Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 75 in total

  1. Omar N, Bou Chacra CT, Tabbara KF
    Clin Ophthalmol, 2013;7:1311-8.
    PMID: 23847410 DOI: 10.2147/OPTH.S43719
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in Saudi Arabia.
    METHODS: In a retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series, the medical records of patients who underwent PKP from January 2000 to December 2008 and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months were reviewed. All corneas were obtained from eye banks in the US. Indications, complications, and outcomes of surgery were recorded. This study was approved by the institutional review board.
    RESULTS: Eighty-five consecutive eyes were included in this study. There were 52 (61.2%) males and 33 (38.8%) females. The median age was 35.0 years (range 3-85 years), and the median follow-up period was 24 months (range 6-108 months). The indications for PKP were keratoconus, bullous keratopathy, corneal scars, corneal dystrophy, and corneal regraft. The overall graft survival time was 88.9 months ± 4.9 months (mean ± standard error of mean, 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.4 months -98.4 months) while the 3-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 90.7% and 84.3%, respectively. Surgical indication (P = 0.038), immune rejection (P < 0.001), preoperative corneal vascularization (P = 0.022), and perioperative high intraocular pressure (P = 0.032) were associated significantly with corneal graft failure in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis reduced these significant associations to rejection (P < 0.001) and vascularization (P = 0.009). Relative risk for failure in rejected cornea was 16.22 (95% CI 4.99-52.69) and in vascularized cornea was 3.89 (95% CI 1.36-11.09). At last visit following PKP, 34 (40%) eyes had best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 51 (60.0%) eyes had 20/80 or better. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was worse than 20/400 in 15 (17.6%) eyes.
    CONCLUSION: The overall corneal graft survival in a private setting in Saudi Arabia can be excellent. Thorough preoperative evaluation and comprehensive postoperative management are crucial for successful corneal transplantation. A larger multicenter study is recommended to portray the outcome of private corneal transplantation in Saudi Arabia in general.
    KEYWORDS: bullous keratopathy; cornea; corneal dystrophy; corneal scars; corneal transplantation; herpetic keratitis; keratoconus
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  2. Meshal A, Sarriff A, El-Shamly M
    Saudi Pharm J, 2015 Apr;23(2):210-4.
    PMID: 25972743 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2014.06.010
    This study aimed at evaluating the usefulness of a structured patient counseling program on clinical outcomes of asthma patients in Saudi Arabia. This cross sectional study enrolled 10 asthma patients and all were evaluated for their baseline knowledge on asthma, quality of life, compliance, patient satisfaction and drug related problems among randomly selected 5 (of the total 10) patients. The median (IQR) age of the patients was 46 (33.5-56.2) years. The baseline knowledge scores was 9 (8-11), the maximum possible scores to be 21. Cronbach alpha of the KQ was 0.65. The overall total median (IQR) compliance (Morisky) score was 4 (3-5), the maximum possible score was 5. The patient satisfaction median (IQR) score was 35.5 (32-46.25), the maximum possible score was 70. Of the total patients 3 (30%) had a history of allergy. There were total 18 allergens observed in these patients. There has been no drug-drug or drug-food interactions observed between among the prescribed drugs of the patients. Altogether 2 patients reported a total of 2 ADRs. The knowledge of the asthma patients was found to be poor. Missing the dose was the most commonly encountered drug taking behavior. The compliance was found to be good and the patient satisfaction was average.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  3. Fouda MA, Malabu UH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Jun;63(2):182-4.
    PMID: 18942316
    The study was designed to assess retrospectively clinical pattern of insulinoma at a national referral center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All cases of insulinoma recorded at King Khalid University Hospital Riyadh between January 1987 and December 2006 were reviewed. During the 20-year period five patients were seen comprising three females (ages 38, 40, and 70 years) and two males (17 and 34 years). The duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis ranged between one and eight years. The commonest mode of presentation before diagnosis was inability to observe Ramadan fasting. Other notable symptoms included dizziness and loss of consciousness. All the five patients proceeded to operation. At surgery all were found to be benign tumors. Post-operatively, three of the patients developed pseudocyst, which resolved upon undergoing second surgery. Though clinical presentation of insulinoma in Saudi subjects is similar to those reported in the literature, our study revealed prominent symptoms occurring during yearly ramadan religious fast could be a useful information in history taking. Further studies on a larger population are needed to further characterize our findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia; Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
  4. Malabu UH, Founda MA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Dec;62(5):394-7.
    PMID: 18705474
    Records of 46 patients who were treated for primary hyperparathyroidism at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh Saudi Arabia from 1st July 2000 to 30th June 2006 were reviewed. Mean age at diagnosis was 44 years (range 13-70 years) and average duration of symptoms was 39 months (1 month to 11 years). There were 35 females and 11 males with a ratio of 3.2:1. Bone pains were the major symptoms at presentation in 45.7% followed by no symptom in 23.9%, renal stones in 15.2%, polyuria in 6.5%, while 4.3% each presented with depression, and constipation. Males had significantly more severe disease with higher serum calcium, higher urinary calcium excretion, and higher serum creatinine. Ninety six percent of patients had successful surgery and 4% (two patients) each had recurrence and hungry bone syndrome. It is concluded that PHPT in Saudi Arabia continues to be a symptomatic disorder with skeletal and renal manifestations occurring at a younger age and males having more severe disease. Further prospective studies are needed to verify our findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
  5. Azer SA
    Saudi Med J, 2010 Apr;31(4):456-8.
    PMID: 20383430
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  6. Al-Hassoun, Saleh A., Mohammad, Thamer Ahmed
    Groundwater is the main source of water in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A larger part of groundwater is founded in alluvial (unconfined) aquifers. Prediction of water table elevations in
    unconfined aquifers is very useful in water resources planning and management. During the last two
    decades, many aquifers in different regions of the KSA experienced significant groundwater decline.
    The declines in these aquifers raised concerns over the quantity and quality of groundwater, as well
    as concerns over the planning and management policies used in KSA. The main objective of this study was to predict water table fluctuations and to estimate the annual change in water table at an alluvial aquifer at wadi Hada Al Sham near Makkah, KSA. The methodology was achieved using numerical groundwater model (MODFLOW). The model was calibrated and then used to predict water table elevations due to pumping for a period of 5 years. The output of the model was found to be in agreement with the previous records. Moreover, the simulation results also show reasonable declination of water table elevations in the study area during the study period.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  7. Zakaria N, Jamal A, Bisht S, Koppel C
    Med 2 0, 2013 Nov 27;2(2):e13.
    PMID: 25075236 DOI: 10.2196/med20.2735
    Public universities in Saudi Arabia today are making substantial investments in e-learning as part of their educational system, especially in the implementation of learning management systems (LMS). To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in Saudi Arabia exploring medical students' experience with an LMS, particularly as part of a medical informatics course.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  8. Al Jumah K, Hassali MA, Al Qhatani D, El Tahir K
    Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 2014;10:2031-7.
    PMID: 25378929 DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S71697
    Several studies have investigated the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants, with inconsistent conclusions. However, no similar study has investigated this issue among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study is to explore patients' adherence to antidepressant medications, and the factors associated with adherence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  9. Ahmed NO, Alrebdi SF, Abdulghani MAM, Baobaid MF
    The objective of this study is to explore physician’s perception toward clinical pharmacy services and role of clinical pharmacists in governmental hospitals at Al-Qassim region. An observational cross-sectional survey was conducted. Results: 150 males and 39 females participated giving 75.5% (189 of 250) response rate. Physicians perceptions were found to be high (equal or more than 90% of frequency) in some clinical pharmacy services such as patients’ education and counselling, monitoring of patients’ responses to drug therapy including toxicity/side effects and provision of drug information to healthcare professionals. The physicians showed low perception (less than 76%) in the taking of patients’ medication history on admission, by clinical pharmacists. Conclusion: Physicians’ perception toward clinical pharmacy services and the role of clinical pharmacists was not found to be completely favourable. The reason of this mixed responses and to the accommodating feelings of clinical pharmacy services in clinical setting appear to relate to the state of infrastructure and environments of hospitals. The infrastructure and environments of hospitals need to be updated for an improved accommodation clinical pharmacy services.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  10. Rahoma AH
    JUMMEC, 2002;7:127-131.
    During the period from January 1992 up to the end of July 2001, the Burns Unit in King Khalid C Hospital treated 1735 cases of burns. The burns cases were of varying causes, age groups, degree, depth and extent. The formula used in lTeating these burns patients was a modification of Parkland fonnula. The fluid used was Ringer lactate solution. This fluid was administered for the first 3 days post burn until the general condilion of the palient was sfabilized. Early oral intake was encouraged in aU patients and was started as early as the second or the third day. Colloids were given by the end of the third or even the fourth day and according to the individual patients' needs. The results of this treatment regime significantly avoided renal complications and ensured patient rehydration. KEYWORDS; Major burns, fluids resuscitation
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  11. Al-Naeem AA
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2008 Jan 15;11(2):244-9.
    PMID: 18817197
    This study was carried out to determine the hydro-chemical processes and the metal concentration of spring water to evaluate its suitability for irrigation and other purposes. A total of 10 water samples were collected from Ain Umm Sabah at different times and from different locations from the spring basin. EC (dS m(-1)), pH, temperature, total cations (Na, Ca, Mg, K) and anions [Cl, CO3, HCO3, SO4, NO3, Fluoride (F)] were determined. Some trace and heavy metals (Al, As, Ba, B, Br, Mo, Ni, Si, Cd, Cu, V, Fe, I, Pb, Mn, Zn, Sr, Se, Sb, La and Se were determined. The Spring water is classified as C4S2 (high salinity with medium sodicity problem water). Chloride (Cl) and nitrate (NO3) concentrations were higher than the permissible limits according to World Health Organization Standards. The Ain Umm Sabah water is Na-Cl dominant water and can create soil sodicity problems and cause Na and Cl ion toxicity to plants if used for irrigation of sensitive crops. The spring water is under-saturated (negative SI) with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, fluorite and aragonite and oversaturated (positive SI) with respect to goethite, siderite and hematite minerals. The concentration of all the estimated trace metals was within the permissible limits for its use as drinking water and other purposes according to WHO. Since the spring water contains high concentration of NO3, hence can not be used for drinking purposes without prior treatment. The study findings suggest careful use and pumping of water from the spring. Further studies are required on regular basis to monitor the depletion in the spring water level and the temporal change in water salinity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  12. Aziz AT, Dieng H, Ahmad AH, Mahyoub JA, Turkistani AM, Mesed H, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Nov;2(11):849-57.
    PMID: 23569860 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60242-1
    To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
  13. Amnah, A.B., Bulgiba, A., Omar, R.
    JUMMEC, 2015;18(2):1-7.
    We conducted a multi-institutional case study to identify the issues associated with the adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in five private care hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We conducted interviews with 37 respondents primarily comprising IT professionals.
    We found that there were three determinants of behavioural intentions in this case study: organisation objectives, facilitating conditions and social influence where there are no effects of performance expectancy or effort expectancy. In all five cases, none of the moderators (age, gender, experience and voluntariness) in the original united theory of acceptance and use of technology model were considered critically important by IT professionals. In the present paper, all qualitative elements such as themes, patterns and overarching in the data were analysed to reach a conclusion. In addition, the various perspectives of using ICT are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  14. Al Johani Abdulrahman, A., Karmegam Karuppiah, Al Mutairi Alya, O., Kulanthayan K.C. Mani, Sivasankar Sambasivam
    This paper explains Needlestick and Sharp Injuries among Healthcare Workers in Saudi Hospitals. Presently there are number of factors that are responsible for health care workers injuries. Lack of secure environment and ignorance to safety measures can lead to injuries due to Needlestick and Sharp objects. There is a significant need of providing better working environment for health care workers in Saudi Arabia. Following daily practices and World Health Organization’s measures for taking the preventive steps for these injuries is necessary. Trying to avoid utilizing needles whenever secure and efficient substitutes are present, providing needle containers, avoiding re-capping and wearing gloves on both hands are some of the measures that could be taken to make sure these problems do not recur.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  15. Rehan M, Gardy J, Demirbas A, Rashid U, Budzianowski WM, Pant D, et al.
    Bioresour. Technol., 2018 Feb;250:17-25.
    PMID: 29153646 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.11.024
    This study presents a preliminary assessment of biodiesel production from waste sources available in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for energy generation and solution for waste disposal issues. A case study was developed under three different scenarios: (S1) KSA population only in 2017, (S2) KSA population and pilgrims in 2017, and (S3) KSA population and pilgrims by 2030 using the fat fraction of the municipal solid waste. It was estimated that S1, S2, and S3 scenarios could produce around 1.08, 1.10 and 1.41 million tons of biodiesel with the energy potential of 43423, 43949 and 56493 TJ respectively. Furthermore, annual savings of US $55.89, 56.56 and 72.71 million can be generated from landfill diversion of food waste and added to the country's economy. However, there are challenges in commercialization of waste to biodiesel facilities in KSA, including waste collection and separation, impurities, reactor design and biodiesel quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  16. Ahmed ES, Ahmad MN, Othman SH
    Int J Health Care Qual Assur, 2019 Jun 10;32(5):887-908.
    PMID: 31195926 DOI: 10.1108/IJHCQA-07-2017-0116
    PURPOSE: According to the literature concerned with this study, less than satisfactory outcomes have been achieved through implementing business process improvements methods (BPIMs) in industries, in general, and in healthcare, in particular. The existing methods used need to be enhanced in order to create more effective outcomes. There has also been a lack of studies documenting gaps or shortfalls in implementing BPIMs, to be presented to the BPI research community. Therefore, researchers of this paper have attempted to fill gaps between theory and practice. On the contrary, there is also a need to link practical outcomes in the healthcare domain with those of the BPI research community. The purpose of this paper is to review popular BPIMs, techniques and tools applied in the healthcare domain; it seeks to examine and highlight their significant roles, clarify their pros and cons, and find opportunities to enhance their impact on the achievement of more sustainable improvements in the healthcare domain.

    DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This study has been carried out by using a methodology combining an in-depth literature review with a comparison framework, which is called as the "Framework for Comparing Business Process Improvement Methods." The framework is composed of seven dimensions and has been adapted from four recognized, related frameworks. In addition to the in-depth review of related literature and the adapted comparison framework, researchers have conducted several interviews with healthcare BPI practitioners in different hospitals, to attain their opinions of BPI methods and tools used in their practices.

    FINDINGS: The main results have indicated that significant improvements have been achieved by implementing BPIMs in the healthcare domain according to related literature. However, there were some shortfalls in the existing methods that need to be resolved. The most important of these has been the shortfall in representing and analyzing targeted domain knowledge during improvement phases. The tool currently used for representing the domain, specifically flowcharts, is very abstract and does not present the domain in a clear form. The flowchart tool also fails to clearly present the separation of concerns between business processes and the information systems processes that support a business in a given domain.

    PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings of this study can be useful for BPI practitioners and researchers, mainly within the healthcare domain. The findings can help these groups to understand BPIMs shortfalls and encourage them to consider how BPIMs can be potentially improved.

    ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This researchers of this paper have proposed a comparison framework for highlighting popular BPIMs in the healthcare domain, along with their uses and shortfalls. In addition, they have conducted a deep literature review based on the practical results obtained from different healthcare institutions implementing unique BPIMs around the world. There has also been valuable interview feedback attained from BPI leaders of specific hospitals in Saudi Arabia. This combination is expected to contribute to knowledge of BPIMs from both theoretical and practical points of view.

    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  17. Abbott A, Cyranoski D, Masood E
    Nature, 2006 Nov 2;444(7115):20-1.
    PMID: 17080056
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  18. Alibrahim OA, Al-Sadat N, Elawad NA
    J Public Health Afr, 2010 Sep 01;1(1):e7.
    PMID: 28299041 DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2010.e7
    Depression is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the year 2000 depression accounted for 4.4% of the global disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a population of 28 million people and is one of the countries experiencing demographic transition in its population structure. Improvements in socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with increased chronic diseases including chronic mental diseases like depression, but still there is no comprehensive review summarizing the various reports currently existing in the literature. Although individual studies within Saudi Arabia have reported prevalence rates and risks, the quality of such studies need to be subjected to rigorous assessment and their findings pooled to give combined weighted evidence that will provide basis for targeted intervention. Pooled risks have the advantage of adjusting inherent variations within sampled populations and therefore providing more reliable estimates even though there are concerns about possible magnification of smaller individual risks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  19. Al-Ghamdi, A.K., Al-Ghamdi, K.S., Al-Harbi, Z.
    The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of congenital colour vision defects among male secondary school students in Al-Madinah Al-Munawara city, Saudi Arabia. A total of 1154 male secondary school students were selected randomly through a multi-stage sampling method. Ishihara 24-plates was used to screen for colour blindness. The overall prevalence of congenital colour vision defects was 3.3% with 1% protanopes and 2.3% deuteranopes. The prevalence of congenital colour vision defect among Saudis was 2.48% and (5.48%) among non-Saudis. In conclusion, the prevalence of congenital colour vision defect among male secondary school students of Al-Madinah Al-Munawara city is comparable to previously reported in central Saudi Arabia, but lower than for Caucasian.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
  20. Sulieman A, Mahmoud MZ, Serhan O, Alonazi B, Alkhorayef M, Alzimami K, et al.
    Appl Radiat Isot, 2018 Nov;141:261-265.
    PMID: 30054177 DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.07.011
    Patient effective doses and the associated radiation risks arising from particular computed tomography (CT) imaging procedures are assessed. The objectives of this research are to measure radiation doses for patients and to quantify the radiogenic risks from CT brain and chest procedures. Patient data were collected from five calibrated CT modality machines in Saudi Arabia. The results are from a study of a total of 60 patients examined during CT procedures using the calibrated CT units. For CT brain and chest, the mean patient effective doses were 1.9 mSv (with a range of 0.6-2.5 mSv) and 7.4 mSv (with a range of 0.5-34.8 mSv) respectively. The radiogenic risk to patients ranged from between 10-5 and 10-4 per procedure. With 65% of the CT procedure cases diagnosed as normal, this prompts re-evaluation of the referral criteria. The establishment of diagnostic reference levels (DRL) and implementation of radiation dose optimisation measures would further help reduce doses to optimal values.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia
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