Materials and Methods: Twenty-four pregnant rats were randomly grouped into a control group (C), a stress group (S), and a stress group treated with TH. Eight male pups from each group were randomly chosen and they were sacrificed at eight or ten weeks of age following the novel object recognition test. Their brains were removed and histological changes and levels of MDA and NMDA receptors in the hippocampus were determined.
Results: The offspring from TH group showed significantly increased preference index (p<0.05) with higher neuronal number compared to S group. A significantly lower level of MDA and NMDA receptors were shown in TH group (P<0.01; P<0.05 respectively) compared to S group. The parameters investigated were not significantly different between C and TH groups.
Conclusion: The study has shown that memory alteration, changes in hippocampus histology, MDA and NMDA receptor levels could be prevented by TH administration during prenatal stress. The results suggest the beneficial effects of Tualang honey in prenatally stressed rat offspring.
Methods: Using a pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model, sensory-motor and visual cortical slices were prepared, and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (sIPSCs).
Results: The primary finding was that the mean amplitude of sIPSC from the sensory-motor cortex increased significantly in epileptic mice when the recording pipette contained MK-801 compared to control mice, whereas the mean sIPSC frequency was not significantly different, indicating that post-synaptic mechanisms are involved. However, there was no significant pre-synaptic inhibition through preNMDARs in the acute brain slices from pilocarpine-induced epileptic mice.
Conclusion: In the acute case of epilepsy, a compensatory mechanism of post-synaptic inhibition, possibly from ambient GABA, was observed through changes in the amplitude without significant changes in the frequency of sIPSC compared to control mice. The role of preNMDAR-mediated inhibition in epileptogenesis during the chronic condition or in the juvenile stage warrants further investigation.
METHODS: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly allocated into four groups (n=8): control, diabetes mellitus (DM) rats and diabetic rats treated with ifenprodil at a lower dose (0.5 μg/day) (I 0.5) or higher dose (1.0 μg/day) (I 1.0). DM was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin at 60 mg/kg on day 0 of experimentation. Diabetic status was assessed on day 3 of the experimentation. The responses on both tactile and thermal stimuli were assessed on day 0 (baseline), day 14 (pre-intervention), and day 22 (post-intervention). Ifenprodil was given intrathecally for 7 days from day 15 until day 21. On day 23, 5% formalin was injected into the rats' hind paw and the nociceptive responses were recorded for 1 hour. The rats were sacrificed 72 hours post-formalin injection and an analysis of the spinal NR2B expression was performed.
RESULTS: DM rats showed a significant reduction in pain threshold in response to the tactile and thermal stimuli and higher nociceptive response during the formalin test accompanied by the higher expression of phosphorylated spinal NR2B in both sides of the spinal cord. Ifenprodil treatment for both doses showed anti-allodynic and anti-nociceptive effects with lower expression of phosphorylated and total spinal NR2B.
CONCLUSION: We suggest that the pain process in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat that has been modulated is associated with the higher phosphorylation of the spinal NR2B expression in the development of PDN, which is similar to other models of neuropathic rats.