Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

  1. Chin WC, Zaidi Isa, Abu Hassan Shaari Mohd Nor
    This study investigates the value-at-risk (VaR) using nonlinear time-varying volatility (ARCH model) and extreme-value-theory (EVT) methodologies. Similar VaR estimation and prediction are observes under the EVT and heavy-tailed long-memory ARCH approaches. The empirical results evidence the EVT-based VaR are more accurate but only at higher quantiles. It is also found that EVT approach is able to provide a convenient framework for asymmetric properties in both the lower and upper tails which implies that the risk and reward are not equally likely for the short- and long-trading positions in Malaysian stock market.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  2. Mushtaq F, Guillen PP, Wilkie RM, Mon-Williams MA, Schaefer A
    Data Brief, 2016 Mar;6:378-85.
    PMID: 26862585 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2015.11.060
    Event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to decision outcomes are reported. Participants engaged in a gambling task (see [1] for details) in which they decided between a risky and a safe option (presented as different coloured shapes) on each trial (416 in total). Each decision was associated with (fully randomised) feedback about the reward outcome (Win/Loss) and its magnitude (varying as a function of decision response; 5-9 points for Risky decisions and 1-4 points for Safe decisions). Here, we show data demonstrating: (a) the influence of Win feedback in the preceding outcome (Outcome t-1) on activity related to the current outcome (Outcome t ); (b) difference wave analysis for outcome expectancy- separating Expected Outcomes (consecutive Loss trials subtracted from consecutive reward) from Unexpected Outcomes (subtracting Loss t-1Win t trials from Win t-1Loss t trials); (c) difference waves separating Switch and Stay responses for Outcome Expectancy; (d) the effect of magnitude induced by decisions (Risk t vs. Safe t ) on Outcome Expectancy; and finally, (e) expectations reflected by response switch direction (Risk to Safe responses vs. Safe to Risk t ) on the FRN at Outcome t .
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  3. Oleksandr Krasilshchikov
    Sports coaching and especially high performance coaching has long existed in some sort of duality. On one hand, sport coaching has been regarded by many as a prestigious and rewarding job, whereas on the other, sport coaching still lacks a reputation as a career opportunity mostly due to the fact that coaching is yet to receive its full professional recognition in the society. Given the vast variety of coaching qualifications, coaching roles and coaching occupations available within sport infrastructure in the society, the situation has got progressively complicated with the recognition of coaching qualifications. In addition, the growing popularity of high performance and participation sports in the society started drawing more attention from the public to the issues of coach education, competence and qualifications. Malaysian scenario on the issue is quite complicated as well, and growing demand to uplift the country’s performance in SEA, Asian, Commonwealth and Olympic Games requires interference from the higher education institutions and NGOs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  4. Mushtaq F, Wilkie RM, Mon-Williams MA, Schaefer A
    Neuroimage, 2016 Jan 15;125:868-879.
    PMID: 26497268 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.10.046
    Substantial evidence indicates that decision outcomes are typically evaluated relative to expectations learned from relatively long sequences of previous outcomes. This mechanism is thought to play a key role in general learning and adaptation processes but relatively little is known about the determinants of outcome evaluation when the capacity to learn from series of prior events is difficult or impossible. To investigate this issue, we examined how the feedback-related negativity (FRN) is modulated by information briefly presented before outcome evaluation. The FRN is a brain potential time-locked to the delivery of decision feedback and it is widely thought to be sensitive to prior expectations. We conducted a multi-trial gambling task in which outcomes at each trial were fully randomised to minimise the capacity to learn from long sequences of prior outcomes. Event-related potentials for outcomes (Win/Loss) in the current trial (Outcomet) were separated according to the type of outcomes that occurred in the preceding two trials (Outcomet-1 and Outcomet-2). We found that FRN voltage was more positive during the processing of win feedback when it was preceded by wins at Outcomet-1 compared to win feedback preceded by losses at Outcomet-1. However, no influence of preceding outcomes was found on FRN activity relative to the processing of loss feedback. We also found no effects of Outcomet-2 on FRN amplitude relative to current feedback. Additional analyses indicated that this effect was largest for trials in which participants selected a decision different to the gamble chosen in the previous trial. These findings are inconsistent with models that solely relate the FRN to prediction error computation. Instead, our results suggest that if stable predictions about future events are weak or non-existent, then outcome processing can be determined by affective systems. More specifically, our results indicate that the FRN is likely to reflect the activity of positive affective systems in these contexts. Importantly, our findings indicate that a multifactorial explanation of the nature of the FRN is necessary and such an account must incorporate affective and motivational factors in outcome processing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward*
  5. Shekhawat KS, Chauhan A
    Indian J Dent Res, 2019 3 23;30(1):125-126.
    PMID: 30900670 DOI: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_27_17
    Counting citations have been the usual norm to determine the impact of any research and/or scholar. However, with majority of the scholarly activities happening on the World Wide Web, traditional counting of citations is now being termed "slower." The recent explosion of online data storage for many articles may serve as a pool which uses social media sites to navigate. Altmetrics has been proposed as the new entity which aims to change the focus of the scholarly reward system to value and encourage web-native scholarship. This paper makes an attempt to understand altmetrics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  6. Fletcher MJ, Tsiligianni I, Kocks JWH, Cave A, Chunhua C, Sousa JC, et al.
    NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, 2020 06 17;30(1):29.
    PMID: 32555169 DOI: 10.1038/s41533-020-0184-0
    Asthma imposes a substantial burden on individuals and societies. Patients with asthma need high-quality primary care management; however, evidence suggests the quality of this care can be highly variable. Here we identify and report factors contributing to high-quality management. Twelve primary care global asthma experts, representing nine countries, identified key factors. A literature review (past 10 years) was performed to validate or refute the expert viewpoint. Key driving factors identified were: policy, clinical guidelines, rewards for performance, practice organisation and workforce. Further analysis established the relevant factor components. Review evidence supported the validity of each driver; however, impact on patient outcomes was uncertain. Single interventions (e.g. healthcare practitioner education) showed little effect; interventions driven by national policy (e.g. incentive schemes and teamworking) were more effective. The panel's opinion, supported by literature review, concluded that multiple primary care interventions offer greater benefit than any single intervention in asthma management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  7. Momose K, Yumoto T, Nagamitsu T, Kato M, Nagamasu H, Sakai S, et al.
    Am J Bot, 1998 Oct;85(10):1477-501.
    PMID: 21684899
    Flowerings and flower visitors were observed continuously in alowland dipterocarp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia, for 53 mo in1992-1996. Flower visitors of 270 plant species were observed orcollected, and pollinators were assessed by observing body contact tostigmas and anthers. We recognized 12 categories of pollination systems.Among them, plants pollinated by social bees included the largest numberof species (32%) and were followed by beetle-pollinated species(20%). Pollination systems were significantly related with somefloral characters (flowering time of day, reward, and floral shape), butnot with floral color. Based on the relationships between pollinatorsand floral characters, we described pollination syndromes found in alowland dipterocarp forest. The dominance of social bees and beetlesamong pollinators is discussed in relation to the general floweringobserved in dipterocarp forests of West Malesia. In spite of high plantspecies diversity and consequent low population densities of lowlanddipterocarp forests, long-distance-specific pollinators were uncommoncompared with theNeotropics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  8. Othman, M., Boo, H.C., Wan Rusni, W.I.
    The role of adolescents in family decision making related to food consumption in Malaysia has received comparatively little or no attention by researchers although there were evidences of differences in influences found in other countries. This study addressed the research gap by testing adolescents’ bilateral strategies in influencing their family decision using family power theory. A survey of 500 adolescents from urban area was conducted to investigate their influence based on their involvement in family consumer tasks. Key findings include strong relationship between perception of influence and rewards thus indicate the existence of strategies in adolescents influence attempt.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  9. Sharifa Ezat, A., Aljunid, S.M.
    A cross·sectional study was done to determine the capacity of Public Health Inspectors in Selangor using a seh administered questionnaire and universal sampling, to determine the enforcement of public health legislation and its influencing factors. A total of 99 respondents from the District Health Offices and 100 respondents from the Local Health Departments participated. The level of enforcement is generally low in all the units except for the Food Unit and Sanitary and Hygiene Units. Factors influencing enforcement of Public Health Legislations are the unit where the respondents worlc and the length of service with the unit. Further analysis using multiple logistic regression, found that respondents from the Food Unit (OR ZZ; 95% C1: 7 .9-58.9 ) , being in the
    U8 category (OR 5; 95% C1: l.4» 17.6), service offour years and above in the same unit (OR 6; 95% C1: 2.2»13.8) , received service rewards (OR 3; 95% C1 : 1.2· 6.9); low exposure to bribery (OR 46; 95% C1: 2.3·100.0) and offered bribes while on the field (OR 3; 95% C1: 1.02» 4.8) have higher kvel enforcement performance. Attention must be given to the enforcement organization with respect to duration of service, service awards and monitoring of bribes exposure to help develop the enforcement of public health legislations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  10. Sirageldin, Abubakr, Baharum Baharudin, Low, Tang Jung
    Developing a trust management scheme in mobile computing environment is increasingly important,
    and the effective trust management model is a challenging task. Business, education, military, and
    entertainment have motivated the growth of ubiquitous and pervasive computing environments, which are always available due to the widespread of portable and embedded devices. Wireless and mobile computing are good example of ubiquitous and pervasive computing environments. Due to the uncertainty and mobility in such environments, the issue of trust has been regarded as an important security problem. Malicious nodes are a major threat to these networks; the trust system can monitor the behaviour of nodes and accordingly rewards well-behaved nodes and punishes misbehaving ones. At present, there are a lot of endeavours on the trust model of the pervasive computing environment. In this paper, a trust management framework for mobile computing is presented. The hybrid framework is based on a fusion of the support vector machine (SVM) and fuzzy logic system. From the results, it can be stated that the framework is effective, dynamic, lightweight, and applicable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  11. Khairuddin S, Aquili L, Heng BC, Hoo TLC, Wong KH, Lim LW
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 2020 Aug 05;118:384-396.
    PMID: 32768489 DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.07.040
    Orexins are highly involved in regulating the circadian rhythm, the brain's reward mechanism, and the neuroendocrine response to stress. The disruption of orexin regulation is known to be associated with depression. Preclinical studies in rodents have identified the dorsomedial/perifornical and lateral areas of the hypothalamus as the population of orexinergic neurons that are primarily responsible for mediating depression-induced neuroanatomical changes in the brain. There is still no consensus regarding whether hyperactivity or hypoactivity of orexin signaling is responsible for producing depressive-like behaviour. Likewise, clinical studies indicated a general disruption in orexin signaling in depressive patients, but did not report definitive evidence of either hyperactivity or hypoactivity. Nevertheless, given the various reciprocal connections between orexin neurons and multiple brain regions, it is plausible that this involves a differential signaling network with orexin neurons as the coordination center. Here, an overview of preclinical and clinical evidence is provided as a basis for understanding the consequences of altered orexin signaling on neural circuitries modulating different aspects of the physiopathology of depression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  12. Loganathan K, Lv J, Cropley V, Ho ETW, Zalesky A
    Neuroscience, 2020 Nov 23.
    PMID: 33242540 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.11.026
    The process of valuation assists in determining if an object or course of action is rewarding. Delay discounting is the observed decay of a rewards' subjective value over time. Encoding the subjective value of rewards across a spectrum has been attributed to brain regions belonging to the valuation and executive control systems. The valuation system (VS) encodes reward value over short and long delays, influencing reinforcement learning and reward representation. The executive control system (ECS) becomes more active as choice difficulty increases, integrating contextual and mnemonic information with salience signals in the modulation of decision-making. Here, we aimed to identify resting-state functional connectivity-based patterns of the VS and ECS correlated with value-setting and delay discounting (outside-scanner paradigm) in a large (n=992) cohort of healthy young adults from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). Results suggest the VS may be involved in value-setting of small, immediate rewards while the ECS may be involved in value-setting and delay discounting for large and small rewards over a range of delays. We observed magnitude sensitive connections involving the posterior cingulate cortex, time-sensitive connections with the ventromedial and lateral prefrontal cortex while connections involving the posterior parietal cortex appeared both magnitude- and time-sensitive. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex could act as "comparator" regions, weighing the value of small rewards against large rewards across various delay duration to aid in decision-making.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  13. Ismail NIW, Jayabalan N, Mansor SM, Müller CP, Muzaimi M
    Addict Biol, 2017 Jul;22(4):967-976.
    PMID: 26990882 DOI: 10.1111/adb.12385
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a widely abused herbal drug preparation in Southeast Asia. It is often consumed as a substitute for heroin, but imposing itself unknown harms and addictive burdens. Mitragynine is the major psychostimulant constituent of kratom that has recently been reported to induce morphine-like behavioural and cognitive effects in rodents. The effects of chronic consumption on non-drug related behaviours are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic mitragynine treatment on spontaneous activity, reward-related behaviour and cognition in mice in an IntelliCage® system, and compared them with those of morphine and Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). We found that chronic mitragynine treatment significantly potentiated horizontal exploratory activity. It enhanced spontaneous sucrose preference and also its persistence when the preference had aversive consequences. Furthermore, mitragynine impaired place learning and its reversal. Thereby, mitragynine effects closely resembled that of morphine and THC sensitisation. These findings suggest that chronic mitragynine exposure enhances spontaneous locomotor activity and the preference for natural rewards, but impairs learning and memory. These findings confirm pleiotropic effects of mitragynine (kratom) on human lifestyle, but may also support the recognition of the drug's harm potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward*
  14. Salim MA, van der Veen FM, van Dongen JD, Franken IH
    Biol Psychol, 2015 Sep;110:50-8.
    PMID: 26188154 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.07.001
    Psychopathy has been associated with behavioral adaptation deficits, which might be associated with problems in feedback and reward processing. In the present study, we examined the relation between psychopathic traits and reward processing in a passive gambling task. A total of 39 male participants who scored high (HP) and 39 male participants who scored low (LP) on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), total score were tested. Feedback-related Event-Related Potentials (ERPs; i.e., P2, FRN, and P3) on predicted and unpredicted rewards and reward omissions were compared between both groups. It was found that in HP individuals, the P2 was enhanced for predicted rewards and reward omissions, but not for unpredicted stimuli. Moreover, HP individuals as compared to the LP individuals demonstrated a generally reduced P3 amplitude. The FRN amplitude, however, did not differ between the two groups. In addition, HP individuals showed enhanced reward sensitivity on the self-report level. Taken together, these findings suggest that HP individuals show enhanced sensitivity to early and reduced sensitivity to later markers of processing reinforcement learning signals, which points in the direction of compromised behavioral adaptation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward*
  15. Sakai S, Inoue T
    Am J Bot, 1999 Jan;86(1):56-61.
    PMID: 21680345
    Lowiaceae, a family of the Zingiberales, comprise 11 species in the single genus Orchidantha. Here we present the first report on the pollination of Lowiaceae and describe a new system of dung-beetle pollination from Sarawak, Borneo. Orchidantha inouei has a zygomorphic flower located just above the ground. Observations revealed that the plant is visited frequently and is pollinated by scarabaeid dung beetles, mainly members of the genus Onthophagus. All four species of Onthophagus collected on O. inouei have also been caught using traps baited with dung or carrion in Borneo. Onthophagus was presumably attracted to the dung-like odor of the flower. Pollination of O. inouei is different from other examples of beetle pollination in that its flower provides neither reward nor protected space. Dung beetles are excellent at following a particular dung scent. Orchidantha is the only genus that includes species lacking floral nectar. It is interesting that this deception pollination using dung beetles was found in Zingiberales, in which all known species have mutual and specialized relationships with their long-distance, but costly, pollinators-bees, birds, and bats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  16. Sakai S, Momose K, Yumoto T, Kato M, Inoue T
    Am J Bot, 1999 Jan;86(1):62-9.
    PMID: 21680346
    Pollination ecology of an emergent tree species, Shorea (section Mutica) parvifolia (Dipterocarpaceae), was studied using the canopy observation system in a lowland dipterocarp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia, during a general flowering period in 1996. Although the species has been reported to be pollinated by thrips in Peninsular Malaysia, our observations of flower visitors and pollination experiments indicated that beetles (Chrysomelidae and Curculionidae, Coleoptera) contributed to pollination of S. parvifolia in Sarawak. Beetles accounted for 74% of the flower visitors collected by net-sweeping, and 30% of the beetles carried pollen, while thrips accounted for 16% of the visitors, and 12% of the thrips carried pollen. The apical parts of the petals and pollen served as a reward for the beetles. Thrips stayed inside the flower almost continuously after arrival, and movements among flowers were rare. Fruit set was significantly increased by introduction of beetles to bagged flowers, but not by introduction of thrips. Hand-pollination experiments and comparison of fruit set in untreated, bagged, and open flowers suggested that S. parvifolia was mainly outbreeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  17. Rakesh, S., Hazli, Z., Ahmad Nabil, M.R.
    Objective: Individuals with ADHD are known to have more risk of developing substance use disorder (SUD). However the underlying mechanisms behind it are not straightforward. Method: We report a case of an adult with ADHD, who has a long standing history of polysubstance use, since the age of 10. He had multiple relapses, even after numerous efforts undertaken to keep him drug-free. Result: ADHD symptoms were not optimally treated during admission. He had preference towards opioid-based and amphetamine-type substances in order to attain euphoria. Conclusion: Taking into account the biological and psycho-social condition of this man, we discussed the role of ADHD from the perspective of dysfunctional rewards system and other possible factors in explaining his drug-craving behavior.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  18. Adlina, S., Narimah, A.H.H., Hakimi, Z.A., N Adilah, H., N Syuhada, Y.
    Employee satnfaction surveys can provide the information needed to improved levek of productivity, job and loyalty. Management can identify the factors of job issues and provide solutions to improve the working environment. A cross sectional descriptive study on employee satisfaction among a health care district office’s staff was conducted in Perak in March - April 2006. A total of 19 staff were randomly picked and interviewed in the data collection process. Almost all understand the objectives of the administration unit (94%) and were satisfied with the management leadership’s style (78%- l 00%) . Majority agreed that their relationship with immediate superior and within the group was harmonious and professional (89%) and they preferred an open problem solving method in handling conflict (72 %). The most common type of incentive rewarded by the administration to express gratitude to their staff was certificate (56%); bonus and medal (33%); and informal gesture (28%). Majority (83%) were also satisfied by the method used to disseminate the information in their units. Majority agreed that the working environment in the administration unit were conducive (72%), their ideas were equally considered during decision making sessions (89%) and training opportunities were similarly given to them by the management (72%). This study revealed that employee satisfaction was determined by several factors such as management leadership's style, opportunity to contribute skills and idea; reward and incentive; and conducive king environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  19. Harman GE, Doni F, Khadka RB, Uphoff N
    J Appl Microbiol, 2019 Jul 04.
    PMID: 31271695 DOI: 10.1111/jam.14368
    The world faces two enormous challenges that can be met, at least in part and at low cost, by making certain changes in agricultural practices. There is need to produce enough food and fibre for a growing population in the face of adverse climatic trends, and to remove greenhouse gases to avert the worst consequences of global climate change. Improving photosynthetic efficiency of crop plants can help meet both challenges. Fortuitously, when crop plants' roots are colonized by certain root endophytic fungi in the genus Trichoderma, this induces up-regulation of genes and pigments that improve the plants' photosynthesis. Plants under physiological or environmental stress suffer losses in their photosynthetic capability through damage to photosystems and other cellular processes caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). But certain Trichoderma strains activate biochemical pathways that reduce ROS to less harmful molecules. This and other mechanisms described here make plants more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses. The net effect of these fungi's residence in plants is to induce greater shoot and root growth, increasing crop yields, which will raise future food production. Furthermore, if photosynthesis rates are increased, more CO2 will be extracted from the atmosphere, and enhanced plant root growth means that more sequestered C will be transferred to roots and stored in the soil. Reductions in global greenhouse gas levels can be accelerated by giving incentives for climate-friendly carbon farming and carbon cap-and-trade programmes that reward practices transferring carbon from the atmosphere into the soil, also enhancing soil fertility and agricultural production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
  20. Soe HHK, Than NN, Lwin H, Phyu KL, Htay MNN, Moe S, et al.
    J Family Med Prim Care, 2018 9 21;7(4):756-761.
    PMID: 30234049 DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_300_17
    Background: Disease surveillance is one of the major components to combat against infectious diseases. As health-care professionals are indispensable to mandatory notifiable disease surveillance, their knowledge and attitudes toward infectious disease notification played an important role for timely and effective reporting to the surveillance system. Therefore, we aimed to determine the knowledge of mandatory notifiable infectious diseases in Malaysia and attitude towards infectious disease reporting among final year medical students.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2017 in the private medical college in Malaysia.

    Materials and Methods: We purposively selected the final year (semester 10) medical students and a total of 124 students participated in this study. We collected data using a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-test, and one-way analysis of variance.

    Results: Among the final year medical students, 47.5% had moderate knowledge but 4.2% had good knowledge of mandatory infectious disease notification. Only 3.2% of the students correctly answered all the notifiable diseases listed in the questionnaire. Most of the students had positive attitude toward communicable diseases reporting, rewards, and penalty for notification. There was no significant relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge and attitude of infectious disease notification.

    Conclusions: The majority of the final year medical students had moderate level of knowledge and positive attitude of infectious disease notification; however, there were some deficiencies. Better instruction and training on infectious disease notification procedures of Malaysia should be provided to the final year medical students which could not only reduce underreporting but also improve timely and effective reporting in future.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reward
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