Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Robertson M
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever
  2. Gururaj AK, Choo KE, Ariffin WA, Sharifah A
    Singapore Med J, 1990 Aug;31(4):364-7.
    PMID: 2255935
    A retrospective study of 42 children with acute rheumatic fever admitted to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from April 1985 to March 1989 was undertaken to assess the clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic aspects and outcome. The ages of the children ranged from 5 years 9 months to 11 years 11 months. There was no significant sex difference. 69.4% were admitted between November and April with a seasonal low between May and August. Sixteen children (38.1%) were hospitalised for recurrence of rheumatic fever. Carditis was the commonest manifestation and was seen in 28 (66.6%) children, followed by arthritis in 24 (57.1%), and chorea in 3 (7.1%). Echocardiography detected abnormalities in 24 out of 35 cases and the most common echocardiographic findings were poor coaptation of mitral valve (ten) left ventricular dilatation (ten), thickened mitral valve cusps (seven) and pericardial effusion (seven). In those children followed up, there were 2 recurrences while on secondary prophylaxis and complete recovery was seen only in 11 (26.9%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever/pathology*; Rheumatic Fever/physiopathology
  3. Ibrahim NN, Jaafar H, Rasool AH, Wong AR
    Med J Malaysia, 2016 02;71(1):23-5.
    PMID: 27130739
    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is associated with systemic inflammation and arterial stiffness during the acute stage. It has not been reported if arterial stiffness remains after recovery. The aim of this study was to determine the arterial stiffness during acute stage and 6 months after recovery from ARF. Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 23 ARF patients during the acute stage of ARF and 6 months later. Simultaneously, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and other anthropometric measurements were taken during both stages. There was a significant reduction in PWV; 6.5 (6.0, 7.45) m/s to 5.9 (5.38, 6.48) m/s, p=0.003 6 months after the acute stage of ARF. Similarly, ESR was also significantly reduced from 92.0 (37.5, 110.50) mm/hr to 7.0 (5.0, 16.0) mm/hr, p=0.001. In conclusion, arterial stiffness improved 6 months after the acute stage with routine aspirin treatment; this correlates well with the reduction in systemic inflammation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever/complications*
  4. Galloway DJ
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever
  5. Dicum MLG
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever
  6. Omar A
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Jun;50(2):125-30.
    PMID: 7565180
    Hospital records of children admitted to the department of Paediatrics, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, from January 1981 to December 1990, who were diagnosed to have acute rheumatic fever (ARF) were studied. 134 children satisfied the Jones' modified criteria, thus giving a hospital incidence of 21.2/100,000 paediatric admission per year, of which incidence of first attack was 15.8/100,000 per year and recurrent attack was 5.38/100,000 per year. The M:F ratio is 1.39:1. Majority of cases occur in the 6-11 years age group with 6 cases encountered below the age of 5. The Indians had a higher relative risk to develop both the first acute attack as well as recurrences with a relative risk of 2.4 and 4.10 respectively as compared to the Malays. Majority of the patients, irrespective of the ethnic group, came from families with low income.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever/ethnology; Rheumatic Fever/epidemiology*
  7. Jamal F, Pit S, Kasni S, Yasin MS, Aton SB, Singh K
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 1997;418:35-7.
    PMID: 9331592
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever/microbiology; Rheumatic Fever/epidemiology
  8. Jamal F
    Family Practitioner, 1988;11(1):73-74.
    Group A streptococcus is an important cause of pharyngitis, skin infection and or its non-suppurative sequelae, i.e. rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. The National Streptococcus Reference Laboratory was established in 1982 to collect data on various aspects of this infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever
  9. Jamal F, Mohd Salleh H, Tan SP
    World Health Forum, 1994;15(1):56-7.
    PMID: 8141979
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever/complications
  10. Chen ST, Dugdale AE, Puthucheary SD
    Trop Geogr Med, 1972 Sep;24(3):257-64.
    PMID: 4636100
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever/epidemiology
  11. Hung, Liang Choo
    Background: Kawasaki Disease (KD) and acute rheumatic fever are the two leading causes of acquired heart disease in children in the developing countries. Objectives: To determine the epidemiology of KD and its short-term outcome in Malaysian children. Materials & Methods: A retrospective study of patients with a diagnosis of KD at the Kuala Lumpur Hospital from January 1999 to December 2003. Results: 84 patients with KD were seen over the 5 year period. Of these, 52 (61.90%) were male and 32 (38.10%) female. Malays comprised 51 (60.71%), Chinese 30 (35.71%) and Indian 3 (3.57%). Their ages ranged from 2 months to 11 years 1 month old. There were 25 (29.76%) patients less than one year old, 50 (59.52%) aged 1-4 years, 4 (4.76%) aged 5-7 years and 5 (5.95%) were more than 7 years old. Echocardiographic examination during the acute phase showed that 24 patients (28.57%) had coronary artery dilatation; 23 had mild dilatation and one had giant aneurysm involving both coronary arteries. Echocardiographic examination at 8 weeks showed that 5 (21.74%) of the 23 patients with mildly dilated coronary arteries had resolved; the bilateral giant coronary aneurysms remained the same. There was no death due to KD over the 5 year period. Conclusion: KD occurred most commonly in children aged 1-4 years old with a peak at 17 months. There was male preponderance with a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. Despite immunoglobulin therapy, 29% of patients had coronary artery involvementduring the acute phase; 22% of those with mild coronary artery dilatation resolved at 8 weeks after disease onset.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever
  12. Foong Sim Lee, Halimatus Sakdiah Minhat, Siti Anom Ahmad
    Introduction: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a common disabling condition among older adults with the major- ity, remain undertreated. This study aimed to determine the uptake of non-pharmacological treatment for chronic musculoskeletal pain among older adults and the associated factors. Methods: A stratified sampling proportionate to size with individual clinics as the strata were used to recruit 276 respondents from six public health clinics in Petaling district, one of the most aged districts in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Based on the proportion calculat- ed, eligible older adults were selected by systematic random sampling from the registration list. Data was collected using a pre-tested and validated questionnaire through a face-to-face interview with respondents. The questionnaire comprised of seven sections, namely, socio-demographic, comorbidity, depression, pain severity, treatment options, attitude towards chronic pain and chronic musculoskeletal pain. Inferential analysis was conducted using Chi- Square (X2) and Fisher’s Exact Tests. The P value of < 0.05 regarded as statistically significant. Results: A total of 242 (87.7%) of the respondents had chronic musculoskeletal pain, in which 235 (85.1%) were treated with non-pharma- cological treatments. The commonly used non-pharmacological treatments were exercise (67.8%), biological-based therapies (40.9%) and massage (33.7%). The uptake of non-pharmacological treatment for chronic musculoskeletal pain among older adults was significantly associated with the presence of diabetes. Conclusion: The findings re- vealed the remarkably high uptake of non-pharmacological treatment among older adults who experienced chronic musculoskeletal pain which was significantly associated with diabetes and the presence of other diseases like high blood pressure, osteoarthritis, back pain and rheumatic arthritis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever
  13. Putri Yubbu, Johan Aref Jamaluddin, Lydia Chang Mun Yin, Geetha Kandavello, Mazeni Alwi, Hasri Samion, et al.
    The present study aims to determine the limitations of traditional Jones criteria during the first episode of acute rheu- matic fever (ARF) at the initial referral hospital, in a cohort of patients below 18 years old who had undergone mitral valve repair in National Heart Institute (IJN) from 2011 to 2016. Carditis followed by fever and joint involvement were the most frequent manifestations at first diagnosis. Of the 50 patients, only seven (14%) fulfilled the traditional Jones criteria for the diagnosis of the first episode of ARF. When compulsory evidence of a previous group A Beta he- molytic streptococcus (GABHS) was disregarded, this figure rose to 54%. Therefore, strict adherence to Jones criteria with absolute documentation of GABHS will lead to underdiagnoses of ARF. The application of echocardiographic diagnostic criteria of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) needs to be emphasized to allow early diagnosis and adminis- tration of secondary prophylaxis to prevent progression to severe valvular disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever
  14. Yao LJ, Jalil J, Attiq A, Hui CC, Zakaria NA
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2018 Oct 11.
    PMID: 30316887 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.10.001
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Polyalthia is one of the largest and notable genera in Annonaceae family. Polyalthia species have been widely used in folklore medicine for the treatment of rheumatic fever, gastrointestinal ulcer and generalized body pain. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on Polyalthia Species have also corroborated the significant anti-inflammatory potential of its extracts and secondary metabolites.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: This review is an attempt to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of Polyalthia species by giving critical appraisal and establishing evidences of their traditional uses. Moreover this review will highlight the lead compounds for future drug development that can serve as a potential anti-inflammatory drug with comparative efficacy and minimum side effects.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: An extensive literature review, focusing the anti-inflammatory potential of Polyalthia species was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Ovid, Scopus and ProQuest, as well as the locally available books, journals and relevant documents. The reference lists of retrieved papers were also searched for additional studies.

    RESULTS: The Polyalthia species have shown significant anti-inflammatory activity through various mechanism of action. The most significant anti-inflammatory mechanism includes the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), prostaglandins (PGs), pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The data suggests that hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide and 16-oxocleroda-3,13-dien-15-oic acid, quercetin, rutin, spinasterol, α-spinasterol, goniothalamin and (-)-5-hydroxygoniothalamin are the most potent anti-inflammatory compounds from Polyalthia species with comparable IC50 with positive controls.

    CONCLUSIONS: Numerous pharmacological studies have supported the use of Polyalthia species against pain, rheumatic fever, haemorrhages and inflammation in traditional medicine. Flavonoids, diterpenoids, sterols and styrylpyrones from genus Polyalthia are the most significant class of compounds with potent anti-inflammatory activity. Secondary metabolites from these classes should be brought into further research to fill the gaps of knowledge in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, bioavailability, and toxicity in order to convert the pre-clinical results into clinical data for further investigation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever
  15. Nor Hidayah ZA, Azerin O, Mohd Nazri A
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 10;73(5):323-325.
    PMID: 30350813 MyJurnal
    Acute Rheumatic fever (ARF) is commonly associated with ECG abnormalities particularly atrioventricular block. However, third degree atrioventricular block or complete heart block is a rare manifestation. Most cases occurred in children. We reported a 25 year old man who developed complete heart block during an acute episode of ARF. He presented to hospital with five days history of fever, malaise and migrating arthralgia, followed by pleuritic chest pain. One day after admission his electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed complete heart block. Transthoracic echocardiography showed good left ventricular function with thickened, mild mitral regurgitation with minimal pericardial effusion. ASOT titer was positive with elevated white blood count and acute phase reactant. A temporary pacemaker was inserted in view of symptomatic bradycardia. The complete heart block resolved after medical therapy. He was successfully treated with penicillin, steroid and aspirin. He was discharged well with oral penicillin. The rarity of this presentation is highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever
  16. Sinniah D
    Med J Malaya, 1971 Dec;26(2):84-9.
    PMID: 4260865
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever
  17. Lin, Hai Peng, Mohd Sham Kasim
    Malaysia is a rapidly developing country with a very young population, about 36% of which are below the age of 15 years. The standard of child health has improved greatly. However, there are great changes in the morbidity and mortality patterns of childhood diseases relating mainly to an improved standard of living; availability of safe water supply and adequate sanitary latrines; a higher literacy rate; rapid industrialisation and urban migration. The infant mortality rate has droppedfrom 50.1 per 1,000 livebirths in 1986 to 10.4 in 1995, and similar trends apply also to neonatal, perinatal and toddler mortality rates. Nevertheless, current major child health problems are those relating to events in the perinatal period and to infections. Despite improvements in the standard of neonatal care with the use ofhigh technology, the commonest cause of certified deaths still occur in the neonatal period. A rapid and inexpensive screening test for G6PD deficiency, a disease present in 2-3% of the population, is now widely available and, together with the use of phototherapy is largely responsible for the declining incidence of kernicterus in the country. Infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality although their patterns have changed. The very high (>95%) WHO-EPI-vaccines coverage rate is linked to the great reduction in the incidence of diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis and measles. Childhood tuberculosis is less common now, with about 250 - 300 reported cases per year and TB meningitis is rare with about 30-40 reported cases/year. The hepatitis B carrier rate is high (5%) and the introduction of routine newborn hepatitis B vaccination in 1989 is expected to have a positive impact as is the immunisation of young girls against rubella introduced in 1985 in reducing the incidence of congenital rubella syndrome. The incidence of malaria has declined but remains prevalent in the interiors of PeninsularMalaysia and in Sabah and Sarawak. Filariasis is largely under control. Unfortunately, despite great efforts at mosquito control, dengue virus infection remains a major problem with thousands of cases reported every year. Children are most susceptible to dengue haemorrhagic fever with many dying from the shock syndrome. The incidence of acute gastroenteritis has also dropped with most cases being due to a viral aetiology. Acute respiratory infections, mostly viral in origin, account for most attendances at paediatric outpatient services. Although staphylococcal and streptococcal impetigo and pneumonia are common, the incidence of streptococcal related diseases like rheumatic fever and acute glomendonephritis is rapidly declining. The nutritional status of children has improved in tandem with the rise in the standard of living, but subclinical malnutrition is prevalent, particularly among urban squatters and the rural poor. There is a disturbing decline in breastfeeding among urban working mothers. Poor weaning practices and food habits are responsible for the common occurrence of nutritional anaemia (5%) among infants and young children. Greater prosperity, rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in changes in the childhood disease pattern where non-communicable diseases assume greater importance as the problems of malnutrition and infection are gradually overcome. Road traffic accidents are a major killer and home accidents, largely preventable, are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Childhood cancer, with about 550 new cases a year, is an important cause of death beyond infancy. Major congenital malformations, with a 1% prevalence rate, cause much ill-health. Thalassaemia is a particularly common genetic disease with fl thalassaemia gene frequency of about 5%. The prevalence of asthma is increasing, with a rate of 13.9% in the Kiang Valley but the prevalence of asthma-related symptoms is much higher. Physical, sexual child abuse and neglect, abandoned babies, substance abuse are but signs of stress of modern city living and peoples inability to cope with it. Although the general standard of child health has greatly improved, there are several states where it is still not satisfactory. In Sabah where there is a large illegal immigrant population, the infant mortality and infection rates are relatively high. In Kelantan and Trengganu, it is common for parents to refuse permission for a lumbar puncture required to treat meningitis. Other still deeply entrenched, culturally-related adverse health practices include : a fatalistic attitude to illness; a preference for traditional practitioners of medicine resulting in late treatment; and 'doctor-hopping' with unrealistic expectations of 'instant cure'. Childhood illnesses that are uncommon in Malaysia include: cystic fibrosis, coeliac disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Encopresis, enuresis and epiglottitis due to Haemophilus Influen:ae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rheumatic Fever
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