Methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) present in the water column mitigate methane (CH4) emissions from hydropower complexes to the atmosphere. By creating a discontinuity in rivers, dams cause large environmental variations, including in CH4 and oxygen concentrations, between upstream, reservoir, and downstream segments. Although highest freshwater methanotrophic activity is often detected at low oxygen concentrations, CH4 oxidation in well-oxygenated downstream rivers below dams has also been reported. Here we combined DNA and RNA high-throughput sequencing with microscopic enumeration (by CARD-FISH) and biogeochemical data to investigate the abundance, composition, and potential activity of MOB taxa from upstream to downstream waters in the tropical hydropower complex Batang Ai (Malaysia). High relative abundance of MOB (up to 61% in 16S rRNA sequences and 19% in cell counts) and enrichment of stable isotopic signatures of CH4 (up to 0‰) were detected in the hypoxic hypolimnion of the reservoir and in the outflowing downstream river. MOB community shifts along the river-reservoir system reflected environmental sorting of taxa and an interrupted hydrologic connectivity in which downstream MOB communities resembled reservoir's hypolimnetic communities but differed from upstream and surface reservoir communities. In downstream waters, CH4 oxidation was accompanied by fast cell growth of particular MOB taxa. Our results suggest that rapid shifts in active MOB communities allow the mitigation of CH4 emissions from different zones of hydropower complexes, including in quickly re-oxygenated rivers downstream of dams.
A report on the de novo Whole Genome Sequence (WGS) of Marinobacter litoralis SW-45, a moderately salt-tolerant bacterium isolated from the seawater in Malaysia is presented. The strain has a genome size of 3.45 Mb and is capable of producing halophilic lipase, protease and esterase enzymes. Computational prediction of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes in M. litoralis SW-45 was performed using standalone software known as the non-coding RNA characterization (nocoRNAc). In addition, a phylogenetic tree showing the evolutionary relationship between the strain and other members of the genus Marinobacter was constructed using 16SrRNA sequence information. A total of 385 ncRNA transcripts, 1124 terminator region, and 2350 Stress Induced Duplex Destabilization sites were predicted. The current WGS shotgun project has provided the relevant genetic information that may be useful for the strain's improvement studies. This manuscript gives the first description of M. litoralis with a complete genome.
Corneal lesions appearing as white mass beneath intact epithelium, with ocular discharge in one mouse, was observed in a batch of laboratory-raised BALB/c mice (n=9 of 56). The affected mice remained active, well-groomed and had normal appetite. Isolates recovered from swab cultures of the external and internal contents of the eye had partial 16S rRNA gene sequence of 99.1% similarity to Streptococcus cuniculi. No previous report of S. cuniculi infection in laboratory rodents has been presented. The isolate was susceptible to all antibiotics tested. We suggest S. cuniculi is an opportunistic bacteria in laboratory mice but are uncertain of its source. Our findings revealed that S. cuniculi is able to colonize laboratory mice and should be considered when mice present with eye lesion or ocular discharge.
One of the most urgent contemporary tasks for taxonomists and evolutionary biologists is to estimate the number of species on earth. Recording alpha diversity is crucial for protecting biodiversity, especially in areas of elevated species richness, which coincide geographically with increased anthropogenic environmental pressures - the world's so-called biodiversity hotspots. Although the distribution of Puddle frogs of the genus Occidozyga in South and Southeast Asia includes five biodiversity hotspots, the available data on phylogeny, species diversity, and biogeography are surprisingly patchy. Samples analyzed in this study were collected throughout Southeast Asia, with a primary focus on Sundaland and the Philippines. A mitochondrial gene region comprising ~ 2000 bp of 12S and 16S rRNA with intervening tRNA Valine and three nuclear loci (BDNF, NTF3, POMC) were analyzed to obtain a robust, time-calibrated phylogenetic hypothesis. We found a surprisingly high level of genetic diversity within Occidozyga, based on uncorrected p-distance values corroborated by species delimitation analyses. This extensive genetic diversity revealed 29 evolutionary lineages, defined by the > 5% uncorrected p-distance criterion for the 16S rRNA gene, suggesting that species diversity in this clade of phenotypically homogeneous forms probably has been underestimated. The comparison with results of other anuran groups leads to the assumption that anuran species diversity could still be substantially underestimated in Southeast Asia in general. Many genetically divergent lineages of frogs are phenotypically similar, indicating a tendency towards extensive morphological conservatism. We present a biogeographic reconstruction of the colonization of Sundaland and nearby islands which, together with our temporal framework, suggests that lineage diversification centered on the landmasses of the northern Sunda Shelf. This remarkably genetically structured group of amphibians could represent an exceptional case for future studies of geographical structure and diversification in a widespread anuran clade spanning some of the most pronounced geographical barriers on the planet (e.g., Wallace's Line). Studies considering gene flow, morphology, ecological and bioacoustic data are needed to answer these questions and to test whether observed diversity of Puddle frog lineages warrants taxonomic recognition.
Recently, Elizabethkingia species have gained attention as a cause of life-threatening infections. The identification via phenotypic methods of three important species- Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, E. anophelis and E. miricola is difficult. Our objectives were to re-assess 30 archived Flavobacterium meningosepticum isolates using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, ERIC-PCR, and biofilm formation assay. Twenty-four isolates were re-identified as E. anophelis and 6 as E. miricola. All of them had the ability to form biofilm as shown in microtiter plate assay based on crystal violet staining. Overall, E. anophelis had a higher specific biofilm formation index compared to E. miricola. A total of 42% (10 out of 24) of E. anophelis were classified as strong, 29% (7 out of 24) as moderate and 29% (7 out of 24) as weak biofilm producers. E. miricola, 17% (1 out of 6) isolates were strong biofilm producers, 50% (3 out of 6) moderate and 33% (2 out of 6) were weak producers. E. anophelis from tracheal secretions were significantly associated with (p = 0.0361) strong biofilm formation. In summary, this study showed that the isolates originally identified as F. meningosepticum were re-classified using the 16S rRNA gene as one of two Elizabethkingia species. The ability of E. anophelis to form strong biofilm in endotracheal tubes indicates their probable role in the pathogenesis of Elizabethkingia infections.
A new species of Argiope Audouin 1826, A. hoiseni new species is described from Perak and Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia based on morphology and DNA information of the mitochondrial (16S rRNA, COI and COII) and nuclear-encoded (H3A, 18S rRNA) molecular markers. Epigynal structure suggested Argiope hoiseni to be similar to A. jinghongensis Yin, Peng Wang 1994, A. luzona (Walckenaer 1841), A. pulchella Thorell 1881 and A. taprobanica Thorell 1887. Molecular sequence data including the new species inferred that it is monophyletic with an intraspecific variation of 0.87-3.59 % based on the 16S+COI+COII+H3A dataset. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed insights into the evolutionary lineages of Argiope species in Southeast Asia as well as corroborated recent taxonomic changes and species synonymies associated with Argiope. Two new distribution records were also reported for A. chloreis Thorell,1877 and A. doleschalli Thorell, 1873 in Peninsular Malaysia.
Background: Dadih (fermented buffalo milk) is a traditional Indonesian food originating from West Sumatra province. The fermentation process is carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are naturally present in buffalo milk. Lactic acid bacteria have been reported as one of potential producers of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA acts as a neurotransmitter inhibitor of the central nervous system. Methods: In this study, molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of GABA producing LAB isolated from indigenous dadih of West Sumatera were determined. Identification of the GABA-producing LAB DS15 was based on conventional polymerase chain reaction. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to identify LAB DS15. Results: PCR of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of LAB DS15 gave an approximately 1400 bp amplicon. Phylogenetic analysis showed that LAB DS15 was Pediococcusacidilactici, with high similarity of 99% at 100% query coverage to Pediococcusacidilactici strain DSM 20284. Conclusions: It can be concluded that GABA producing LAB isolated from indigenous dadih was Pediococcus acidilactici.
Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the sister species Sphenomorphus stellatus and S. praesignis based on the mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S rRNA recover the former as paraphyletic with respect to the latter in that a specimen of S. stellatus from the type locality in Peninsular Malaysia is more closely related to S. praesignis than to Indochinese populations of S. stellatus. Furthermore, the phylogeny indicates that the Indochinese populations represent two species, thus resulting in four major lineages within this clade. These relationships are consistent with multivariate and univariate analyses of morphological and discrete color pattern data which statistically define and diagnose the four lineages and together with the molecular data, provide the foundation for robust, testable, species-level hypotheses. As such, S. stellatus is herein restricted to Peninsular Malaysia; S. annamiticus is resurrected for the circum-continental populations ranging through southeastern Thailand, southern Cambodia, and southern Vietnam; a new species-S. preylangensis sp. nov.-is described from an isolated mountain, Phnom Chi, from the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary in central Cambodia; and the taxonomy of S. praesignis remains unchanged. The description of S. preylangensis sp. nov. underscores the necessity to conserve this remnant of lowland evergreen rainforest in the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary.
Rapidly accumulating genetic data from environmental sequencing approaches have revealed an extraordinary level of unsuspected diversity within marine phytoplankton,1-11 which is responsible for around 50% of global net primary production.12,13 However, the phenotypic identity of many of the organisms distinguished by environmental DNA sequences remains unclear. The rappemonads represent a plastid-bearing protistan lineage that to date has only been identified by environmental plastid 16S rRNA sequences.14-17 The phenotypic identity of this group, which does not confidently cluster in any known algal clades in 16S rRNA phylogenetic reconstructions,15 has remained unknown since the first report of environmental sequences over two decades ago. We show that rappemonads are closely related to a haptophyte microalga, Pavlomulina ranunculiformis gen. nov. et sp. nov., and belong to a new haptophyte class, the Rappephyceae. Organellar phylogenomic analyses provide strong evidence for the inclusion of this lineage within the Haptophyta as a sister group to the Prymnesiophyceae. Members of this new class have a cosmopolitan distribution in coastal and oceanic regions. The relative read abundance of Rappephyceae in a large environmental barcoding dataset was comparable to, or greater than, those of major haptophyte species, such as the bloom-forming Gephyrocapsa huxleyi and Prymnesium parvum, and this result indicates that they likely have a significant impact as primary producers. Detailed characterization of Pavlomulina allowed for reconstruction of the ancient evolutionary history of the Haptophyta, a group that is one of the most important components of extant marine phytoplankton communities.
Evidence on the role of the oral microbiome in health and disease is changing the way we understand, diagnose, and treat ailments. Numerous studies on diseases affecting the oral cavity have revealed a large amount of data that is invaluable for the advancements in diagnosing and treating these diseases. However, the clinical translation of most of these exploratory data is stalled by variable methodology between studies and non-uniform reporting of the data.Understanding the key areas that are gateways to bias in microbiome studies is imperative to overcome this challenge faced by oral microbiome research. Bias can be multifactorial and may be introduced in a microbiome research study during the formulation of the study design, sample collection and storage, or the sample processing protocols before sequencing. This chapter summarizes the recommendations from literature to eliminate bias in the microbiome research studies and to ensure the reproducibility of the microbiome research data.
The growing concern about the effectiveness of reclamation strategies has motivated the evaluation of soil properties following reclamation. Recovery of belowground microbial community is important for reclamation success, however, the response of soil bacterial communities to reclamation has not been well understood. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was applied to compare bacterial communities in undisturbed soils with those in reclaimed soils using chronosequences ranging in time following reclamation from 1 to 20 year. Bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant in all soils, while the composition of predominant phyla differed greatly across all sites. Long-term reclamation strongly affected microbial community structure and diversity. Initial effects of reclamation resulted in significant declines in bacterial diversity indices in younger reclaimed sites (1, 8-year-old) compared to the undisturbed site. However, bacterial diversity indices tended to be higher in older reclaimed sites (15, 20-year-old) as recovery time increased, and were more similar to predisturbance levels nearly 20 years after reclamation. Bacterial communities are highly responsive to soil physicochemical properties (pH, soil organic matter, Total N and P), in terms of both their diversity and community composition. Our results suggest that the response of soil microorganisms to reclamation is likely governed by soil characteristics and, indirectly, by the effects of vegetation restoration. Mixture sowing of gramineae and leguminosae herbage largely promoted soil geochemical conditions and bacterial diversity that recovered to those of undisturbed soil, representing an adequate solution for soil remediation and sustainable utilization for agriculture. These results confirm the positive impacts of reclamation and vegetation restoration on soil microbial diversity and suggest that the most important phase of microbial community recovery occurs between 15 and 20 years after reclamation.
A total of 30 specimens belonging to five species, namely; Cryptozona siamensis, Sarika resplendens and Sarika sp. from the family Ariophantidae as well as Quantula striata and Quantula sp. from the family Dyakiidae were collected from the Langkawi Island in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. All specimens were identified through comparisons of shell morphology and amplification of a 500 bp segment of the 16S rRNA mtDNA gene. To assess phylogenetic insights, the sequences were aligned using ClustalW and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The analyses showed two major lineages in both Maximum Parsimony and Neighbour Joining phylogenetic trees. Each putative taxonomic group formed a monophyletic cluster. Our study revealed low species and intraspecies genetic diversities based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Thus, this study has provided an insight of land snail diversity in populations of an island highly influenced by anthropogenic activities through complementary use of shell morphological and molecular data.
A range of small- to moderate-scale studies of patterns in bacterial biodiversity have been conducted in Antarctica over the last two decades, most suggesting strong correlations between the described bacterial communities and elements of local environmental heterogeneity. However, very few of these studies have advanced interpretations in terms of spatially associated patterns, despite increasing evidence of patterns in bacterial biogeography globally. This is likely to be a consequence of restricted sampling coverage, with most studies to date focusing only on a few localities within a specific Antarctic region. Clearly, there is now a need for synthesis over a much larger spatial to consolidate the available data. In this study, we collated Antarctic bacterial culture identities based on the 16S rRNA gene information available in the literature and the GenBank database (n > 2,000 sequences). In contrast to some recent evidence for a distinct Antarctic microbiome, our phylogenetic comparisons show that a majority (~75 %) of Antarctic bacterial isolates were highly similar (≥99 % sequence similarity) to those retrieved from tropical and temperate regions, suggesting widespread distribution of eurythermal mesophiles in Antarctic environments. However, across different Antarctic regions, the dominant bacterial genera exhibit some spatially distinct diversity patterns analogous to those recently proposed for Antarctic terrestrial macroorganisms. Taken together, our results highlight the threat of cross-regional homogenisation in Antarctic biodiversity, and the imperative to include microbiota within the framework of biosecurity measures for Antarctica.
Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.
The grow out of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer in marine net-cages is a popular aquaculture activity in Malaysia. Production of this species is greatly affected by the occurrence of vibriosis, which causes heavy mortality. Generally, young fish are more susceptible; they exhibit anorexia and skin darkening, followed by heavy mortality. The acutely affected older fish may also exhibit bloody lesions around the anus and the base of the fins. Twenty-one bacterial isolates obtained from internal organs (kidney, heart, spleen and liver) of the affected specimens were subjected to phenotypic characterization, testing for antibiotic susceptibility, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. The sequencing result showed that all of the bacterial isolates belonged to Vibrio harveyi. The phenotypic characterization, however, identified 4 of the bacterial isolates as V. harveyi, 16 as V. parahaemolyticus, and 1 as V. alginolyticus. These findings suggest that biochemical features alone cannot be reliably used to identify bacterial pathogens, including V. harveyi, in aquaculture. Antibiotic susceptibility assays showed that some antibiotics, including oxytetracycline, nitrofurantoin, furazolidone, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and oxolinic acid were effective against V. harveyi. Considering the side effects of these antibiotics, however, their use is not recommended in the aquaculture of Asian seabass.
In this study, we isolated two indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from tarball found in Rhu Sepuluh beach, Terengganu, Malaysia. These bacteria were identified based on their physiological characteristic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and they showed 99% similarity with Cellulosimicrobium cellulans DSM 43879 and Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606 respectively. Their hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities were tested using diesel-oil as sole carbon source. Results analysed using GC-MS, showed diesel-oil alkanes were degraded an average 64.4% by C. cellulans and 58.1% by A. baumannii with medium optical density reaching 0.967 (C. cellulans) and 1.515 (A. baumannii) in minimal salt media at 32°C for 10days. Individual diesel-oil alkanes were degraded between 10%-95.4% by C. cellulans and 0.2%-95.9% by A. baumannii. Both strains utilized diesel-oil for growth. The study suggests both strains are part of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in tarball with potential for bioremediation of oil-polluted marine environment.
Flea-borne pathogens were screened from 100 individual cat fleas using a PCR approach, of which 38 % were infected with at least one bacterium. Overall, 28 % of the flea samples were positive for Bartonella as inferred from ITS DNA region. Of these, 25 % (7/28) were identified as Bartonella clarridgeiae, 42.9 % (12/28) as Bartonella henselae consisted of two different strains, and 32.1 % (9/28) as Bartonella koehlerae, which was detected for the first time in Malaysia. Sequencing of gltA amplicons detected Rickettsia DNA in 14 % of cat flea samples, all of them identified as Rickettsia asembonensis (100 %). None of the flea samples were positive for Mycoplasma DNA in 16S rRNA gene detection. Four fleas were co-infected with Bartonella and Rickettsia DNAs. Statistical analyses reveal no significant association between bacterial infection and mtDNA diversity of the cat flea. Nevertheless, in all types of pathogen infections, infected populations demonstrated lower nucleotide and haplotype diversities compared to uninfected populations. Moreover, lower haplotype numbers were observed in infected populations.
Identifying certain species of Dermacentor ticks in Malaysia is challenging as there is no comprehensive work on their systematics and lack of specific taxonomic keys. In this study, we described and characterized D. steini ticks collected from a forest reserve in the vicinity of the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia using integrated phenotypic and genotypic traits. In total two males and three females of questing D. steini ticks were morphologically identified using specific illustrated taxonomic keys based on their special characters. Further confirmation and characterization of the tick species were then examined using PCR, followed by sequencing partial mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene (mt-rrs). Clustering analysis based on mt-rrs was carried out by constructing neighbor-joining tree topology to clarify the genetic variation of local D. steini. Based on external morphological characterizations, all ticks were successfully identified down to the species as adult D. steini. The molecular traits based on phylogenetic tree provide very strong support for the monophyletic clade of D. steini including high percentages of similarity (97-100%) with available sequences in GenBank. Furthermore, a low intraspecific variation (4%) among the species of D. steini was observed but it was genetically different from other Dermacentor species with high interspecific value (8-15%). These findings produced the first genotypic data of D. steini using 16S rDNA gene which confirmed the presence of this species in Malaysia. Moreover, this study supports the taxonomic status of local D. steini and adds to the knowledge of accurate identification of ticks.
Feline anaplasmosis is considered as an emerging tick-borne disease of zoonotic potential. The aim of current study was to investigate the molecular prevalence of anaplasmosis, associated risk factors, and alterations in hematological parameters of domestic cats from Lahore, Pakistan. Blood samples of 100 domestic cats from district Lahore were examined microscopically and the extracted genomic DNA from each sample was processed for the amplification of 16 S rRNA gene of Anaplasma. PCR confirmed isolates were purified for sequencing. The data regarding the risk factors was collected in a predesigned questionnaire and statistically analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The study found a molecular prevalence of 13% (13/100) among analyzed blood samples. The nucleotide analysis of Anaplasmataceae species sequences amplified by PCR showed high resemblance (99%) with isolates from Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and India. The potential risk factors found to be significantly associated (p
Terrestrial cyanobacteria are very diverse and widely distributed in Antarctica, where they can form macroscopically visible biofilms on the surfaces of soils and rocks, and on benthic surfaces in fresh waters. We recently isolated several terrestrial cyanobacteria from soils collected on Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, Antarctica. Among them, we found a novel species of Nodosilinea, named here as Nodosilinea signiensis sp. nov. This new species is morphologically and genetically distinct from other described species. Morphological examination indicated that the new species is differentiated from others in the genus by cell size, cell shape, filament attenuation, sheath morphology and granulation. 16S rDNA phylogenetic analyses clearly confirmed that N. signiensis belongs to the genus Nodosilinea, but that it is genetically distinct from other known species of Nodosilinea. The D1-D1´ helix of the 16S-23S ITS region of the new species was also different from previously described Nodosilinea species. This is the first detailed characterization of a member of the genus Nodosilinea from Antarctica as well as being a newly described species.