Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Rajahram GS, Nadarajah R, Lim KS, Menon J
    Med J Malaysia, 2015 Dec;70(6):363-4.
    PMID: 26988212 MyJurnal
    Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an immune mediated condition with characteristic clinical presentation. We report the first case from Borneo, Sabah and the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in treating recalcitrant psychiatrist symptoms associated with this condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  2. Yan Hung SK, Hiew FL, Viswanathan S
    Ann Indian Acad Neurol, 2019 1 30;22(1):102-103.
    PMID: 30692769 DOI: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_232_18
    Multiple co-infections can predispose a patient to autoimmune encephalitis. Out of thirty cases of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis seen at a single tertiary referral center, only two cases of co-infection with NMDAR encephalitis were identified. One of these cases was highly interesting due to the presence of more than one co-infections along with the presence of cortical dysfunction, seizures, and orofacial dyskinesias at the onset in a male in the absence of tumors, which was refractory to initial treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  3. Rothan HA, Amini E, Faraj FL, Golpich M, Teoh TC, Gholami K, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 03 30;7:45540.
    PMID: 28358047 DOI: 10.1038/srep45540
    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) play a central role in epileptogensis and NMDAR antagonists have been shown to have antiepileptic effects in animals and humans. Despite significant progress in the development of antiepileptic therapies over the previous 3 decades, a need still exists for novel therapies. We screened an in-house library of small molecules targeting the NMDA receptor. A novel indolyl compound, 2-(1,1-Dimethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzo[e]indol-2-ylidene)-malonaldehyde, (DDBM) showed the best binding with the NMDA receptor and computational docking data showed that DDBM antagonised the binding sites of the NMDA receptor at lower docking energies compared to other molecules. Using a rat electroconvulsive shock (ECS) model of epilepsy we showed that DDBM decreased seizure duration and improved the histological outcomes. Our data show for the first time that indolyls like DDBM have robust anticonvulsive activity and have the potential to be developed as novel anticonvulsants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/antagonists & inhibitors*; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism
  4. Wong JH, Muthuraju S, Reza F, Senik MH, Zhang J, Mohd Yusuf Yeo NAB, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Feb;110:168-180.
    PMID: 30469081 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.11.044
    Centella asiatica (CA) is a widely used traditional herb, notably for its cognitive enhancing effect and potential to increase synaptogenesis. The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission with key roles in long-term potentiation which is believed to be the cellular mechanism of learning and memory. Improved learning and memory can be an indication to the surface expression level of these receptors. Our previous study demonstrated that administration of CA extract improved learning and memory and enhanced expression of AMPAR GluA1 subunit while exerting no significant effects on GABAA receptors of the hippocampus in rats. Hence, to further elucidate the effects of CA, this study investigated the effects of CA extract in recognition memory and spatial memory, and its effects on AMPAR GluA1 and GluA2 subunit and NMDAR GluN2 A and GluN2B subunit expression in the entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3. The animals were administered with saline, 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of CA extract through oral gavage for 14 days, followed by behavioural analysis through Open Field Test (OFT), Novel Object Recognition Task (NORT), and Morris Water Maze (MWM) and lastly morphological and immunohistochemical analysis of the surface expression of AMPAR and NMDAR subunits were performed. The results showed that 14 days of administration of 600 mg/kg of CA extract significantly improved memory assessed through NORT while 300 mg/kg of CA extract significantly improved memory of the animals assessed through MWM. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed differential modulation effects on the expressions of receptor subunits across CA1, CA3 and EC. The CA extract at the highest dose (600 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the expression of AMPAR subunit GluA1 and GluA2 in CA1, CA3 and EC, and NMDAR subunit GluN2B in CA1 and CA3 compared to control. At 300 mg/kg, CA significantly increased expression of AMPAR GluA1 in CA1 and EC, and GluA2 in CA1, CA3 and EC while 100 mg/kg of CA significantly increased expression of only AMPAR subunit GluA2 in CA3 and EC. Expression of NMDAR subunit GluN2 A was significantly reduced in the CA3 (at 100, 300, and 600 mg/kg) while no significant changes of subunit expression was observed in CA1 and EC compared to control. The results suggest that the enhanced learning and memory observed in animals administered with CA was mainly mediated through increased expression of AMPAR GluA1 and GluA2 subunits and differential expression of NMDAR GluN2 A and GluN2B subunits in the hippocampal subfields and EC. With these findings, the study revealed a new aspect of cognitive enhancing effect of CA and its therapeutic potentials through modulating receptor subunit expression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/biosynthesis*; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/genetics
  5. Tsuchida N, Hamada K, Shiina M, Kato M, Kobayashi Y, Tohyama J, et al.
    Clin Genet, 2018 12;94(6):538-547.
    PMID: 30280376 DOI: 10.1111/cge.13454
    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are glutamate-activated ion channels that are widely distributed in the central nervous system and essential for brain development and function. Dysfunction of NMDA receptors has been associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently, a de novo recurrent GRIN2D missense variant was found in two unrelated patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. In this study, we identified by whole exome sequencing novel heterozygous GRIN2D missense variants in three unrelated patients with severe developmental delay and intractable epilepsy. All altered residues were highly conserved across vertebrates and among the four GluN2 subunits. Structural consideration indicated that all three variants are probably to impair GluN2D function, either by affecting intersubunit interaction or altering channel gating activity. We assessed the clinical features of our three cases and compared them to those of the two previously reported GRIN2D variant cases, and found that they all show similar clinical features. This study provides further evidence of GRIN2D variants being causal for epilepsy. Genetic diagnosis for GluN2-related disorders may be clinically useful when considering drug therapy targeting NMDA receptors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/genetics*; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/chemistry
  6. Lee, CL, Zainuddin AA, Abdul Karim AK, Yulianty A, Law, ZK, Md.Isa N, et al.
    We report a rare case of altered mental status in a young patient with immature ovarian teratoma. A 22-year-old woman presented with seizures, hallucination, amnesia and orofacial dyskinesia. Examination and investigation revealed an ovarian massand asalphing-oophorectomy was performed. The histopathological examination result showed an immature teratoma grade 2 with thepresence of immature primitive glial tissue. Her CSF N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptor (Anti-NMDAR) antibodytest was positive. N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptor antibody associated limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune antibody-mediated neuropsychiatric disorder. Resection of the tumour and immunotherapy resulted in full recovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  7. Chia JSM, Izham NAM, Farouk AAO, Sulaiman MR, Mustafa S, Hutchinson MR, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2020;11:92.
    PMID: 32194397 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2020.00092
    Zerumbone has shown great potential in various pathophysiological models of diseases, particularly in neuropathic pain conditions. Further understanding the mechanisms of action is important to develop zerumbone as a potential anti-nociceptive agent. Numerous receptors and pathways function to inhibit and modulate transmission of pain signals. Previously, we demonstrated involvement of the serotonergic system in zerumbone's anti-neuropathic effects. The present study was conducted to determine zerumbone's modulatory potential involving noradrenergic, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced in vitro and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced SH-SY5Y in vitro neuroinflammatory models. von Frey filament and Hargreaves plantar tests were used to assess allodynia and hyperalgesia in the chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain mouse model. Involvement of specific adrenoceptors were investigated using antagonists- prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), idazoxan (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), metoprolol (β1-adrenoceptor antagonist), ICI 118,551 (β2-adrenoceptor antagonist), and SR 59230 A (β3-adrenoceptor antagonist), co-administered with zerumbone (10 mg/kg). Involvement of excitatory receptors; TRPV and NMDA were conducted using antagonists capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist) and memantine (NMDA antagonist). Western blot was conducted to investigate the effect of zerumbone on the expression of α2A-adrenoceptor, TRPV1 and NMDA NR2B receptors in CCI-induced whole brain samples of mice as well as in LPS-induced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Pre-treatment with α1- and α2-adrenoceptor antagonists significantly attenuated both anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of zerumbone. For β-adrenoceptors, only β2-adrenoceptor antagonist significantly reversed the anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of zerumbone. β1-adrenoceptor antagonist only reversed the anti-allodynic effect of zerumbone. The anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of zerumbone were both absent when TRPV1 and NMDA receptors were antagonized in both nociceptive assays. Zerumbone treatment markedly decreased the expression of α2A-adrenoceptor, while an up-regulation was observed of NMDA NR2B receptors. Expression of TRPV1 receptors however did not significantly change. The in vitro study, representing a peripheral model, demonstrated the reduction of both NMDA NR2B and TRPV1 receptors while significantly increasing α2A-adrenoceptor expression in contrast to the brain samples. Our current findings suggest that the α1-, α2-, β1- and β2-adrenoceptors, TRPV1 and NMDA NR2B are essential for the anti-allodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone. Alternatively, we demonstrated the plasticity of these receptors through their response to zerumbone's administration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  8. Noh ASM, Ismail CAN
    Malays J Med Sci, 2020 Feb;27(1):6-21.
    PMID: 32158341 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.1.2
    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition that occurs after tissue damage, which substantially affects the patient's emotional state and physical activity. The chronic pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the result of various autoimmune-induced inflammatory reactions in the joints. Both types of peripheral and central pain processing can lead to sensitisation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) can result in potent anti-inflammatory effect. However, these drugs are not able to suppress the pain from RA for a prolonged period. For years, researchers have examined the role of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B (NR2B) subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) in chronic and neuropathic pain models. This NMDAR subtype can be found in at the peripheral and central nervous system and it represents an effective therapy for RA pain management. This review focuses on the NR2B subunit of NMDAR and the different pathways leading to its activation. Furthermore, specific attention is given to the possible involvement of NR2B subunit in the peripheral and central pathogenesis of RA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  9. Abd Aziz CB, Hasim H, Zakaria R, Ahmad AH
    Turk J Pharm Sci, 2020 Dec 23;17(6):620-625.
    PMID: 33389951 DOI: 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2019.21548
    Objectives: This study investigated whether the alterations in memory and hippocampus morphology and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the hippocampus of adult rats after prenatal stress could be prevented by administration of Tualang honey (TH).

    Materials and Methods: Twenty-four pregnant rats were randomly grouped into a control group (C), a stress group (S), and a stress group treated with TH. Eight male pups from each group were randomly chosen and they were sacrificed at eight or ten weeks of age following the novel object recognition test. Their brains were removed and histological changes and levels of MDA and NMDA receptors in the hippocampus were determined.

    Results: The offspring from TH group showed significantly increased preference index (p<0.05) with higher neuronal number compared to S group. A significantly lower level of MDA and NMDA receptors were shown in TH group (P<0.01; P<0.05 respectively) compared to S group. The parameters investigated were not significantly different between C and TH groups.

    Conclusion: The study has shown that memory alteration, changes in hippocampus histology, MDA and NMDA receptor levels could be prevented by TH administration during prenatal stress. The results suggest the beneficial effects of Tualang honey in prenatally stressed rat offspring.

    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  10. Ip YK, Leong MW, Sim MY, Goh GS, Wong WP, Chew SF
    J. Exp. Biol., 2005 May;208(Pt 10):1993-2004.
    PMID: 15879078
    The objective of this study was to elucidate if chronic and acute ammonia intoxication in mudskippers, Periophthalmodon schlosseri and Boleophthalmus boddaerti, were associated with high levels of ammonia and/or glutamine in their brains, and if acute ammonia intoxication could be prevented by the administration of methionine sulfoximine [MSO; an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)] or MK801 [an antagonist of N-methyl D-aspartate type glutamate (NMDA) receptors]. For P. schlosseri and B. boddaerti exposed to sublethal concentrations (100 and 8 mmol l(-1) NH4Cl, respectively, at pH 7.0) of environmental ammonia for 4 days, brain ammonia contents increased drastically during the first 24 h, and they reached 18 and 14.5 micromol g(-1), respectively, at hour 96. Simultaneously, there were increases in brain glutamine contents, but brain glutamate contents were unchanged. Because glutamine accumulated to exceptionally high levels in brains of P. schlosseri (29.8 micromol g(-1)) and B. boddaerti (12.1 micromol g(-1)) without causing death, it can be concluded that these two mudskippers could ameliorate those problems associated with glutamine synthesis and accumulation as observed in patients suffering from hyperammonemia. P. schlosseri and B. boddaerti could tolerate high doses of ammonium acetate (CH3COONH4) injected into their peritoneal cavities, with 24 h LC50 of 15.6 and 12.3 micromol g(-1) fish, respectively. After the injection with a sublethal dose of CH3COONH4 (8 micromol g(-1) fish), there were significant increases in ammonia (5.11 and 8.36 micromol g(-1), respectively) and glutamine (4.22 and 3.54 micromol g(-1), respectively) levels in their brains at hour 0.5, but these levels returned to normal at hour 24. By contrast, for P. schlosseri and B. boddaerti that succumbed within 15-50 min to a dose of CH3COONH4 (15 and 12 micromol g(-1) fish, respectively) close to the LC50 values, the ammonia contents in the brains reached much higher levels (12.8 and 14.9 micromol g(-1), respectively), while the glutamine level remained relatively low (3.93 and 2.67 micromol g(-1), respectively). Thus, glutamine synthesis and accumulation in the brain was not the major cause of death in these two mudskippers confronted with acute ammonia toxicity. Indeed, MSO, at a dosage (100 microg g(-1) fish) protective for rats, did not protect B. boddaerti against acute ammonia toxicity, although it was an inhibitor of GS activities from the brains of both mudskippers. In the case of P. schlosseri, MSO only prolonged the time to death but did not reduce the mortality rate (100%). In addition, MK801 (2 microg g(-1) fish) had no protective effect on P. schlosseri and B. boddaerti injected with a lethal dose of CH3COONH4, indicating that activation of NMDA receptors was not the major cause of death during acute ammonia intoxication. Thus, it can be concluded that there are major differences in mechanisms of chronic and acute ammonia toxicity between brains of these two mudskippers and mammalian brains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/antagonists & inhibitors
  11. Rosini M, Simoni E, Caporaso R, Basagni F, Catanzaro M, Abu IF, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2019 Oct 15;180:111-120.
    PMID: 31301562 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.07.011
    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Acting as an open-channel blocker, the anti-AD drug memantine preferentially targets NMDAR overactivation, which has been proposed to trigger neurotoxic events mediated by amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and oxidative stress. In this study, we applied a multifunctional approach by conjugating memantine to ferulic acid, which is known to protect the brain from Aβ neurotoxicity and neuronal death caused by ROS. The most interesting compound (7) behaved, like memantine, as a voltage-dependent antagonist of NMDAR (IC50 = 6.9 μM). In addition, at 10 μM concentration, 7 exerted antioxidant properties both directly and indirectly through the activation of the Nrf-2 pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. At the same concentration, differently from the parent compounds memantine and ferulic acid alone, it was able to modulate Aβ production, as revealed by the observed increase of the non-amyloidogenic sAPPα in H4-SW cells. These findings suggest that compound 7 may represent a promising tool for investigating NMDAR-mediated neurotoxic events involving Aβ burden and oxidative damage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/antagonists & inhibitors*; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism
  12. Mohd Zain Z, Ab Ghani S, O'Neill RD
    Amino Acids, 2012 Nov;43(5):1887-94.
    PMID: 22865247 DOI: 10.1007/s00726-012-1365-0
    This paper discusses the application of a reagentless, selective microbiosensor as a useful alternative tool for monitoring D-serine in neural samples. The main components of the 125-μm-diameter disk biosensor were D-amino acid oxidase for D-serine sensitivity (linear region slope, 61 ± 7 μA cm(-2) mM(-1); limit of detection, 20 nM), and poly-phenylenediamine for rejection of electroactive interference. The response time of the biosensor was of the order of 1 s, ideal for 'real-time' monitoring, and detection of systemically administered D-serine in brain extracellular fluid is demonstrated. Exploitation of this probe might resolve queries involving regulation of D-serine in excitotoxicity, and modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function by D-serine and glycine in the central nervous system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism
  13. Zainal Abidin S, Tan EL, Chan SC, Jaafar A, Lee AX, Abd Hamid MH, et al.
    BMC Neurol, 2015;15:59.
    PMID: 25896831 DOI: 10.1186/s12883-015-0316-2
    Impulse control disorder (ICD) and behaviours (ICB) represent a group of behavioural disorders that have become increasingly recognised in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who previously used dopaminergic medications, particularly dopamine agonists and levodopa. It has been suggested that these medications can lead to the development of ICB through the abnormal modulation of dopaminergic transmission and signalling in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system. Several studies have reported an association between polymorphisms in the dopamine receptor (DRD) and N-methyl-D-aspartate 2B (GRIN2B) genes with the development of ICB in PD (PD-ICB) patients. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association of selected polymorphisms within the DRD and GRIN2B genes with the development of ICB among PD patients using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/genetics*
  14. Kaka U, Saifullah B, Abubakar AA, Goh YM, Fakurazi S, Kaka A, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2016 Sep 9;12(1):198.
    PMID: 27612660
    Central sensitization is a potential severe consequence of invasive surgical procedures. It results in postoperative and potentially chronic pain enhancement. It results in postoperative pain enhancement; clinically manifested as hyperalgesia and allodynia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays a crucial role in the mechanism of central sensitisation. Ketamine is most commonly used NMDA-antagonist in human and veterinary practice. However, the antinociceptive serum concentration of ketamine is not yet properly established in dogs. Six dogs were used in a crossover design, with one week washout period. Treatments consisted of: 1) 0.5 mg/kg ketamine followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of 30 μg/kg/min; 2) 0.5 mg/kg ketamine followed by CRI of 30 μg/kg/min and lidocaine (2 mg/kg followed by CRI of 100 μg/kg/min); and 3) 0.5 mg/kg ketamine followed by CRI of 50 μg/kg/min. The infusion was administered up to 120 min. Nociceptive thresholds and ketamine serum concentrations were measured before drug administration, and at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, 140 and 160 min after the start of infusion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  15. Pui Ping C, Akhtar MN, Israf DA, Perimal EK, Sulaiman MR
    Molecules, 2020 Nov 18;25(22).
    PMID: 33217904 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25225385
    The perception of pain caused by inflammation serves as a warning sign to avoid further injury. The generation and transmission of pain impulses involves various pathways and receptors. Cardamonin isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. has been reported to exert antinociceptive effects in thermal and mechanical pain models; however, the precise mechanism has yet to be examined. The present study investigated the possible mechanisms involved in the antinociceptive activity of cardamonin on protein kinase C, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptors, l-arginine/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) mechanism, as well as the ATP-sensitive potassium (K+) channel. Cardamonin was administered to the animals intra-peritoneally. Present findings showed that cardamonin significantly inhibited pain elicited by intraplantar injection of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a protein kinase C activator) with calculated mean ED50 of 2.0 mg/kg (0.9-4.5 mg/kg). The study presented that pre-treatment with MK-801 (NMDA receptor antagonist) and NBQX (non-NMDA receptor antagonist) significantly modulates the antinociceptive activity of cardamonin at 3 mg/kg when tested with glutamate-induced paw licking test. Pre-treatment with l-arginine (a nitric oxide precursor), ODQ (selective inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor) significantly enhanced the antinociception produced by cardamonin. In conclusion, the present findings showed that the antinociceptive activity of cardamonin might involve the modulation of PKC activity, NMDA and non-NMDA glutamate receptors, l-arginine/nitric oxide/cGMP pathway and ATP-sensitive K+ channel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  16. Lah MHC, Reza F, Begum T, Abdullah JM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 May;25(3):27-39.
    PMID: 30899185 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.3.4
    Background: Previous studies from animal models have shown that pre-synaptic NMDA receptors (preNMDARs) are present in the cortex, but the role of inhibition mediated by preNMDARs during epileptogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we wanted to observe the changes in GABAergic inhibition through preNMDARs in sensory-motor and visual cortical pyramidal neurons after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    Methods: Using a pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model, sensory-motor and visual cortical slices were prepared, and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (sIPSCs).

    Results: The primary finding was that the mean amplitude of sIPSC from the sensory-motor cortex increased significantly in epileptic mice when the recording pipette contained MK-801 compared to control mice, whereas the mean sIPSC frequency was not significantly different, indicating that post-synaptic mechanisms are involved. However, there was no significant pre-synaptic inhibition through preNMDARs in the acute brain slices from pilocarpine-induced epileptic mice.

    Conclusion: In the acute case of epilepsy, a compensatory mechanism of post-synaptic inhibition, possibly from ambient GABA, was observed through changes in the amplitude without significant changes in the frequency of sIPSC compared to control mice. The role of preNMDAR-mediated inhibition in epileptogenesis during the chronic condition or in the juvenile stage warrants further investigation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  17. Buji RI, Abdul Murad NA, Chan LF, Maniam T, Mohd Shahrir MS, Rozita M, et al.
    Lupus, 2018 Apr;27(5):744-752.
    PMID: 29161964 DOI: 10.1177/0961203317742711
    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are a high-risk population for suicide. Glutamatergic neurosystem genes have been implicated in the neurobiology of depression in SLE and suicidal behaviour in general. However, the role of glutamate receptor gene polymorphisms in suicidal behaviour among SLE patients remains unclear in the context of established clinical and psychosocial factors. We aimed to investigate the association of NR2A gene polymorphism with suicidal ideation in SLE while accounting for the interaction between clinical and psychosocial factors. Methods A total of 130 SLE patients were assessed for mood disorders (MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview), severity of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), suicidal behaviour (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale), socio-occupational functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale), recent life events (Social Readjustment Rating Scale) and lupus disease activity (SELENA-SLE Disease Activity Index). Eighty-six out of the 130 study participants consented for NR2A genotyping. Results Multivariable logistic regression showed nominal significance for the interaction effect between the NR2A rs2072450 AC genotype and higher severity of socio-occupational impairment with lifetime suicidal ideation in SLE patients ( p = 0.038, odds ratio = 1.364, 95% confidence interval = 1.018-1.827). However, only the association between lifetime mood disorder and lifetime suicidal ideation remained significant after Bonferroni correction ( p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/genetics*
  18. Ismail CAN, Suppian R, Abd Aziz CB, Haris K, Long I
    Diabetes Metab J, 2019 04;43(2):222-235.
    PMID: 30604591 DOI: 10.4093/dmj.2018.0020
    BACKGROUND: This study investigated the role of NR2B in a modulated pain process in the painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) rat using various pain stimuli.

    METHODS: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly allocated into four groups (n=8): control, diabetes mellitus (DM) rats and diabetic rats treated with ifenprodil at a lower dose (0.5 μg/day) (I 0.5) or higher dose (1.0 μg/day) (I 1.0). DM was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin at 60 mg/kg on day 0 of experimentation. Diabetic status was assessed on day 3 of the experimentation. The responses on both tactile and thermal stimuli were assessed on day 0 (baseline), day 14 (pre-intervention), and day 22 (post-intervention). Ifenprodil was given intrathecally for 7 days from day 15 until day 21. On day 23, 5% formalin was injected into the rats' hind paw and the nociceptive responses were recorded for 1 hour. The rats were sacrificed 72 hours post-formalin injection and an analysis of the spinal NR2B expression was performed.

    RESULTS: DM rats showed a significant reduction in pain threshold in response to the tactile and thermal stimuli and higher nociceptive response during the formalin test accompanied by the higher expression of phosphorylated spinal NR2B in both sides of the spinal cord. Ifenprodil treatment for both doses showed anti-allodynic and anti-nociceptive effects with lower expression of phosphorylated and total spinal NR2B.

    CONCLUSION: We suggest that the pain process in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat that has been modulated is associated with the higher phosphorylation of the spinal NR2B expression in the development of PDN, which is similar to other models of neuropathic rats.

    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism*
  19. Agatonovic-Kustrin S, Kettle C, Morton DW
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2018 Oct;106:553-565.
    PMID: 29990843 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.147
    An increase in dementia numbers and global trends in population aging across the world prompts the need for new medications to treat the complex biological dysfunctions, such as neurodegeneration associated with dementia. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Cholinergic signaling, which is important in cognition, is slowly lost in AD, so the first line therapy is to treat symptoms with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors to increase levels of acetylcholine. Out of five available FDA-approved AD medications, donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine are cholinesterase inhibitors while memantine, a N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, blocks the effects of high glutamate levels. The fifth medication consists of a combination of donepezil and memantine. Although these medications can reduce and temporarily slow down the symptoms of AD, they cannot stop the damage to the brain from progressing. For a superior therapeutic effect, multi-target drugs are required. Thus, a Multi-Target-Directed Ligand (MTDL) strategy has received more attention by scientists who are attempting to develop hybrid molecules that simultaneously modulate multiple biological targets. This review highlights recent examples of the MTDL approach and fragment based strategy in the rational design of new potential AD medications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/antagonists & inhibitors; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism
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