This review summarises the major developments of macroporous bioceramics used mainly for repairing bone defects. Porous bioceramics have been receiving attention ever since their larger surface area was reported to be beneficial for the formation of more rigid bonds with host tissues. The study of porous bioceramics is important to overcome the less favourable bonds formed between dense bioceramics and host tissues, especially in healing bone defects. Macroporous bioceramics, which have been studied extensively, include hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, alumina, and zirconia. The pore size and interconnections both have significant effects on the growth rate of bone tissues. The optimum pore size of hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone growth was found to be 300 µm. The existence of interconnections between pores is critical during the initial stage of tissue ingrowth on porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Furthermore, pore formation on β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds also allowed the impregnation of growth factors and cells to improve bone tissues growth significantly. The formation of vascularised tissues was observed on macroporous alumina but did not take place in the case of dense alumina due to its bioinert nature. A macroporous alumina coating on scaffolds was able to improve the overall mechanical properties, and it enabled the impregnation of bioactive materials that could increase the bone growth rate. Despite the bioinertness of zirconia, porous zirconia was useful in designing scaffolds with superior mechanical properties after being coated with bioactive materials. The pores in zirconia were believed to improve the bone growth on the coated system. In summary, although the formation of pores in bioceramics may adversely affect mechanical properties, the advantages provided by the pores are crucial in repairing bone defects.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe motor or sensory damage that leads to long-term disabilities due to disruption of electrical conduction in neuronal pathways. Despite current clinical therapies being used to limit the propagation of cell or tissue damage, the need for neuroregenerative therapies remains. Conductive hydrogels have been considered a promising neuroregenerative therapy due to their ability to provide a pro-regenerative microenvironment and flexible structure, which conforms to a complex SCI lesion. Furthermore, their conductivity can be utilized for noninvasive electrical signaling in dictating neuronal cell behavior. However, the ability of hydrogels to guide directional axon growth to reach the distal end for complete nerve reconnection remains a critical challenge. In this Review, we highlight recent advances in conductive hydrogels, including the incorporation of conductive materials, fabrication techniques, and cross-linking interactions. We also discuss important characteristics for designing conductive hydrogels for directional growth and regenerative therapy. We propose insights into electrical conductivity properties in a hydrogel that could be implemented as guidance for directional cell growth for SCI applications. Specifically, we highlight the practical implications of recent findings in the field, including the potential for conductive hydrogels to be used in clinical applications. We conclude that conductive hydrogels are a promising neuroregenerative therapy for SCI and that further research is needed to optimize their design and application.
Severe gingival recession caused by dehiscence usually present a challenging task to the clinician as any mucogingival surgery without bony regeneration will not 'prevent the condition from recurring. The procedures of guided tissue regeneration ( GTR ) which allow regeneration of the lost periodontium may offer some solution to the condition. This paper reports on the use of a non-resorbable GTR membrane to treat an isolated lower incisor gingival recession associated with dehiscence.
Understanding the bioelectrical properties of bone tissue is key to developing new treatment strategies for bone diseases and injuries, as well as improving the design and fabrication of scaffold implants for bone tissue engineering. The bioelectrical properties of bone tissue can be attributed to the interaction of its various cell lineages (osteocyte, osteoblast and osteoclast) with the surrounding extracellular matrix, in the presence of various biomechanical stimuli arising from routine physical activities; and is best described as a combination and overlap of dielectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric and ferroelectric properties, together with streaming potential and electro-osmosis. There is close interdependence and interaction of the various electroactive and electrosensitive components of bone tissue, including cell membrane potential, voltage-gated ion channels, intracellular signaling pathways, and cell surface receptors, together with various matrix components such as collagen, hydroxyapatite, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. It is the remarkably complex web of interactive cross-talk between the organic and non-organic components of bone that define its electrophysiological properties, which in turn exerts a profound influence on its metabolism, homeostasis and regeneration in health and disease. This has spurred increasing interest in application of electroactive scaffolds in bone tissue engineering, to recapitulate the natural electrophysiological microenvironment of healthy bone tissue to facilitate bone defect repair.
Biodegradable elastomers have clinical applicability due to their biocompatibility, tunable degradation and elasticity. The addition of bioactive glasses to these elastomers can impart mechanical properties sufficient for hard tissue replacement. Hence, a composite with a biodegradable polymer matrix and a bioglass filler can offer a method of augmenting existing tissue. This article reviews the applications of such composites for skeletal augmentation.
Neuroregeneration is the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells, or cell products involved in neurodegeneration and inflammatory diseases of the nervous system like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Nowadays, application of nanotechnology is commonly used in developing nanomedicines to advance pharmacokinetics and drug delivery exclusively for central nervous system pathologies. In addition, nanomedical advances are leading to therapies that disrupt disarranged protein aggregation in the central nervous system, deliver functional neuroprotective growth factors, and change the oxidative stress and excitotoxicity of affected neural tissues to regenerate the damaged neurons. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are allotropes of carbon that have been exploited by researchers because of their excellent physical properties and their ability to interface with neurons and neuronal circuits. This review describes the role of carbon nanotubes and graphene in neuroregeneration. In the future, it is hoped that the benefits of nanotechnologies will outweigh their risks, and that the next decade will present huge scope for developing and delivering technologies in the field of neuroscience.
β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has attracted much attention as an artificial bone substitute owing to its biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. In this study, osteoconductivity of β-TCP bone substitute was enhanced without using growth factors or cells. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), which is known to possess the highest solubility among calcium phosphates, was coated on β-TCP granules by exposing their surface with acidic calcium phosphate solution. The amount of coated DCPD was regulated by changing the reaction time between β-TCP granules and acidic calcium phosphate solution. Histomorphometry analysis obtained from histological results revealed that the approximately 10mol% DCPD-coated β-TCP granules showed the largest new bone formation compared to DCPD-free β-TCP granules, approximately 2.5mol% DCPD-coated β-TCP granules, or approximately 27mol% DCPD-coated β-TCP granules after 2 and 4weeks of implantation. Based on this finding, we demonstrate that the osteoconductivity of β-TCP granules could be improved by coating their surface with an appropriate amount of DCPD.
Matched MeSH terms: Bone Regeneration/drug effects*
This paper discusses the successful fabrication of a novel triple-layered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based composite membrane using only a single step that combines the techniques of solvent casting and thermally induced phase separation/solvent leaching. The resulting graded membrane consists of a small pore size layer-1 containing 10 wt% non-stoichiometric nanoapatite (NAp)+1-3 wt% lauric acid (LA) for fibroblastic cell and bacterial inhibition, an intermediate layer-2 with 20-50 wt% NAp+1 wt% LA, and a large pore size layer-3 containing 30-100 wt% NAp without LA to allow bone cell growth. The synergic effects of 10-30 wt% NAp and 1 wt% LA in the membrane demonstrated higher tensile strength (0.61 MPa) and a more elastic behavior (16.1% elongation at break) in 3 wt% LA added membrane compared with the pure PLGA (0.49 MPa, 9.1%). The addition of LA resulted in a remarkable plasticizing effect on PLGA at 3 wt% due to weak intermolecular interactions in PLGA. The pure and composite PLGA membranes had good cell viability toward human skin fibroblast, regardless of LA and NAp contents.
Matched MeSH terms: Bone Regeneration*; Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal*
The purpose of the study was to evaluate radiologically the efficacy of guided bone regeneration using composite bone graft (autogenous bone graft and anorganic bovine bone graft [Bio-Oss]) along with resorbable collagen membrane (BioMend Extend) in the augmentation of Seibert's class I ridge defects in maxilla. Bone width was evaluated using computerized tomography at day 0 and at day 180 at 2 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm from the crest. There was a statistically significant increase in bone width between day 0 and day 180 at 2 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm from the crest. The results of the study demonstrated an increase in bone width of Seibert's class I ridge defects in the maxilla of the study patients.
Matched MeSH terms: Bone Regeneration*; Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal/methods*
Orthodontic elastic bands are an important iatrogenic etiologic factor in the causation of periodontal attachment apparatus breakdown. Appropriate diagnosis and a well constructed treatment plan tailor-made to suit the requirements of the particular patient is imperative for management of periodontal lesions induced by subgingival retention of rubber band. There are conflicting reports regarding the reattachment and regeneration of lost periodontal supporting tissues in such cases. The present case report highlights the spontaneous reversal and correction of periodontal destruction due to iatrogenic orthodontic elastic band displacement deep into the subgingival tissues.
Different concentrations of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole acetic acid (IAA) in Murashige and Skoog based medium were assessed for their effects on shoot multiplication, nodule-like meristem proliferation and plant regeneration of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. BAP at 1-14 mg L-1 with or without 0.2 mg L-1 IAA, or BAP at 7-14 mg L-1with the same concentration of IAA, was evaluated for shoot multiplication from shoot tips and the proliferation of nodule-like meristems from scalps, respectively. Plant regeneration from scalps was assessed using 1 mg L-1BAP and 0.2 mg L-1 IAA separately, or a combination of these two growth regulators. Data on shoot multiplication, the proliferation of nodule-like meristems with associated plant regeneration were recorded after 30 days of culture. A maximum of 5 shoots per original shoot tip was achieved on medium supplemented with BAP at 5 mg L-1 (Pisang Nangka), 6 mg L-1(Pisang Mas and Pisang Berangan), or 7 mg L-1 (Pisang Awak), with 0.2 mg L-1 IAA. BAP at 11 mg L-1 with 0.2 mg L-1 IAA induced the most highly proliferating nodule-like meristems in the four banana cultivars. Plant regeneration from scalps was optimum in all cases on medium containing 1 mg L-1 BAP and 0.2 mg L-1 IAA. This is the first report on the successful induction of highly proliferating nodule-like meristems and plant regeneration from scalps of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak.
This systematic review focuses on the management of two types of osseous defects, i.e. dehiscence and fenestration that arise during the placement of dental implant in the edentulous area (delayed implant placement). A systematic online search of main database from 1975 to 2009 was made. Five randomised controlled trials have been identified based on the inclusion criteria. Different management procedures were identified, in which guided bone regeneration procedure was most commonly advocated. Resorbable and non-resorbable m'embranes were compared, in which resorbable membrane was preferred as it caused less complicatiQn of membrane exposure or risk of infection. The benefit of using bone substitute along with membrane in rypairing bony defects cannot be concluded.
The Zn-Al mixed metal oxide (ZnAl-MMO) with a plate-like structure was derived from Zn-Al layered double hydroxide. The ZnAl-MMO with a Zn/Al molar ratio of 3:1 exhibits superior absorption ability for H2S in a simulated coal gas at 600 ℃ due to the special structure of the ZnAl-MMO. Besides ZnS, elemental sulfur is also produced during the desulfurization process. The deactivation model could well simulate the absorption behavior of H2S. The sulfidation reaction over the sorbent shows large initial reaction rate constants (1110-5390 m3 min-1 kg-1) and low activation energy (29.5 kJ mol-1). The regeneration rate of the used sorbent can reach 99.8% under the optimum conditions. The regenerated sorbents still show high sulfur capacity (ca. 30%), implying its great application potential for industrial-scale desulfurization of the hot coal gas.
Cell-free treatment is emerging as an alternative to cell delivery to promote endogenous regeneration using cell-derived factors. The purpose of this article was to systematically review studies of the effects of the dental stem cell secretome on nerve regeneration. PubMed and Scopus databases were used where searched and related studies were selected. The primary search identified 36 articles with the utilized keywords; however, only 13 articles met the defined inclusion criteria. Eight out of thirteen articles included in vivo and in vitro studies. We classified the dental stem cell-derived secretome with its nerve regeneration potential. All studies demonstrated that dental stem cell-derived factors promote neurotrophic effects that can mechanistically stimulate nerve regeneration in neurodegenerative diseases and nerve injury. This data collection will enable researchers to gather information to create a precise formulation for future prescribed treatments.
Dwarf bamboo is recognized as a significant determinant of the structure and dynamics in temperate forests. Quantitative relationships between the abundance (density and coverage) of dwarf bamboo, Fargesia nitida, and micro-environments, species diversity on the floor were estimated in an Abies faxoniana pure forest in southwest China. Understory microenvironmental conditions (daily differences temperature and moisture, RPPFD under bamboo layer and ground cover) changed dramatically with the bamboo density. Stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that abundance of F. nitida was mainly correlated with canopy characteristics and disturbance factors in the A. faxoniana pure forest. All richness indices decreased significantly with the bamboo density and RPPFD under bamboo layer. Importance values (IV) of understory species in different bamboo densities and Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) indicated three understory plant groups, resistant to high bamboo abundance (Group A), resistant to intermediate bamboo abundance (Group B) and sensitive to bamboo abundance (Group C). These groups mainly responded to abundance of bamboo and RPPFD under bamboo layer, resulted from the integration of characteristics of bamboo, canopy and topography factors. Different bamboo abundance had different influences on understory species diversity and groups. Dense F. nitida condition (> 10 culms/m2) had significant negative effect and 0-5 bamboo condition had not significant negative effect on understory species diversity in A. faxoniana forest. We suggest the fine-scale analysis on effects of bamboo abundance should be taken account into considering in heterogeneous patches in process of the succession and regeneration of natural forests.
The unique properties of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to self-renew and their multipotentiality have rendered them attractive to researchers and clinicians. In addition to the differentiation potential, the broad repertoire of secreted trophic factors (cytokines) exhibiting diverse functions such as immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory activity, angiogenesis and anti-apoptotic, commonly referred to as the MSC secretome, has gained immense attention in the past few years. There is enough evidence to show that the one important pathway by which MSCs participate in tissue repair and regeneration is through its secretome. Concurrently, a large body of MSC research has focused on characterization of the MSC secretome; this includes both soluble factors and factors released in extracellular vesicles, for example, exosomes and microvesicles. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the MSC secretome with respect to their potential clinical applications.
Hydroxyapatite is a biocompatible material that is extensively used in the replacement and regeneration of bone material. In nature, nanostructured hydroxyapatite is the main component present in hard body tissues. Hence, the state of the art in nanotechnology can be exploited to synthesize nanophase hydroxyapatite that has similar properties with natural hydroxyapatite. Sustainable methods to mass-produce synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are being developed to meet the increasing demand for these materials and to further develop the progress made in hard tissue regeneration, especially for orthopedic and dental applications. This article reviews the current developments in nanophase hydroxyapatite through various manufacturing techniques and modifications.
Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are a common form of trauma that leaves a huge trail of morbidity and human suffering in its wake. They occur mostly among the young, causing severe physical, psychological, social and economic burdens. The treatment of this condition has rather been disappointing; most of the management strategies being mainly supportive and prophylactic. In recent years there has been an emerging interest in the use of stem cells to regenerate the nervous tissue that has been damaged or lost. Although there has been much hype and unfounded hope, modest successes have been witnessed, and it is possible that these therapeutic strategies may have much more to offer in the future. This paper will review the current strategies of exploring cell-based therapies, mainly different types of stem cells to treat SCI along with the evidence that has been accumulated over the past decade in a rational bench-to-bedside approach. Furthermore, critical aspects such as the mode of delivery and ethical considerations are also discussed along with feasible suggestions for future translational research to provide a contextual picture of the current state of advancements in this field. The impediments to regeneration in the site of injury are briefly explained along with the benefits and drawbacks of different cell types used in the treatment of this condition. We hope that this review will offer a significant insight into this challenging clinical condition.
Efficient plant regeneration of Saintpaulia ionantha (African violet) has been obtained in the present study. MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IAA and 2.0 mg L(-1) Zeatin resulted in 100% shoot regeneration and induced the highest number of shoots (average 15.0 +/- 0.8 shoots per explant) after being cultured for 8 weeks. The above hormone combination was optimum for shoot regeneration. Most of Saintpaulia ionantha plantlets derived from tissue culture system could be hardened and transferred to the greenhouse conditions with 84.0 +/- 1.6% success rate. However, regenerated plantlets of Saintpaulia ionantha (even after 12-months-old) failed to flower. Morphological characters of regenerated plantlets of Saintpaulia ionantha were observed and compared with in vivo (intact) plants. Regenerated plantlets showed some differences in morphological characters, such as height and leaf size, texture and colour, but the plantlets showed no variation in leaf arrangement and leaf margin. However, the morphological characters of the regenerated plantlets were found to be unstable.
In the present study, we have reported a simple, fast and efficient regeneration protocol using mature embryos as explants, and discovered its effective applicability to a range of Indica rice genotypes. We have considered the response of six varieties in the steps of the regeneration procedure. The results showed that calli were variably developed from the scutellar region of seeds and visible within 6-20 days. The highest and lowest calli induction frequency (70% and 51.66%) and number of induced calli from seeds (14 and 10.33) were observed in MR269 and MRQ74, respectively. The maximum and minimum number (7.66 and 4) and frequency of embryogenic calli (38.33% and 20%) were recorded in MR219 and MRQ74, respectively. However, the highest browning rate was observed in MR84 (87%) and the lowest rate in MRQ50 (46%). The majority of plants regenerated from embryogenic calli were obtained from MRQ50 (54%) and the minimum number of plants from MR84. In this study, the maximum numbers of plantlets were regenerated from the varieties with highest rate of embryogenic calli. Also, various varieties, including MRQ50, MR269, MR276 and MR219, were satisfactorily responding, while MRQ74 and MR84 weakly responded to the procedure. Such a simple, successful and generalized method possesses the potential to become an important tool for crop improvement and functional studies of genes in rice as a model monocot plant.