Materials and Methods: Twenty-four pregnant rats were randomly grouped into a control group (C), a stress group (S), and a stress group treated with TH. Eight male pups from each group were randomly chosen and they were sacrificed at eight or ten weeks of age following the novel object recognition test. Their brains were removed and histological changes and levels of MDA and NMDA receptors in the hippocampus were determined.
Results: The offspring from TH group showed significantly increased preference index (p<0.05) with higher neuronal number compared to S group. A significantly lower level of MDA and NMDA receptors were shown in TH group (P<0.01; P<0.05 respectively) compared to S group. The parameters investigated were not significantly different between C and TH groups.
Conclusion: The study has shown that memory alteration, changes in hippocampus histology, MDA and NMDA receptor levels could be prevented by TH administration during prenatal stress. The results suggest the beneficial effects of Tualang honey in prenatally stressed rat offspring.
Methods: Using a pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model, sensory-motor and visual cortical slices were prepared, and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (sIPSCs).
Results: The primary finding was that the mean amplitude of sIPSC from the sensory-motor cortex increased significantly in epileptic mice when the recording pipette contained MK-801 compared to control mice, whereas the mean sIPSC frequency was not significantly different, indicating that post-synaptic mechanisms are involved. However, there was no significant pre-synaptic inhibition through preNMDARs in the acute brain slices from pilocarpine-induced epileptic mice.
Conclusion: In the acute case of epilepsy, a compensatory mechanism of post-synaptic inhibition, possibly from ambient GABA, was observed through changes in the amplitude without significant changes in the frequency of sIPSC compared to control mice. The role of preNMDAR-mediated inhibition in epileptogenesis during the chronic condition or in the juvenile stage warrants further investigation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An overnight fast of 10-hour plasma levels of glutamate, glycine, alanine, and tryptophan were measured in 83 bipolar patients, and were compared to a group of 82 healthy controls.
RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of bipolar patients was 40.9 (12.1), while the mean (SD) age for control groups was 35.6 (7.7) years. The median (25th, 75th percentile) of glutamate and alanine levels in bipolar patients was 111.0 (65.0,176.0) and 530.0 (446.0,629.0), respectively, while the mean (SD) of glycine level in bipolar patients was 304.0 (98.1). Significant higher glutamate, glycine, and alanine levels were found in bipolar disorder patients in the manic episode as compared to the healthy controls.
CONCLUSION: Although the exact relationship between peripheral NMDA receptor co-agonist levels in the pathogenesis of BD is not well understood, these findings should be explored and may enlighten some new paths for BD therapy which could reward the patients also clinicians.