Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Noushad M, Kannan TP, Husein A, Abdullah H, Ismail AR
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2009 Sep;23(6):1145-50.
    PMID: 19505568 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2009.05.025
    The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxicity of a locally produced dental porcelain (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia) using the Ames and Comet assays. In the Ames assay, four genotypic variants of the Salmonella strains (TA98, TA100, TA1537 and TA1535) carrying mutations in several genes were used. The dental porcelain was incubated with these four strains in five different doses both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9) and the result was assessed based on the number of revertant colonies. Concurrently, appropriate positive controls were used so as to validate the test. The average number of revertant colonies per plate treated with locally produced dental porcelain was less than double as compared to that of negative control. In the Comet assay, L929 (CCL-1 ATCC, USA) mouse fibroblast cells were treated with the dental porcelain in three different concentrations along with concurrent negative and positive controls. The tail moment which was used as a measurement of DNA damage was almost equal to that of the negative control, suggesting that the locally produced dental porcelain did not induce any DNA damage. The results indicated that the locally produced dental porcelain is non-genotoxic under the present test conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  2. Loh DS, Er HM, Chen YS
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2009 Dec 10;126(3):406-14.
    PMID: 19778596 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.025
    Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) is a weed commonly found in tropical countries and has been used traditionally for asthma, bronchitis and conjunctivitis. However, one of the constituents in this plant, quercetin, was previously reported to be mutagenic. This work aimed to determine the level of quercetin in the aqueous and methanol plant extracts and to investigate the mutagenic effects of quercetin and the extracts in the Ames test utilising the mutant Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. The antimutagenic activity of Euphorbia hirta aqueous and methanol extracts was also studied in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. HPLC analyses showed that quercetin and rutin, a glycosidic form of quercetin, were present in the acid-hydrolysed methanol extract and non-hydrolysed methanol extract respectively. The quercetin concentration was negligible in both non-hydrolysed and acid-hydrolysed aqueous extracts. The total phenolic contents in Euphorbia hirta were determined to be 268 and 93 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of aqueous and methanol extracts, respectively. Quercetin (25 microg/mL) was found to be strongly mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. However, both the aqueous and methanol extracts did not demonstrate any mutagenic properties when tested with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains at concentrations up to 100 microg/mL in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. In the absence of S-9 metabolic activation, both the extracts were unable to inhibit the mutagenicity of the known mutagen, 2-nitrofluorene, in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts at 100 microg/mL and methanol extracts at 10 and 100 microg/mL exhibited strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagenicity of 2-aminoanthracene, a known mutagen, in the presence of S-9 metabolic activating enzymes. The results indicated that these extracts could modulate the xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in the liver at the higher concentrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  3. Mohd-Fuat AR, Kofi EA, Allan GG
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Dec;24(2):49-59.
    PMID: 18209708 MyJurnal
    Three popular medicinal plants regarded as improving human sexual function in some parts of Southeast Asia were analysed for their mutagenic properties using modified Ames test (fluctuation test). Extract of one of the plants, Tacca integrifolia Ker-Gawl., was found to be mutagenic using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Extract of T. integrifolia, Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Helmintostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook were cytotoxic to human cell lines, Hep2 and HFL1, with IC50 ranging from 11 mug/ml to 55 mug/ml. Extract of E. longifolia was the most cytotoxic with IC50 of 11 mug/ml and 13 mug/ml on Hep2 and HFL1 cell lines respectively. Combined extract of T. integrifolia and H. zeylanica was more cytotoxic than single extract on both Hep2 and HFL1 cell lines while combined extract of E. longifolia and H. zeylanica was more cytotoxic than single extract on Hep2 cell lines. Under the conditions of this study it can be concluded that T. integrifolia is mutagenic and the combined extracts of the medicinal plants was highly cytotoxic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  4. Er HM, Cheng EH, Radhakrishnan AK
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2007 Sep 25;113(3):448-56.
    PMID: 17698306
    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in 4T1 cells and 300 microg/mL in NIH/3T3 cells, whereas the methanol extract did not show any notable anti-proliferative effect in these cell lines, at any of the concentrations tested. Under the sub-optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in NIH/3T3 cells, whilst the methanol extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in both cell lines. An upward trend of apoptosis was observed in both 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells treated with increasing concentrations of the aqueous extract. The level of apoptosis observed at all the concentrations of the aqueous extract tested was consistently higher than necrosis. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the level of necrosis observed in the 4T1 cells treated with 300 microg/mL of the methanol extract. Generally, the level of necrosis was noted to be higher than that of apoptosis in the methanol extract-treated cells. The mutagenicity assay performed showed that in the absence of S-9 liver metabolic activation, the extract was not mutagenic up to the concentration of 165 microg/mL . However, in the presence of S-9 liver metabolic activation, the aqueous extract was mutagenic at all the concentrations tested. This study shows that both the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on the 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells as the EC(50) values obtained are greater than 50 microg/mL when tested under optimal culture condition. Moreover, the aqueous extract may form mutagenic compound(s) upon the metabolisation by liver enzymes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  5. Suzina AH, Azlina A, Shamsuria O, Samsudin AR
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:105-6.
    PMID: 15468840
    Mutagenicity of CORAGRAF (natural coral) and REKAGRAF (hydroxyapatite) was tested in Ames test with and without an external metabolic activation system (S9). The test revealed no mutagenic activity of both locally produced osseous substitutes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  6. Farsi E, Esmailli K, Shafaei A, Moradi Khaniabadi P, Al Hindi B, Khadeer Ahamed MB, et al.
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2016 Oct;39(4):461-73.
    PMID: 27033971 DOI: 10.3109/01480545.2016.1157810
    CONTEXT: Clinacanthus nutans (CN) is used traditionally for treating various illnesses. Robust safety data to support its use is lacking.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adverse effects of aqueous extract of CN leaves (AECNL).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The oral toxicity of the AECNL was tested following Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Mutagenicity (Ames test) of AECNL was evaluated using TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains.

    RESULTS: No mortality or morbidity was found in the animals upon single and repeated dose administration. However, significant body weight loss was observed at 2000 mg/kg during sub-chronic (90 d) exposure. In addition, increased eosinophil at 500 mg/kg and decreased serum alkaline phosphatase levels at 2000 mg/kg were observed in male rats. Variations in glucose and lipid profiles in treated groups were also observed compared to control. Ames test revealed no evidence of mutagenic or carcinogenic effects at 500 μg/well of AECNL.

    CONCLUSION: The median lethal dose (LD50) of the AECNL is >5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level is identified to be greater than 2000 mg/kg/day in 90-d study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  7. Ullah A, Ashraf M, Javeed A, Anjum AA, Attiq A, Ali S
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 2016 Jul;45:227-34.
    PMID: 27327526 DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2016.05.017
    Pathophysiological changes in diabetes like hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia predispose cells to malignant transformation and damage DNA repair mechanism. This study was designed to explore the potential synergistic toxic effects of anti-diabetic drug (Metformin), and an analgesic drug (Celecoxib) at cellular level. MTT assay run on Vero cell line revealed that the combinations of Metformin and Celecoxib augment the anti-proliferative effects, whereas Single cell gel electrophoresis spotlighted that Metformin produce non-significant DNA damage with the threshold concentration of 400μg/ml in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (lymphocytes and monocytes), while Celecoxib produced significant (P<0.05) DNA damage (class III comets) above the concentration of 75μg/ml, however the DNA damage or DNA tail protrusions by combinations of both drugs were less than what was observed with Celecoxib alone. Metformin or Celecoxib did not appear mutagenic against any mutant strains (TA 100 and TA 98) but their combination exhibited slight mutagenicity at much higher concentration. The results obtained at concentrations higher than the therapeutic level of drugs and reflect that Metformin in combination with Celecoxib synergistically inhibits the cell proliferation in a concentration dependent pattern. Since, this increase in cytotoxicity did not confer an increase in DNA damage; this combination could be adopted to inhibit the growth of malignant cell without producing any genotoxic or mutagenic effects at cellular level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  8. Pathmanathan SG, Cardona-Castro N, Sánchez-Jiménez MM, Correa-Ochoa MM, Puthucheary SD, Thong KL
    J Med Microbiol, 2003 Sep;52(Pt 9):773-6.
    PMID: 12909653
    The suitability of a PCR procedure using a pair of primers targeting the hilA gene was evaluated as a means of detecting Salmonella species. A total of 33 Salmonella strains from 27 serovars and 15 non-Salmonella strains from eight different genera were included. PCR with all the Salmonella strains produced a 784 bp DNA fragment that was absent from all the non-Salmonella strains tested. The detection limit of the PCR was 100 pg with genomic DNA and 3 x 10(4) c.f.u. ml(-1) with serial dilutions of bacterial culture. An enrichment-PCR method was further developed to test the sensitivity of the hilA primers for the detection of Salmonella in faecal samples spiked with different concentrations of Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serovar Typhimurium. The method described allowed the detection of Salmonella Typhimurium in faecal samples at a concentration of 3 x 10(2) c.f.u. ml(-1). In conclusion, the hilA primers are specific for Salmonella species and the PCR method presented may be suitable for the detection of Salmonella in faeces.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  9. Chen TI, Zhuang HW, Chiao YC, Chen CC
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2013 Aug 26;149(1):70-4.
    PMID: 23773827 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.001
    Lignosus rhinocerotis mushroom is widely used as traditional medicine and as soup ingredient in Malaysia and Hong Kong. Its sclerotium is the part of edibility and is traditionally used for the treatment of fever, cough, asthma and cancer. In view of its safety profile, very little information is found in scientific literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  10. Jazayeri SD, Ideris A, Zakaria Z, Omar AR
    J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 2012;2012:264986.
    PMID: 22701301 DOI: 10.1155/2012/264986
    Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2%) and MCF-10A (0.5%) human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 10(9) colony-forming unit (CFU) of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics*
  11. Muhammad H, Gomes-Carneiro MR, Poça KS, De-Oliveira AC, Afzan A, Sulaiman SA, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Jan 27;133(2):647-53.
    PMID: 21044879 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.10.055
    Orthosiphon stamineus, Benth, also known as Misai Kucing in Malaysia and Java tea in Indonesia, is traditionally used in Southeastern Asia to treat kidney dysfunctions, diabetes, gout and several other illnesses. Recent studies of Orthosiphon stamineus pharmacological profile have revealed antioxidant properties and other potentially useful biological activities thereby lending some scientific support to its use in folk medicine. So far the genotoxicity of Orthosiphon stamineus extracts has not been evaluated. In this study the genotoxic potential of Orthosiphon stamineus aqueous extract was investigated by the Salmonella/microsome mutation assay and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  12. Benacer D, Thong KL, Watanabe H, Puthucheary SD
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2010 Jun;20(6):1042-52.
    PMID: 20622506
    Forty-seven Salmonella Typhimurium (33 zoonotic, 14 clinical) strains were tested for antimicrobial resistance using the standard disk diffusion method. Presence of relevant resistance genes and class 1 integrons were investigated by using PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and plasmid profiling were carried out to determine the genomic diversity of Salmonella Typhimurium. Approximately 57.4% of S. Typhimurium were multidrug resistant (MDR) and showed high resistance rates to tetracycline (70.2%), sulphonamides (57.4%), streptomycin (53.1%), ampicillin (29.7%), nalidixic acid (27.6%), kanamycin (23.4%), chloramphenicol (21.2%) and trimethoprim (19.1%). Resistance towards cephalosporins was noted for cephalothin (27.6%), cephradine (21.2%), amoxicillin clavulanic acid (17.0%) and cephalexin (17.0%). Resistance genes, blaTEM, strA, aadA, sul1, sul2, tet(A), tet(B) and tet(C) were detected among the drug resistant strains. Thirty-three strains (70.2%) carried class 1 integrons, which were grouped in 9 different profiles. DNA sequencing identified sat, aadA, pse-1 and dfrA genes in variable regions on class 1 integrons. Thirty-five strains (74.4%) were subtyped to 22 different plasmid profiles, each with 1 - 6 plasmids (2.0 to 95 kb). PFGE subtyped the 47 strains into 39 profiles. In conclusion, high rates of multidrug-resistance were found among the Malaysian Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium to cephalosporin antibiotics was also observed. The strains were very diverse and no persistent clone was observed. The emergence of MDR Salmonella Typhimurium is a worldwide problem and this report provides information for the better understanding of the prevalence and epidemiology of MDR S. Typhimurium in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics*
  13. Shafaei A, Esmailli K, Farsi E, Aisha AF, Abul Majid AM, Ismail Z
    PMID: 26467526 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0885-z
    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth is a medicinal plant and native in Southeast Asia. Pharmacological effects of OS are attributed to the presence of lipophilic flavones. However; lipophilic compounds suffer from poor aqueous solubility which limits the OS oral bioavailability and therapeutic applications. Therefore, OS was prepared in nano formulation form using liposomes from soybean phospholipids. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo oral toxicity of nano liposomes of OS ethanolic extract (OS-EL).
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  14. Ngoi ST, Lindstedt BA, Watanabe H, Thong KL
    Jpn J Infect Dis, 2013;66(3):180-8.
    PMID: 23698477
    Salmonella Typhimurium is an important nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar associated with foodborne diseases in many parts of the world. This organism is the major causative agent of nontyphoidal salmonellosis in Malaysia. We aimed to investigate the genetic profiles of the strains isolated from clinical, zoonotic, and dietary sources in Malaysia using multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By focusing on the 5 common variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci, we found that PFGE (D = 0.99) was more discriminative than MLVA (D = 0.76). The low MLVA score might be because of a lack of VNTR loci STTR6 (81.0%) and STTR10pl (76.2%). Both subtyping methods suggested that our S. Typhimurium strains were largely endemic with limited genetic variation. Furthermore, we observed that biphasic S. Typhimurium strains were dominant (99%) and multidrug resistance was prevalent (50%) within our sample pool. The most frequently observed phenotypes were resistance to compound sulfonamides (49%), tetracycline (51%), and streptomycin (52%). In this study, we documented the genetic relationship, antimicrobial resistance characteristics, and flagellar-phase dominance among S. Typhimurium strains found in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics*
  15. Hasan MR, Pulingam T, Appaturi JN, Zifruddin AN, Teh SJ, Lim TW, et al.
    Anal Biochem, 2018 08 01;554:34-43.
    PMID: 29870692 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2018.06.001
    In this study, an amino-modified aptasensor using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-deposited ITO electrode was prepared and evaluated for the detection of pathogenic Salmonella bacteria. An amino-modified aptamer (ssDNA) which binds selectively to whole-cell Salmonella was immobilised on the COOH-rich MWCNTs to produce the ssDNA/MWCNT/ITO electrode. The morphology of the MWCNT before and after interaction with the aptamers were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to investigate the electrochemical properties and conductivity of the aptasensor. The results showed that the impedance measured at the ssDNA/MWCNT/ITO electrode surface increased after exposure to Salmonella cells, which indicated successful binding of Salmonella on the aptamer-functionalised surface. The developed ssDNA/MWCNT/ITO aptasensor was stable and maintained linearity when the scan rate was increased from 10 mV s-1 to 90 mV s-1. The detection limit of the ssDNA/MWCNT/ITO aptasensor, determined from the sensitivity analysis, was found to be 5.5 × 101 cfu mL-1 and 6.7 × 101 cfu mL-1 for S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, respectively. The specificity test demonstrated that Salmonella bound specifically to the ssDNA/MWCNT/ITO aptasensor surface, when compared with non-Salmonella spp. The prepared aptasensor was successfully applied for the detection of Salmonella in food samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  16. KishanRaj S, Sumitha S, Siventhiran B, Thiviyaa O, Sathasivam KV, Xavier R, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2018 Dec;45(6):2333-2343.
    PMID: 30284142 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-018-4397-z
    Proteus mirabilis, a gram-negative bacterium of the family Enterobacteriaceae, is a leading cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) with rapid development of multi-drug resistance. Identification of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs), which belongs to a class of RNAs that do not translate into a protein, could permit the comprehension of the regulatory roles this molecules play in mediating pathogenesis and multi-drug resistance of the organism. In this study, comparative sRNA analysis across three different members of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium) was carried out to identify the sRNA homologs in P. mirabilis. A total of 232 sRNA genes that were reported in E. coli, S. typhi and S. typhimurium were subjected to comparative analysis against P. mirabilis HI4320 genome. We report the detection of 14 sRNA candidates, conserved in the orthologous regions of P. mirabilis, that are not included in Rfam database. Northern-blot analysis was carried out for selected three sRNA candidates from the current investigation and three known sRNA from Rfam of P. mirabilis. The expression pattern of the six sRNA candidates shows that they are growth stage-dependant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of sRNA candidates in P. mirabilis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  17. Wahab NFAC, Kannan TP, Mahmood Z, Rahman IA, Ismail H
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2018 Mar;47:207-212.
    PMID: 29247761 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2017.12.002
    Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) with a ratio of 20/80 Hydroxyapatite (HA)/Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promotes the differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). In the current study, the genotoxicity of locally produced BCP of modified porosity (65%) with a mean pore size of 300micrometer (μm) was assessed using Comet and Ames assays. HDPCs were treated with BCP extract at three different inhibitory concentrations which were obtained based on cytotoxicity test conducted with concurrent negative and positive controls. The tail moment of HDPCs treated with BCP extract at all three concentrations showed no significant difference compared to negative control (p>0.05), indicating that BCP did not induce DNA damage to HDPCs. The BCP was evaluated using five tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1537 and TA1538. Each strain was incubated with BCP extract with five different concentrations in the presence and absence of metabolic activation system (S9) mix. Concurrently, negative and positive controls were included. The average number of revertant colonies per plate treated with the BCP extract was less than double as compared to the number of revertant colonies in negative control plate and no dose-related increase was observed. Results from both assays suggested that the BCP of modified porosity did not exhibit any genotoxic effect under the present test conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  18. Akinboro A, Mohamed KB, Asmawi MZ, Othman AS, Ying TH, Maidin SM
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2012 Oct;35(4):412-22.
    PMID: 22149219 DOI: 10.3109/01480545.2011.638300
    The role of diets in causing cancers necessitates the ongoing search for natural antimutagens of promising anticancer therapeutics. This study determined the potential anticancer efficacy of the leaf extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.). Methanol leaf extract of M. fragrans (Houtt.) alone was screened for mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test, using the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain, the Allium cepa, and the mouse in vivo bone marrow micronucleus tests. The antimutagenicity of this extract against benzo[a]pyrene- and cyclophosphamide-induced mutations was evaluated. An antioxidant test on the extract was performed with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as the standards, whereas its phytochemicals were elucidated by following the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry protocol. In S. typhimurium (TA100), the mutagenicity ratio at 200,500 and 1,000 µg/well was >2. Cell division in the A. cepa root tips and mouse bone marrow was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited at 2,000 and 4,000 mg/kg, whereas the observed chromosomal aberrations and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes were non-dose-related and were insignificantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from the negative control. Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene- and cyclophosphamide-induced mutagenicity by this extract was above 40%. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the extract in the antioxidant test was lower than that of BHA and BHT. Phytochemical compounds, possessing antioxidant activity, may be responsible for the observed effects, suggesting a strong antimutagenic activity of the MeOH leaf extract of M. fragrans, a necessary characteristic of a promising anticancer agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  19. Ali AQ, Kannan TP, Ahmad A, Samsudin AR
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2008 Feb;22(1):57-67.
    PMID: 17892925
    The aims of this study are to determine the mutagenicity of a locally produced polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) using Salmonella mutagenicity test and to find out if PHB altered the expression of p53 and c-myc proto-oncogenes and bcl-xl and bcl-xs anti-apoptotic genes in the human fibroblast cell line, MRC-5. Different concentrations of PHB were incubated with special genotypic variants of Salmonella strains (TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98 and TA100) carrying mutations in several genes both with and without metabolic activation (S9) and the test was assessed based on the number of revertant colonies. The average number of revertant colonies per plate treated with PHB was less than double as compared to that of negative control. For the gene expression analyses, fibroblast cell lines were treated with PHB at different concentrations and incubated for 1, 12, 24 and 48 h separately. The total RNA was isolated and analysed for the expression of p53, c-myc, bcl-xl and bcl-xs genes. The PHB did not show over or under expression of the genes studied. The above tests indicate that the locally produced PHB is non-genotoxic and does not alter the expression of the proto-oncogenes and anti-apoptotic genes considered in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
  20. Lee SS, Enchang FK, Tan NH, Fung SY, Pailoor J
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2013 May 2;147(1):157-63.
    PMID: 23458920 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.02.027
    Lignosus rhinocerus (Tiger Milk mushroom) is distributed in South China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. In Malaysia, it is the most popular medicinal mushroom used by the indigenous communities to relieve fever, cough, asthma, cancer, food poisoning and as a general tonic. In China, this mushroom is an expensive traditional medicine used to treat liver cancer, chronic hepatitis and gastric ulcers. The sclerotium of the mushroom is the part with medicinal value. This rare mushroom has recently been successfully cultivated making it possible to be fully exploited for its medicinal and functional benefits. The present study was carried out to evaluate the chronic toxicity of the sclerotial powder of Lignosus rhinocerus cultivar (termed TM02), its anti-fertility and teratogenic effects as well as genotoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links