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  1. Koh KC, Lee WY, Eh ZW, Ismail NJ, Tee PS, Othman A, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Jun;68(3):249-52.
    PMID: 23749016
    Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with other drugs for the treatment of patients with HIV infection. Efavirenz has been reported to cause a positive urine cannabis test reaction which may create problems between HIV-infected patients on Efavirenz and law enforcement agencies. Doctors are at loss whether to issue documents certifying the potential false positive urine cannabis test with Efavirenz to patients. We investigated if the urine of HIV-infected patients on Efavirenz caused a positive urine cannabis test using the AxSYM Cannabinoids Assay®. Urine samples from 51 eligible patients on Efavirenz were tested for cannabis. All tested negative except for one who had used cannabis the day before. Efavirenz does not cause false positive urine cannabis test with the AxSYM Cannabinoids Assay®. Certification documents from doctors are therefore unnecessary.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  2. Chander S, Tang CR, Al-Maqtari HM, Jamalis J, Penta A, Hadda TB, et al.
    Bioorg. Chem., 2017 06;72:74-79.
    PMID: 28371664 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2017.03.013
    In the present study, a series of fourteen 5-benzoyl-4-methyl-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one derivatives were designed, synthesized and characterized by appropriate spectral analysis. Further, titled compounds were in-vitro screened against wild HIV-1 RT enzyme using ELISA based colorimetric assay, in which four compounds significantly inhibited the RT activity with IC50≤25µM. Moreover, two significantly active compounds of the series, A10 and A11 exhibited IC50 values 8.62 and 6.87µM respectively, during the in-vitro assay. Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies were performed for the synthesized compounds in order to estimate the effect of substitution pattern on the RT inhibitory potency. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated against T lymphocytes. Further, putative binding modes of the significantly active (A11) and the least active (A4) compounds with wild HIV-1 RT were also investigated using docking studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology*; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/chemistry
  3. Sim SM, Hoggard PG, Sales SD, Phiboonbanakit D, Hart CA, Back DJ
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 1998 Dec 20;14(18):1661-7.
    PMID: 9870320
    Zidovudine (ZDV) is converted to its active triphosphate (ZDVTP) by intracellular kinases. The intermediate ZDV monophosphate (ZDVMP) is believed to play a major role in ZDV toxicity. Manipulation of ZDV phosphorylation is a possible therapeutic strategy for altering the risk-benefit ratio. Here we investigate whether combining RBV with ZDV is able to modulate efficacy and toxicity of ZDV. We have measured the intracellular activation of ZDV (0.3 microM) in the absence and presence of ribavirin (RBV; 2 and 20 microM) in Molt 4 and U937 cells. MTT cytotoxicity of ZDV (10-1000 microM) was also measured with and without RBV (2 microM) in Molt 4 and U937 cells. Measurement of endogenous deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) allowed investigation of the dTTP/ZDVTP ratio. The antiviral efficacy of ZDV in combination with RBV (2 microM) was assessed by HIV p24 antigen measurements. In the presence of RBV (2 and 20 microM) a decrease in total ZDV phosphates was observed, owing mainly to an effect primarily on ZDVMP rather than the active ZDVTP. RBV also increased endogenous dTTP pools in both cell types, resulting in an increase in the dTTP/ZDVTP ratio. ZDV alone significantly reduced p24 antigen production, with an IC50 of 0.34 microM. Addition of RBV increased the IC50 approximately fivefold (1.52 microM). However, at higher concentrations of ZDV (10 and 100 microM) the antagonistic effect of RBV (2 microM) on ZDV was lost. The RBV-mediated decrease in ZDVMP may explain the reduction in ZDV toxicity when combined with RBV (2 microM). Cytotoxicity of ZDV was reduced in the presence of RBV (2 microM) at all concentrations in both cell lines, probably owing to saturation of ZDVTP formation. The interaction of ZDV and RBV is concentration dependent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/adverse effects; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  4. Guan R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:52-6.
    PMID: 16108174
    In the Asia Pacific region Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often acquired in individuals already infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The immune suppression caused by HIV infection reduces cellular immune response against HBV and liver inflammation may improve, but the risk of developing cirrhosis is not. HBV infection does not affect the progression of HIV disease. Anti-retroviral agents may be directly hepatotoxic and cause ALT elevations in patients with chronic hepatitis. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) improves immunity and as cytotoxic lymphocyte responses improve, hepatitis flares can occur, usually r within 3 months of initiation of HAART. These hepatitis flares may be followed by normalization of ALT and clearance of HBVDNA. If lamivudine is included in the HAART regime, hepatitis flares may not occur till late and these late flares signal the development of lamivudine resistant HBV strains (90% of HBV/HIV co-infection). Treatment options for chronic HBV infection include interferon (IFN), and nucleoside analogues. Lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) are nucleoside analogues with activity against both HBVDNA polymerase and HIV reverse transcriptase. The latter two compounds have added activity against lamivudine resistant HBVDNA. Lamivudine should be avoided in the initial treatment of both hepatitis B as well as HIV because of the high incidence of resistance. Interferon should be considered first for treatment of HBV in HIV co-infected individuals and is usually unsuccessful in the later stages of HIV infection when immune suppression is extreme. As new and improved agents in HAART continue to prolong survival, the use of liver transplantation for cirrhotic patients co-infected with HIV and HBV may increase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  5. Mustafa S, Hassan NB, Tan SC, Ab Rahman AK, Low LL, Wan Yusuf WN
    Turk J Med Sci, 2016 Dec 20;46(6):1875-1881.
    PMID: 28081342 DOI: 10.3906/sag-1503-116
    BACKGROUND/AIM: Nevirapine is a reverse-transcriptase inhibitor widely used in combination therapy to treat HIV infection. Nevirapine is extensively metabolized in the liver and CYP2B6 is mainly responsible for oxidation of 3-hydroxynevirapine (3-OH NVP). This study aims to explore CYP2B6 activity by measuring 2-hydroxynevirapine (2-OH NVP) and 3-OH NVP in plasma and to identify factors associated with nevirapine pharmacokinetic parameters.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 112 patients were recruited and treated with nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. Plasma nevirapine and metabolite concentrations were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography via liquid-liquid extraction.

    RESULTS: Thirty-nine (34.8%) of the patients had no 3-OH NVP detected in their plasma while 2-OH NVP was detected in all patients. Metabolite concentrations were low compared to nevirapine. Positive correlations were observed between nevirapine and its metabolites, 2-OH NVP (P < 0.01) and 3-OH NVP (P = 0.012). Nevirapine concentration was decreased when concomitantly administered with methadone. Univariate analysis showed that ALT level, AST level, and detection of 3-OH NVP were associated with nevirapine pharmacokinetic parameters.

    CONCLUSION: The variability of nevirapine pharmacokinetic parameters was caused by liver enzymes and the presence of 3-OH NVP metabolites. The presence of 3-OH NVP can probably be used to distinguished CYP2B6 activity and efficacy of nevirapine in patients with HIV infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  6. Lau GK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:57-62.
    PMID: 16108175
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  7. Gane E
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:88-9.
    PMID: 16108183
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
  8. Hanna L
    BETA, 1999 Apr;12(2):8-9.
    PMID: 11366704
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  9. Patil AD, Freyer AJ, Eggleston DS, Haltiwanger RC, Bean MF, Taylor PB, et al.
    J. Med. Chem., 1993 Dec 24;36(26):4131-8.
    PMID: 7506311
    As part of a search for novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, the acetone extract of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, was shown to be active. Fractionation of the extract yielded inophyllums A, B, C, and E and calophyllolide (1a, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6), previously isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., a known source of nutrition for A. fulica. From a methanol/methylene chloride extract of C. inophyllum, the same natural products in considerably greater yield were isolated in addition to a novel enantiomer of soulattrolide (4), inophyllum P (2b), and two other novel compounds, inophyllums G-1 (7) and G-2 (8). The absolute stereochemistry of inophyllum A (1a) was determined to be 10(R), 11(S), 12(S) from a single-crystal X-ray analysis of its 4-bromobenzoate derivative, and the relative stereochemistries of the other inophyllums isolated from C. inophyllum were established by a comparison of their 1H NMR NOE values and coupling constants to those of inophyllum A (1a). Inophyllums B and P (2a and 2b) inhibited HIV reverse transcriptase with IC50 values of 38 and 130 nM, respectively, and both were active against HIV-1 in cell culture (IC50 of 1.4 and 1.6 microM). Closely related inophyllums A, C, D, and E, including calophyllic acids, were significantly less active or totally inactive, indicating certain structural requirements in the chromanol ring. Altogether, 11 compounds of the inophyllum class were isolated from C. inophyllum and are described together with the SAR of these novel anti-HIV compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors*
  10. Wittawatmongkol O, Mohamed TJ, Le TP, Ung V, Maleesatharn A, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Virus Erad, 2015;1(3):192-195.
    PMID: 27076917
    After a median of 115.9 months of follow-up, 90% of 206 HIV-1-infected children in a cohort in Asia who initiated antiretroviral treatment (ART) with mono or dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were alive and had comparable immunological and virological outcomes as compared to the 1,915 children who had started with highly active antiretroviral regimens. However, these children had higher rates of treatment-related adverse events, opportunistic infections, and cumulative mortality, and were more likely to require protease inhibitor-containing regimens or other more novel ART-based regimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  11. Leung N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:22-7.
    PMID: 16108169
    Nucleot(s)ide analogues are making milestones in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) as safe oral therapy. FDA approved lamivudine in adult patients in 1998, adefovir dipivoxil in 2002, and entecavir in March 2005. Lamivudine is effective in viral suppression, ALT normalization, and improvement in histology in both HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative / HBV DNA positive patients. HBeAg seroconversion rates correlate directly with pretreatment ALT levels at 18-30% after one year of therapy. Hepatitis flares may occur if lamivudine is stopped before HBeAg seroconversion. Lamivudine resistant YMDD mutants emerge at a rate of 15-20% per year of therapy; often associated with the rebound viraemia, relapse of hepatitis or even hepatic decompensation. Durability of response off lamivudine therapy is not satisfactory and may be dependent on duration of therapy post-seroconversion. Lamivudine is well tolerated with few serious adverse events, even in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Long term therapy in viraemic patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis delays clinical progression. Adefovir dipivoxil is an oral prodrug of adefovir. 10 mg daily is effective in suppressing both wild-type HBV and YMDD mutants, normalising ALT and improving histology. Adefovir dipivoxil has been shown to be well tolerated in longterm therapy. Renal toxicity reported in higher dosages is rarely seen except among patients with creatinine clearance less than 50 ml/min. Adefovir resistance may emerge and the overall rate is much lower than lamivudine, reaching 18% after 4 years of therapy. Adefovir-resistant mutants (rt N236T) are susceptible to lamivudine and entecavir. Little data is available for durability of response off therapy. Entecavir is an oral nucleoside analogue with a recommended dosage of 0.5 mg daily for nucleoside-naive patients, and 1 mg daily for lamivudine-refractory patients. It is a potent antiviral and may also reduced intrahepatitic cccDNA. Entecavir resistance so far has only been detected in lamivudine resistant patients in the one-year studies. Patient counseling is very important to decide on the choice among available therapeutic options. The assessment of the risks/benefits of each option should be carefully explained to individual patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  12. Martin A, Moore C, Mallon PW, Hoy J, Emery S, Belloso W, et al.
    AIDS, 2013 Sep 24;27(15):2403-11.
    PMID: 23921615 DOI: 10.1097/01.aids.0000432534.47217.b4
    To compare changes over 48 weeks in bone mineral density (BMD) between participants randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) + raltegravir (RAL) or LPV/r + 2-3 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N(t)RTIs) as second line therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/administration & dosage; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/adverse effects*
  13. Boettiger DC, Sudjaritruk T, Nallusamy R, Lumbiganon P, Rungmaitree S, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Adolesc Health, 2016 Apr;58(4):451-459.
    PMID: 26803201 DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.11.006
    PURPOSE: About a third of untreated, perinatally HIV-infected children reach adolescence. We evaluated the durability and effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population.

    METHODS: Data from perinatally HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients initiated on NNRTI-based ART aged 10-19 years who had ≥6 months of follow-up were analyzed. Competing risk regression was used to assess predictors of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure (World Health Organization Stage 3/4 event or death). Viral suppression was defined as a viral load <400 copies/mL.

    RESULTS: Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8 years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from -2.3 to -1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6 months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-2.2; p = .05). Baseline CD4+ count ≤200 cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI = 1.2-8.9; p = .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI = 1.0-4.6; p = .05) were both associated with clinical failure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite late ART initiation, adolescents achieved good rates of catch-up growth, CD4+ count recovery, and virological suppression. Earlier ART initiation and routine cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in this population may help to reduce current rates of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  14. Cain LE, Phillips A, Lodi S, Sabin C, Bansi L, Justice A, et al.
    AIDS, 2012 Aug 24;26(13):1691-705.
    PMID: 22546987
    OBJECTIVE: To compare regimens consisting of either efavirenz or nevirapine and two or more nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) among HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive, and AIDS-free individuals with respect to clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes.

    DESIGN: Prospective studies of HIV-infected individuals in Europe and the US included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration.

    METHODS: Antiretroviral therapy-naive and AIDS-free individuals were followed from the time they started an NRTI, efavirenz or nevirapine, classified as following one or both types of regimens at baseline, and censored when they started an ineligible drug or at 6 months if their regimen was not yet complete. We estimated the 'intention-to-treat' effect for nevirapine versus efavirenz regimens on clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes. Our models included baseline covariates and adjusted for potential bias introduced by censoring via inverse probability weighting.

    RESULTS: A total of 15 336 individuals initiated an efavirenz regimen (274 deaths, 774 AIDS-defining illnesses) and 8129 individuals initiated a nevirapine regimen (203 deaths, 441 AIDS-defining illnesses). The intention-to-treat hazard ratios [95% confidence interval (CI)] for nevirapine versus efavirenz regimens were 1.59 (1.27, 1.98) for death and 1.28 (1.09, 1.50) for AIDS-defining illness. Individuals on nevirapine regimens experienced a smaller 12-month increase in CD4 cell count by 11.49 cells/μl and were 52% more likely to have virologic failure at 12 months as those on efavirenz regimens.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our intention-to-treat estimates are consistent with a lower mortality, a lower incidence of AIDS-defining illness, a larger 12-month increase in CD4 cell count, and a smaller risk of virologic failure at 12 months for efavirenz compared with nevirapine.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  15. Hashim H, Sahari NS, Sazlly Lim SM, Hoo FK
    Iran Red Crescent Med J, 2015 Oct;17(10):e19546.
    PMID: 26568856 DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.19546
    INTRODUCTION: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), in 1996, has resulted in marked reductions in the rate of illness and death, due to HIV infection. The HAART has transformed HIV infection into a manageable chronic disease. However, although many regimens lower plasma viral load, to below the limit of detection, in most patients, maintaining viral load suppression remains challenging, because of adverse effects and toxicity in the long term, which can lead to non-adherence, virologic failure and drug resistance. Although rare, lactic acidosis often develops fatal complications, as reported in several human immunodeficiency virus infected patients treated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The purpose of this paper is to report a case of tenofovir induced lactic acidosis and review the literature.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Malay gentleman, with hepatitis C virus and HIV infection was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe lactic acidosis, with concurrent Escherichia coli bacteremia with multiorgan dysfunction. The patient was started on highly active antiretroviral therapy, which included tenofovir, 5 weeks before presentation. Antimicrobial therapy, continuous veno-venous hemofiltration, and other supportive treatments were instituted. However, the patient eventually succumbed to his illness.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is essential for clinicians to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of lactic acidosis in NRTIs treated HIV patients, as an early diagnosis is important to institute treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  16. Zain RM, Ibrahim N, Ismail S, Suppiah J, Mat Rahim NA, Thayan R
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2017 Jan;10(1):75-78.
    PMID: 28107870 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.12.005
    OBJECTIVE: To determine drug resistance mutations and the HIV-1 subtypes among antiretroviral treatment naive HIV-1 patients in Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 45 samples from four hospitals that provide HIV viral load services were subjected to the amplification of the protease and two third of reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Drug resistance mutation (DRM) interpretation reports the presence of mutations related to protease inhibitors (PIs), Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) based on analysis using Stanford HIV database program.

    RESULTS: DRMs were identified in 35% of patients, among which 46.7% of them showed minor resistance to protease inhibitor with A71V and L10l were the commonest DRMs detected. About 21.4% and 50.0% of patients had mutations to NRTIs and NNRTIs, respectively. CRF01_AE was found to be the predominant HIV-1 subtype.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings have served as an initial crucial data in determining the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance for the country. However, more samples from various parts of the country need to be accumulated and analyzed to provide overall HIV-1 drug resistance in the country.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  17. Boyd MA, Amin J, Mallon PW, Kumarasamy N, Lombaard J, Wood R, et al.
    Lancet HIV, 2017 01;4(1):e13-e20.
    PMID: 27815068 DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30189-8
    BACKGROUND: Lipoatrophy is one of the most feared complications associated with the use of nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs). We aimed to assess soft-tissue changes in participants with HIV who had virological failure of a first-line antiretroviral (ART) regimen containing a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor plus two N(t)RTIs and were randomly assigned to receive a second-line regimen containing a boosted protease inhibitor given with either N(t)RTIs or raltegravir.

    METHODS: Of the 37 sites that participated in the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority SECOND-LINE study, eight sites from five countries (Argentina, India, Malaysia, South Africa, and Thailand) participated in the body composition substudy. All sites had a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner and all participants enrolled in SECOND-LINE were eligible for inclusion in the substudy. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated allocation schedule, to receive either ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus raltegravir (raltegravir group) or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus two or three N(t)RTIs (N[t]RTI group). Randomisation was stratified by site and screening HIV-1 RNA. Participants and investigators were not masked to group assignment, but allocation was concealed until after interventions were assigned. DXA scans were done at weeks 0, 48, and 96. The primary endpoint was mean percentage and absolute change in peripheral limb fat from baseline to week 96. We did intention-to-treat analyses of available data. This substudy is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01513122.

    FINDINGS: Between Aug 1, 2010, and July 10, 2011, we recruited 211 participants into the substudy. The intention-to-treat population comprised 102 participants in the N(t)RTI group and 108 participants in the raltegravir group, of whom 91 and 105 participants, respectively, reached 96 weeks. Mean percentage change in limb fat from baseline to week 96 was 16·8% (SD 32·6) in the N(t)RTI group and 28·0% (37·6) in the raltegravir group (mean difference 10·2%, 95% CI 0·1-20·4; p=0·048). Mean absolute change was 1·04 kg (SD 2·29) in the N(t)RTI group and 1·81 kg (2·50) in the raltegravir group (mean difference 0·6, 95% CI -0·1 to 1·3; p=0·10).

    INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that for people with virological failure of a first-line regimen containing efavirenz plus tenofovir and lamivudine or emtricitabine, the WHO-recommended switch to a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor plus zidovudine (a thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) and lamivudine might come at the cost of peripheral lipoatrophy. Further study could help to define specific groups of people who might benefit from a switch to an N(t)RTI-sparing second-line ART regimen.

    FUNDING: The Kirby Institute and the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/administration & dosage; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/adverse effects; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  18. Gill MSA, Hassan SS, Ahemad N
    Eur J Med Chem, 2019 Jun 24;179:423-448.
    PMID: 31265935 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.06.058
    HIV infection is a major challenge to mankind and a definitive cure or a viable vaccine for HIV is still elusive. HIV-1 is constantly evolving and developing resistant against clinically used anti-HIV drugs thus posing serious hurdles in the treatment of HIV infection. This prompts the need to developed new anti-HIV drugs; preferentially adopting intelligent ways to counteract an evolving virus. Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART): a strategy involving multiple targeting through various drugs has proven beneficial in the management of AIDS. However, it is a complex regimen with high drug load, increased risk of drug interactions and adverse effects, which lead to poor patient compliance. Reverse transcriptase (RT) and Integrase (IN) are two pivotal enzymes in HIV-1 lifecycle with high structural and functional analogy to be perceived as drug-able targets for novel dual-purpose inhibitors. Designed multi-functional ligand (DML) is a modern strategy by which multiple targets can be exploited using a single chemical entity. A single chemical entity acting on multiple targets can be much more effective than a complex multi-drug regimen. The development of such multifunctional ligands is highly valued in anti-HIV drug discovery with the proposed advantage of being able to stop two or more stages of viral replication cycle. This review will encompass the evolution of the RT-IN dual inhibitory scaffolds reported so far and the contribution made by the leading research groups over the years in this field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  19. Boettiger DC, Kerr S, Ditangco R, Merati TP, Pham TT, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(9):e106525.
    PMID: 25184314 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106525
    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has evolved rapidly since its beginnings. This analysis describes trends in first-line ART use in Asia and their impact on treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  20. Yap PK, Loo Xin GL, Tan YY, Chellian J, Gupta G, Liew YK, et al.
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2019 Sep;71(9):1339-1352.
    PMID: 31144296 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.13107
    OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral agents (ARVs) have been the most promising line of therapy in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Some of these ARVs are used in the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to suppress the transmission of HIV. Prophylaxis is primarily used in uninfected people, before exposure, to effectively prevent HIV infection. Several studies have shown that ART PrEP prevents HIV acquisition from sexual, blood and mother-to-child transmissions. However, there are also several challenges and limitations to PrEP. This review focuses on the current antiretroviral therapies used in PrEP.

    KEY FINDINGS: Among ARVs, the most common drugs employed from the class of entry inhibitors are maraviroc (MVC), which is a CCR5 receptor antagonist. Other entry inhibitors like emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) are also used. Rilpivirine (RPV) and dapivirine (DPV) are the most common drugs employed from the Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) class, whereas, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is primarily used in the Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTIs) class. Cabotegravir (CAB) is an analog of dolutegravir, and it is an integrase inhibitor. Some of these drugs are also used in combination with other drugs from the same class.

    SUMMARY: Some of the most common pre-exposure prophylactic strategies employed currently are the use of inhibitors, namely entry inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, integrase and protease inhibitors. In addition, we have also discussed on the adverse effects caused by ART in PrEP, pharmacoeconomics factors and the use of antiretroviral prophylaxis in serodiscordant couples.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
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