This study aimed at evaluating the usefulness of a structured patient counseling program on clinical outcomes of asthma patients in Saudi Arabia. This cross sectional study enrolled 10 asthma patients and all were evaluated for their baseline knowledge on asthma, quality of life, compliance, patient satisfaction and drug related problems among randomly selected 5 (of the total 10) patients. The median (IQR) age of the patients was 46 (33.5-56.2) years. The baseline knowledge scores was 9 (8-11), the maximum possible scores to be 21. Cronbach alpha of the KQ was 0.65. The overall total median (IQR) compliance (Morisky) score was 4 (3-5), the maximum possible score was 5. The patient satisfaction median (IQR) score was 35.5 (32-46.25), the maximum possible score was 70. Of the total patients 3 (30%) had a history of allergy. There were total 18 allergens observed in these patients. There has been no drug-drug or drug-food interactions observed between among the prescribed drugs of the patients. Altogether 2 patients reported a total of 2 ADRs. The knowledge of the asthma patients was found to be poor. Missing the dose was the most commonly encountered drug taking behavior. The compliance was found to be good and the patient satisfaction was average.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in Saudi Arabia.
METHODS: In a retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series, the medical records of patients who underwent PKP from January 2000 to December 2008 and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months were reviewed. All corneas were obtained from eye banks in the US. Indications, complications, and outcomes of surgery were recorded. This study was approved by the institutional review board.
RESULTS: Eighty-five consecutive eyes were included in this study. There were 52 (61.2%) males and 33 (38.8%) females. The median age was 35.0 years (range 3-85 years), and the median follow-up period was 24 months (range 6-108 months). The indications for PKP were keratoconus, bullous keratopathy, corneal scars, corneal dystrophy, and corneal regraft. The overall graft survival time was 88.9 months ± 4.9 months (mean ± standard error of mean, 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.4 months -98.4 months) while the 3-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 90.7% and 84.3%, respectively. Surgical indication (P = 0.038), immune rejection (P < 0.001), preoperative corneal vascularization (P = 0.022), and perioperative high intraocular pressure (P = 0.032) were associated significantly with corneal graft failure in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis reduced these significant associations to rejection (P < 0.001) and vascularization (P = 0.009). Relative risk for failure in rejected cornea was 16.22 (95% CI 4.99-52.69) and in vascularized cornea was 3.89 (95% CI 1.36-11.09). At last visit following PKP, 34 (40%) eyes had best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 51 (60.0%) eyes had 20/80 or better. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was worse than 20/400 in 15 (17.6%) eyes.
CONCLUSION: The overall corneal graft survival in a private setting in Saudi Arabia can be excellent. Thorough preoperative evaluation and comprehensive postoperative management are crucial for successful corneal transplantation. A larger multicenter study is recommended to portray the outcome of private corneal transplantation in Saudi Arabia in general.
KEYWORDS: bullous keratopathy; cornea; corneal dystrophy; corneal scars; corneal transplantation; herpetic keratitis; keratoconus
Records of 46 patients who were treated for primary hyperparathyroidism at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh Saudi Arabia from 1st July 2000 to 30th June 2006 were reviewed. Mean age at diagnosis was 44 years (range 13-70 years) and average duration of symptoms was 39 months (1 month to 11 years). There were 35 females and 11 males with a ratio of 3.2:1. Bone pains were the major symptoms at presentation in 45.7% followed by no symptom in 23.9%, renal stones in 15.2%, polyuria in 6.5%, while 4.3% each presented with depression, and constipation. Males had significantly more severe disease with higher serum calcium, higher urinary calcium excretion, and higher serum creatinine. Ninety six percent of patients had successful surgery and 4% (two patients) each had recurrence and hungry bone syndrome. It is concluded that PHPT in Saudi Arabia continues to be a symptomatic disorder with skeletal and renal manifestations occurring at a younger age and males having more severe disease. Further prospective studies are needed to verify our findings.
The study was designed to assess retrospectively clinical pattern of insulinoma at a national referral center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All cases of insulinoma recorded at King Khalid University Hospital Riyadh between January 1987 and December 2006 were reviewed. During the 20-year period five patients were seen comprising three females (ages 38, 40, and 70 years) and two males (17 and 34 years). The duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis ranged between one and eight years. The commonest mode of presentation before diagnosis was inability to observe Ramadan fasting. Other notable symptoms included dizziness and loss of consciousness. All the five patients proceeded to operation. At surgery all were found to be benign tumors. Post-operatively, three of the patients developed pseudocyst, which resolved upon undergoing second surgery. Though clinical presentation of insulinoma in Saudi subjects is similar to those reported in the literature, our study revealed prominent symptoms occurring during yearly ramadan religious fast could be a useful information in history taking. Further studies on a larger population are needed to further characterize our findings.
Matched MeSH terms: Saudi Arabia; Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
Public universities in Saudi Arabia today are making substantial investments in e-learning as part of their educational system, especially in the implementation of learning management systems (LMS). To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in Saudi Arabia exploring medical students' experience with an LMS, particularly as part of a medical informatics course.
Groundwater is the main source of water in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A larger part of groundwater is founded in alluvial (unconfined) aquifers. Prediction of water table elevations in
unconfined aquifers is very useful in water resources planning and management. During the last two
decades, many aquifers in different regions of the KSA experienced significant groundwater decline.
The declines in these aquifers raised concerns over the quantity and quality of groundwater, as well
as concerns over the planning and management policies used in KSA. The main objective of this study was to predict water table fluctuations and to estimate the annual change in water table at an alluvial aquifer at wadi Hada Al Sham near Makkah, KSA. The methodology was achieved using numerical groundwater model (MODFLOW). The model was calibrated and then used to predict water table elevations due to pumping for a period of 5 years. The output of the model was found to be in agreement with the previous records. Moreover, the simulation results also show reasonable declination of water table elevations in the study area during the study period.
To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence.
We conducted a multi-institutional case study to identify the issues associated with the adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in five private care hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We conducted interviews with 37 respondents primarily comprising IT professionals.
We found that there were three determinants of behavioural intentions in this case study: organisation objectives, facilitating conditions and social influence where there are no effects of performance expectancy or effort expectancy. In all five cases, none of the moderators (age, gender, experience and voluntariness) in the original united theory of acceptance and use of technology model were considered critically important by IT professionals. In the present paper, all qualitative elements such as themes, patterns and overarching in the data were analysed to reach a conclusion. In addition, the various perspectives of using ICT are discussed.
This study presents a preliminary assessment of biodiesel production from waste sources available in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for energy generation and solution for waste disposal issues. A case study was developed under three different scenarios: (S1) KSA population only in 2017, (S2) KSA population and pilgrims in 2017, and (S3) KSA population and pilgrims by 2030 using the fat fraction of the municipal solid waste. It was estimated that S1, S2, and S3 scenarios could produce around 1.08, 1.10 and 1.41 million tons of biodiesel with the energy potential of 43423, 43949 and 56493 TJ respectively. Furthermore, annual savings of US $55.89, 56.56 and 72.71 million can be generated from landfill diversion of food waste and added to the country's economy. However, there are challenges in commercialization of waste to biodiesel facilities in KSA, including waste collection and separation, impurities, reactor design and biodiesel quality.
This paper explains Needlestick and Sharp Injuries among Healthcare Workers in Saudi Hospitals. Presently there are number of factors that are responsible for health care workers injuries. Lack of secure environment and ignorance to safety measures can lead to injuries due to Needlestick and Sharp objects. There is a significant need of providing better working environment for health care workers in Saudi Arabia. Following daily practices and World Health Organization’s measures for taking the preventive steps for these injuries is necessary. Trying to avoid utilizing needles whenever secure and efficient substitutes are present, providing needle containers, avoiding re-capping and wearing gloves on both hands are some of the measures that could be taken to make sure these problems do not recur.
AIMS: To examine the impact of Ramadan Focused Education Program (RFEP) on medications adjustment in type 2 diabetes patients in Ramadan.
METHODS: This is a controlled, intervention based study. It was run on three phases: before, during, and after Ramadan on 262 type 2 diabetes patients. The intervention group (n = 140) received RFEP on medications doses & timing adjustment before and after Ramadan, while the control group (n = 122) received standard care.
RESULTS: The dose of insulin glargine was reduced from 42.51 ± 22.16 at the baseline to 40.11 ± 18.51-units during Ramadan (p = 0.002) in the intervention group while it remained the same in the control group before Ramadan and during Ramadan (38.51 ± 18.63 and 38.14 ± 18.46, P = 0.428, respectively). The hypoglycemia score was 14.2 ± (8.5) pre-Ramadan in the intervention and reduced to 6.36 ± 6.17 during Ramadan (p
OBJECTIVES: To assess drug use pattern and the effect on glycemic and blood pressure (BP) control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertensive patients. Furthermore, to evaluate the duration of drug use and antecedence in diagnosis.
METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study design, comprising interview/questionnaire targeting outpatients attending primary health centers in Al Ahsa was adopted. During the interview, their fasting blood glucose, weight, and height were measured, along with their BP. Time and duration of drug use were recorded. The history, sociodemographic data and the presence of any other disease conditions were also documented.
RESULTS: The highest number of uncontrolled BP and poor glycemic control was among the age group of 45 and 49 years. Significant number of the patients (92.9%) had body mass index >30 kg/m(2). The prevalence of developing hypertension before T2DM among participants was 59.9%. A significant number (84%) had uncontrolled hypertension, and 67.3% had uncontrolled T2DM. Drug use pattern revealed single or combinations according to clinical guidelines initially but did not follow through in meeting targets. Majority received angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, amlodipine or atenolol for BP control and metformin for T2DM. Patients diagnosed between 1 and 5 years displayed significant poor glycemic and BP control. Significantly, most patients appeared to have been on same prescriptions for a longer time without review.
CONCLUSION: Poor glycemic and BP controls observed in this study could be due to deficient treatment strategy among others. Patients were, however, not adequately managed in line with prescribed clinical guidelines.
This study illustrates about the most hazardous and risky activities associated with well drilling operation at on and offshore
oil and gas drilling sites by adopting exploratory research design (quantitative leading to qualitative). In this study researcher has
targeted three oil and gas industries each from Malaysia, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan for the identification of associated hazards
and nature of hazardous activities faced by drilling crew during well drilling operation. Eighty (80) drilling crew members have
been randomly selected for answering the survey questionnaire. Likewise, nine (09) drilling health and safety officials have been
conveniently selected based on their safety expertise in oil and gas drilling field for semi structured in-depth interview. For analyzing
quantitative findings descriptive statistical methods has been used. While for qualitative section thematic analysis approach has
been utilized. Based on the findings, respondents from Malaysian oil and gas industries reported starting drilling activity as highly
hazardous at onshore well drilling, while handling drilling pipe has been considered more hazardous activity at offshore domain.
Similarly, in the context of Saudi Arabia, respondents highlighted that the handling drilling pipes are cause of major injuries at onshore
well drilling site. Whereas drilling fluid preparation and coring process is considered harmful at offshore sites. In contrast, participant
from Pakistan indicated coring process as a highly hazardous activity at on and offshore well drilling operation. According to overall
results based on the participant response, oil and gas well drilling operation at onshore domain is considered more hazardous
at Pakistani oil and gas industry as compare to other targeted industries with mean range 3.42. While for offshore well drilling,
Malaysian industry is recorded highly hazardous as compare to others leading with mean value 3.39 and related with chemical and
safety hazards in well drilling activities.
Depression is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the year 2000 depression accounted for 4.4% of the global disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a population of 28 million people and is one of the countries experiencing demographic transition in its population structure. Improvements in socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with increased chronic diseases including chronic mental diseases like depression, but still there is no comprehensive review summarizing the various reports currently existing in the literature. Although individual studies within Saudi Arabia have reported prevalence rates and risks, the quality of such studies need to be subjected to rigorous assessment and their findings pooled to give combined weighted evidence that will provide basis for targeted intervention. Pooled risks have the advantage of adjusting inherent variations within sampled populations and therefore providing more reliable estimates even though there are concerns about possible magnification of smaller individual risks.
The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of congenital colour vision defects among male secondary school students in Al-Madinah Al-Munawara city, Saudi Arabia. A total of 1154 male secondary school students were selected randomly through a multi-stage sampling method. Ishihara 24-plates was used to screen for colour blindness. The overall prevalence of congenital colour vision defects was 3.3% with 1% protanopes and 2.3% deuteranopes. The prevalence of congenital colour vision defect among Saudis was 2.48% and (5.48%) among non-Saudis. In conclusion, the prevalence of congenital colour vision defect among male secondary school students of Al-Madinah Al-Munawara city is comparable to previously reported in central Saudi Arabia, but lower than for Caucasian.
A comparative study of synovitis in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia was made with a view to determining any geographic variation in the incidence and pattern of the arthritides. The diagnostic spectrum in both series included pyogenic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, brucellar and tubercular arthritis, gout, pigmented villonodular synovitis, synovial chondromatosis and acute rheumatic fever. Date-palm thorn synovitis was observed only in the Saudi Arabian series. While brucellar and tuberculous arthritis were predominantly seen in Saudi Arabia, the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis, pigmented villonodular synovitis and acute suppurative arthritis was almost equal in both countries.
RATIONALE: Sepsis is a leading cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions worldwide and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Limited data exist regarding the outcomes and functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock a year after hospital discharge.
METHODS: Adult patients admitted between April 2007 and March 2010 to the medical-surgical ICU of a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. The ICU database was investigated for patients with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock. Survival status was determined based on hospital discharge. Patients who required re-admission, stayed in ICU for less than 24 hours, had incomplete data were all excluded. Survivors were interviewed through phone calls to determine their functional status one-year post-hospital discharge using Karnofsky performance status scale.
RESULTS: A total of 209 patients met the eligibility criteria. We found that 38 (18.1%) patients had severe disability before admission, whereas 109 (52.2%) patients were with severe disability or died one-year post-hospital discharge. Only one-third of the survivors had good functional status one-year post-discharge (no/mild disability). After adjustment of baseline variables, age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.04] and pre-sepsis functional status of severe disability (aOR = 50.9, 95% CI = 6.82-379.3) were found to be independent predictors of functional status of severe disability one-year post-hospital discharge among survivors.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that only one-third of the survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock had good functional status one-year post-discharge (no/mild disability). Age and pre-sepsis severe disability were the factors that highly predicted the level of functional status one-year post-hospital discharge.
KEYWORDS: Disability; functional status; septic shock; severe sepsis