OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the mean percentages and absolute counts of CD4+ memory T cell subsets between: (i) non-allergic controls and AR patients; (ii) mild AR patients and moderate-severe AR patients.
METHODS: Sensitization to Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were determined in 33 non -allergic controls, 28 mild AR and 29 moderate-severe AR patients. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentage of CD4+ na?ve (TN; CD45RA+CCR7+), central memory (TCM; CD45RA-CCR7+), effector memory (TEM; CD45RA-CCR7-) and TEMRA (CD45RA+CCR7-) T cells from the peripheral blood. The absolute counts of CD4+ T cell subsets were obtained by dual platform method from flow cytometer and hematology analyzer.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the mean percentages and absolute counts of CD4+ T cell subsets between non-allergic controls and AR patients sensitized to HDMs. However, there were significant reduction in the mean percentage (p=0.0307) and absolute count (p=0.0309) of CD4+ TEMRA cells in moderate-severe AR patients compared to mild AR patients sensitized to HDMs and 13/24 (54.2%) moderate-severe AR patients sensitized to HDMs had persistent symptoms.
CONCLUSION: Reduction in the mean percentage and absolute count of CD4+CD45RA+CCR7- TEMRA cells were observed in moderate-severe AR patients compared to mild AR patients in our population of AR patients sensitized to HDMs.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic characteristics of inferior turbinate tissue biopsy sIgE in asymptomatic and rhinitic patients.
METHODS: A diagnostic cross-sectional study was undertaken, involving patients who underwent inferior turbinate surgery with or without other surgical interventions. Inferior turbinate tissue biopsy was performed during surgery and was assessed for allergen sIgE (dust mite, grass [temperate or subtropical], and animal epithelium) using an automated immunoassay. Tissue sIgE was assessed among asymptomatic patients and those with nasal symptoms. Data were presented as median (interquartile range). A receiver operating curve was used to predict the diagnostic utility of turbinate tissue sIgE in determining allergic rhinitis.
RESULTS: A total of 160 patients (41.89 ± 14.65 years, 36.9% females) were included. The median tissue sIgE concentration among the asymptomatic nonatopic group of patients was 0.09 (0.08-0.10) kUA/L and tissue sIgE > 0.10 kUA/L was determined as a positive threshold. Inferior turbinate tissue sIgE was shown to be a predictive test for allergic rhinitis (area under curve: 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.84-0.90) with 90% sensitivity and 89% negative predictive value.
CONCLUSION: Inferior turbinate tissue biopsy sIgE is a sensitive tool to predict allergic rhinitis. The threshold value of 0.1 kUA/L corresponded well with the asymptomatic nonatopic group of patients. This method detects sIgE in the nasal mucosa and may be a useful test for allergic rhinitis in future research.
METHODS: Malay, Chinese, and Indian AR patients (n = 138) with confirmed sensitivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dematophagoides farinae, and Blomia tropicalis were tested for mite-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) levels. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect data on nasal symptom score (NSS), ocular symptom score (OSS), sum of symptoms score (SSS), quality of life score (QLS), symptomatic control score (SCS), and total sum of scores (TSS) and correlate the derived data with patients' demography, mite-polysensitivity, and sIgE levels.
RESULTS: AR-related symptoms were most severe in Malays and least in Chinese (p < 0.01). Age (r = 0.516 to 0.673, p < 0.05) and duration of AR (r = 0.635 to 0.726, p < 0.01) correlated positively with severity domains (NSS, SSS, QLS, and TSS) in Chinese. Duration of concurrent allergies was highest in Malays (p < 0.05). Polysensitivity predicted increased sIgE levels in Malays (r = 0.464 to 0.551, p < 0.01) and Indians (r = 0.541 to 0.645, p < 0.05) but affected NSS, SSS, and TSS only in Indians (r = 0.216 to 0.376, p < 0.05). sIgE levels were lowest among Chinese but correlated strongly with NSS, OSS, SSS, and TSS (r = 0408 to 0.898, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Clinical parameters in AR may be influenced by race. Symptoms were most severe among Malays but did not correlate with other variables examined. Although Indian ethnicity did not impact disease severity, duration of concurrent allergies and mite-polysensitivity was associated with more severe disease. Age, duration of disease, and sIgE levels may be useful indicators of disease severity in Chinese.