH(4)(+) was consumed in the process and thus the signal from the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH at an applied potential of +0.55 V was proportional to the NH(4)(+) ion concentration under optimal conditions. The stacked methacrylate membranes responded rapidly and linearly to changes in NH(4)(+) ion concentrations between 10-100 mM, with a detection limit of 0.18 mM NH(4)(+) ion. The reproducibility of the amperometrical NH(4)(+) biosensor yielded low relative standard deviations between 1.4-4.9%. The stacked membrane biosensor has been successfully applied to the determination of NH(4)(+) ion in spiked river water samples without pretreatment. A good correlation was found between the analytical results for NH(4)(+) obtained from the biosensor and the Nessler spectrophotometric method.