MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed the data published in English language articles in the past 50 years in altering sperm concentration in European men.
RESULTS: A time-dependent decline of sperm concentration ( r = -0.307, p = 0.02) in the last 50 years and an overall 32.5% decrease in mean sperm concentration was noted.
CONCLUSION: This comprehensive, evidence-based meta-analysis concisely presents the evidence of decreased sperm concentration in European male over the past 50 years to serve the scientific research zone related to male reproductive health.
Aim: This paper seeks to explore doctors' treatment decisions made without parental consent when managing adolescents presenting with sexual and reproductive health issues.
Methods: Based on a qualitative approach, in-depth interviews with 25 doctors throughout Malaysia were conducted. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a thematic approach.
Results: Generally, doctors weigh any decision by examining the health risks and benefits involved. While fear of litigation influences treatment decisions, a strong adherence to the ethical duty of 'do no harm' outweighs other considerations. When all options are risky, choosing what is considered 'the lesser of two evils,' i.e., what is perceived to be in the best interest of the adolescent, is adopted.
Conclusions: The complexity of a medical decision related to adolescent SRH issues is increased further when legal requirements are not in synch with the ethical and personal values of doctors. The laws relating to parental consent should be promulgated with a provision allowing doctors to exercise discretion in terms of treating specific SRH issues without parental consent.
Methods: The data were collected through two focus group discussions (FGDs) and seven key informant interviews (KIIs). FGDs were held among male teachers of selected schools, and KIIs were conducted with health professionals of the health post of Bungamati, Lalitpur. An unstructured interview guide was used to explore their experiences and perceptions. All KIIs and FGDs were recorded, translated and transcribed verbatim.
Results: Findings show limited male involvement in reproductive health. Participants reported several hindering and challenging factors such as sociocultural and psychological norms, lack of education, and misinformation and dominance of female as health care providers in many MCH clinics. Perceived motivating factors included positive attitude in men, literacy and awareness, inclusion of reproductive health in school curriculum and certain incentives. Participants also recommended a range of strategies for increasing men's involvement in reproductive health in Nepal.
Conclusion: Men's education and attitude, knowledge and awareness, sociocultural factors, psychological factors, health system factors, and policies play important roles in male involvement in reproductive health. Programs on effective implementation of men involvement in reproductive health initiatives should address the barriers and challenges to men's supportive activities. This study also suggests increasing literacy of reproductive health among men that enhances their positivity and motivates them to participate in reproductive health services.