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  1. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, Leecyous B, Murad S
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2014 Aug;13(4):240-6.
    PMID: 24659159
    Component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) using microarray technology has recently been introduced with the aim to improve diagnosis of allergy. The aim of this study was to compare performance of this allergen microarray to those of an established extract-based skin prick testing (SPT).45 patients with allergic rhinitis were studied (16 children and 29 adults). SPT to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis extracts and allergen microarray ImmunoCAP ISAC were carried out for all patients. Forty out of 45 patients demonstrated positive SPT to all mite extracts tested. These 40 patients were considered to be mite-allergic based on the positive SPT results. The remaining 5 patients with negative SPT to any mite extracts were classified as non-mite allergic. Comparatively, based on the microarray results, only 34 mite-allergic patients had detectable serum IgE to at least one of the mite allergen components tested whereas 6 patients with positive SPT to mite extracts showed no detectable IgE reactivity to any of the components tested. One non-mite allergic patient had a positive test- Blo t 5. Der p 10-positive patients also reacted to other cross-reactive tropomyosin from anisakis (Ani s 3) (25%), cockroach (Bla g 7) (50%) and shrimp (Pen m 1) (75%). CRD is a reliable tool for the diagnosis of allergy to mites. Der p 10 might be a useful indicator to identify a subset of mite-allergic patient that have additional sensitization due to cross-reactivity and thus allows selection of patients for immunotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis*
  2. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Bakhtiar F, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Leecyous B, Murad S
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2016 Apr;15(2):156-60.
    PMID: 27090369
    Allergy diagnosis needs to be improved in polysensitized patients due to the existence of possible confounding factors in this type of patients. Component resolved diagnosis (CRD) is a new concept in the investigation of polysensitized patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the utilization of ImmunoCAP ISAC improve the diagnosis of the polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Skin prick test (SPT) to 58 crude allergen extracts and CRD (ImmunoCAP ISAC) were carried out for 5 polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Two patients had a shellfish allergy and avoidance of shellfish was the only way to prevent an allergic reaction. In contrast, although the remaining three patients had low risk for shellfish allergy, but they were the best candidates for immunotherapy using mite extracts. CRD and particularly ImmunoCAP ISAC have proven to be a valuable diagnostic tool in polysensitized patients. ImmunoCAP ISAC helps refine the individual patient's sensitization profile and predict the potential risk of allergic reactions and improve the selection of patients for immunotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis*
  3. Saricilar EC, Hamizan A, Alvarado R, Rimmer J, Sewell W, Tatersall J, et al.
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2018 Jul;32(4):244-251.
    PMID: 29785855 DOI: 10.1177/1945892418777668
    Background Rhinitis is a highly prevalent yet often misdiagnosed condition. Patients who have local allergic rhinitis are regularly mislabeled as having a nonallergic etiology. Thus, a highly accurate, reproducible, and noninvasive assessment, which can be performed quickly and with minimal discomfort to the patient, is required. Objective The aim of this research was to identify the efficiency of various nasal brushes as tools for harvest and collection of epithelial proteins and its suitability for identification of rhinitis. Methods Nasal epithelial mucosa samples were taken from patients undergoing turbinate surgery using a cytology brush, a dental brush, and a nasal curette in random order. After washing in phosphate-buffered saline, the suspended cells were sonicated. Total protein content was assessed for all samples by bicinchoninic acid assay measured using a Nanodrop machine. Identification of nasal-specific immunoglobulin E (spIgE) was then assessed using immunoassay and compared to the patient's allergic status from epicutaneous and serum testing. The lower threshold limit for the spIgE in nasal brushings was determined using the results of serum spIgE tests as the reference. The diagnostic accuracy of this new established cutoff value was determined. Results The cytology brush was found to be the optimal tool for maximal nasal mucosa protein collection followed by dental brush and nasal curette (0.75 ± 0.45 mg/mL vs 0.43 ± 0.24 mg/mL vs 0.071 ± 0.55 mg/mL, respectively; P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis*
  4. Sani MM, Ashari NSM, Abdullah B, Wong KK, Musa KI, Mohamud R, et al.
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2019 Sep;37(3):138-146.
    PMID: 29981564 DOI: 10.12932/AP-191217-0220
    BACKGROUND: Terminally differentiated effector memory (TEMRA) T cells exert potent effector function after activation. The proportions of CD4+ T cell subsets especially memory cells in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients sensitized to house dust mites (HDMs) have not been extensively studied.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the mean percentages and absolute counts of CD4+ memory T cell subsets between: (i) non-allergic controls and AR patients; (ii) mild AR patients and moderate-severe AR patients.

    METHODS: Sensitization to Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were determined in 33 non -allergic controls, 28 mild AR and 29 moderate-severe AR patients. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentage of CD4+ na?ve (TN; CD45RA+CCR7+), central memory (TCM; CD45RA-CCR7+), effector memory (TEM; CD45RA-CCR7-) and TEMRA (CD45RA+CCR7-) T cells from the peripheral blood. The absolute counts of CD4+ T cell subsets were obtained by dual platform method from flow cytometer and hematology analyzer.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the mean percentages and absolute counts of CD4+ T cell subsets between non-allergic controls and AR patients sensitized to HDMs. However, there were significant reduction in the mean percentage (p=0.0307) and absolute count (p=0.0309) of CD4+ TEMRA cells in moderate-severe AR patients compared to mild AR patients sensitized to HDMs and 13/24 (54.2%) moderate-severe AR patients sensitized to HDMs had persistent symptoms.

    CONCLUSION: Reduction in the mean percentage and absolute count of CD4+CD45RA+CCR7- TEMRA cells were observed in moderate-severe AR patients compared to mild AR patients in our population of AR patients sensitized to HDMs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis
  5. Hamizan AW, Rimmer J, Alvarado R, Sewell WA, Tatersall J, Barham HP, et al.
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2019 Mar;33(2):178-183.
    PMID: 30656948 DOI: 10.1177/1945892418825224
    BACKGROUND: Specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) within the nasal airway is likely to be the most ideal marker of allergic status, but little is known of the normative values in asymptomatic patients and those with rhinitis.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic characteristics of inferior turbinate tissue biopsy sIgE in asymptomatic and rhinitic patients.

    METHODS: A diagnostic cross-sectional study was undertaken, involving patients who underwent inferior turbinate surgery with or without other surgical interventions. Inferior turbinate tissue biopsy was performed during surgery and was assessed for allergen sIgE (dust mite, grass [temperate or subtropical], and animal epithelium) using an automated immunoassay. Tissue sIgE was assessed among asymptomatic patients and those with nasal symptoms. Data were presented as median (interquartile range). A receiver operating curve was used to predict the diagnostic utility of turbinate tissue sIgE in determining allergic rhinitis.

    RESULTS: A total of 160 patients (41.89 ± 14.65 years, 36.9% females) were included. The median tissue sIgE concentration among the asymptomatic nonatopic group of patients was 0.09 (0.08-0.10) kUA/L and tissue sIgE > 0.10 kUA/L was determined as a positive threshold. Inferior turbinate tissue sIgE was shown to be a predictive test for allergic rhinitis (area under curve: 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.84-0.90) with 90% sensitivity and 89% negative predictive value.

    CONCLUSION: Inferior turbinate tissue biopsy sIgE is a sensitive tool to predict allergic rhinitis. The threshold value of 0.1 kUA/L corresponded well with the asymptomatic nonatopic group of patients. This method detects sIgE in the nasal mucosa and may be a useful test for allergic rhinitis in future research.

    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis*
  6. Wood HE, Marlin N, Mudway IS, Bremner SA, Cross L, Dundas I, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(8):e0109121.
    PMID: 26295579 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109121
    The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children's respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8-9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), NO2 (1.03, 1.00-1.06), PM10 (1.16, 1.04-1.28) and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08-1.78), all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis
  7. Amini P, Abdullah M, Seng LS, Karunakaran T, Hani N, Bakar SA, et al.
    Int Forum Allergy Rhinol, 2016 Jun;6(6):624-30.
    PMID: 26919193 DOI: 10.1002/alr.21442
    BACKGROUND: The number of available reports regarding the influence of ethnicity on clinical features of allergic rhinitis (AR), especially disease severity in tropical climates, is limited. We aimed to compare clinical parameters and disease severity in AR patients of different ethnicities.

    METHODS: Malay, Chinese, and Indian AR patients (n = 138) with confirmed sensitivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dematophagoides farinae, and Blomia tropicalis were tested for mite-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) levels. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect data on nasal symptom score (NSS), ocular symptom score (OSS), sum of symptoms score (SSS), quality of life score (QLS), symptomatic control score (SCS), and total sum of scores (TSS) and correlate the derived data with patients' demography, mite-polysensitivity, and sIgE levels.

    RESULTS: AR-related symptoms were most severe in Malays and least in Chinese (p < 0.01). Age (r = 0.516 to 0.673, p < 0.05) and duration of AR (r = 0.635 to 0.726, p < 0.01) correlated positively with severity domains (NSS, SSS, QLS, and TSS) in Chinese. Duration of concurrent allergies was highest in Malays (p < 0.05). Polysensitivity predicted increased sIgE levels in Malays (r = 0.464 to 0.551, p < 0.01) and Indians (r = 0.541 to 0.645, p < 0.05) but affected NSS, SSS, and TSS only in Indians (r = 0.216 to 0.376, p < 0.05). sIgE levels were lowest among Chinese but correlated strongly with NSS, OSS, SSS, and TSS (r = 0408 to 0.898, p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Clinical parameters in AR may be influenced by race. Symptoms were most severe among Malays but did not correlate with other variables examined. Although Indian ethnicity did not impact disease severity, duration of concurrent allergies and mite-polysensitivity was associated with more severe disease. Age, duration of disease, and sIgE levels may be useful indicators of disease severity in Chinese.

    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis
  8. Hamizan AW, Azer M, Alvarado R, Earls P, Barham HP, Tattersall J, et al.
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2019 Sep;33(5):524-530.
    PMID: 31106562 DOI: 10.1177/1945892419850750
    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis
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