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  1. Ismail NIW, Jayabalan N, Mansor SM, Müller CP, Muzaimi M
    Addict Biol, 2017 Jul;22(4):967-976.
    PMID: 26990882 DOI: 10.1111/adb.12385
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a widely abused herbal drug preparation in Southeast Asia. It is often consumed as a substitute for heroin, but imposing itself unknown harms and addictive burdens. Mitragynine is the major psychostimulant constituent of kratom that has recently been reported to induce morphine-like behavioural and cognitive effects in rodents. The effects of chronic consumption on non-drug related behaviours are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic mitragynine treatment on spontaneous activity, reward-related behaviour and cognition in mice in an IntelliCage® system, and compared them with those of morphine and Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). We found that chronic mitragynine treatment significantly potentiated horizontal exploratory activity. It enhanced spontaneous sucrose preference and also its persistence when the preference had aversive consequences. Furthermore, mitragynine impaired place learning and its reversal. Thereby, mitragynine effects closely resembled that of morphine and THC sensitisation. These findings suggest that chronic mitragynine exposure enhances spontaneous locomotor activity and the preference for natural rewards, but impairs learning and memory. These findings confirm pleiotropic effects of mitragynine (kratom) on human lifestyle, but may also support the recognition of the drug's harm potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  2. Liew SY, Khaw KY, Murugaiyah V, Looi CY, Wong YL, Mustafa MR, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2015 Jan 15;22(1):45-8.
    PMID: 25636869 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.11.003
    Nine monoterpenoid indole alkaloids; naucletine (1), angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), naucline (5), angustoline (6), harmane (7), 3,14-dihydroangustoline (8), strictosamide (9) and one quinoline alkaloid glycoside; pumiloside (10) from Nauclea officinalis were tested for cholinesterase inhibitory activity. All the alkaloids except for pumiloside (10) showed strong to weak BChE inhibitory effect with IC50 values ranging between 1.02-168.55 μM. Angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), angustoline (6) and harmane (7) showed higher BChE inhibiting potency compared to galanthamine. Angustidine (2) was the most potent inhibitor towards both AChE and BChE. Molecular docking (MD) studies showed that angustidine (2) docked deep into the bottom gorge of hBChE and formed hydrogen bonding with Ser 198 and His 438. Kinetic study of angustidine (2) on BChE suggested a mixed inhibition mode with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 6.12 μM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  3. Jansen KL, Prast CJ
    J Psychoactive Drugs, 1988 Oct-Dec;20(4):455-7.
    PMID: 3072396
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology
  4. Rusli N, Amanah A, Kaur G, Adenan MI, Sulaiman SF, Wahab HA, et al.
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 2019 04;392(4):481-496.
    PMID: 30604191 DOI: 10.1007/s00210-018-01605-y
    Mitragynine is a major component isolated from Mitragyna speciosa Korth or kratom, a medicinal plant known for its opiate-like and euphoric properties. Multiple toxicity and fatal cases involving mitragynine or kratom have been reported but the underlying causes remain unclear. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a multidrug transporter which modulates the pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics and plays a key role in mediating drug-drug interactions. This study investigated the effects of mitragynine on P-gp transport activity, mRNA, and protein expression in Caco-2 cells using molecular docking, bidirectional assay, RT-qPCR, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry techniques, respectively. Molecular docking simulation revealed that mitragynine interacts with important residues at the nucleotide binding domain (NBD) site of the P-gp structure but not with the residues from the substrate binding site. This was consistent with subsequent experimental work as mitragynine exhibited low permeability across the cell monolayer but inhibited digoxin transport at 10 μM, similar to quinidine. The reduction of P-gp activity in vitro was further contributed by the downregulation of mRNA and protein expression of P-gp. In summary, mitragynine is likely a P-gp inhibitor in vitro but not a substrate. Hence, concurrent administration of mitragynine-containing kratom products with psychoactive drugs which are P-gp substrates may lead to clinically significant toxicity. Further clinical study to prove this point is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  5. Tay YL, Teah YF, Chong YM, Jamil MFA, Kollert S, Adenan MI, et al.
    Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 2016 08 15;305:22-39.
    PMID: 27260674 DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2016.05.022
    Mitragyna speciosa Korth is known for its euphoric properties and is frequently used for recreational purposes. Several poisoning and fatal cases involving mitragynine have been reported but the underlying causes remain unclear. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac IKr current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. On the other hand, IK1, a Kir current mediated by Kir2.1 channel and IKACh, a receptor-activated Kir current mediated by GIRK channel are also known to be important in maintaining the cardiac function. This study investigated the effects of mitragynine on the current, mRNA and protein expression of hERG channel in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells and Xenopus oocytes. The effects on Kir2.1 and GIRK channels currents were also determined in the oocytes. The hERG tail currents following depolarization pulses were inhibited by mitragynine with an IC50 value of 1.62μM and 1.15μM in the transfected cell line and Xenopus oocytes, respectively. The S6 point mutations of Y652A and F656A attenuated the inhibitor effects of mitragynine, indicating that mitragynine interacts with these high affinity drug-binding sites in the hERG channel pore cavity which was consistent with the molecular docking simulation. Interestingly, mitragynine does not affect the hERG expression at the transcriptional level but inhibits the protein expression. Mitragynine is also found to inhibit IKACh current with an IC50 value of 3.32μM but has no significant effects on IK1. Blocking of both hERG and GIRK channels may cause additive cardiotoxicity risks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  6. Singh D, Müller CP, Vicknasingam BK, Mansor SM
    J Psychoactive Drugs, 2015 5 8;47(2):125-31.
    PMID: 25950592 DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2015.1012610
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is an indigenous plant known for its traditional medicinal use, and for its addiction potential, in Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom and its major alkaloid, mitragynine, spread worldwide with largely unknown effects on behavior and mental health. Recent studies show that kratom use can lead to dependence and that mitragynine works as an addictive drug in animal studies. Nevertheless, kratom preparations were also suggested as a less harmful substitute in opiate withdrawal. Potential side-effects of prolonged kratom use, however, are currently unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the social functioning of regular kratom users in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in three northern states of Peninsular Malaysia investigating 293 regular kratom consumers using the Addiction Severity Index in a snowball sampling technique. Findings showed that regular kratom users do not experience major impairments in their social functioning, despite being dependent on kratom for prolonged periods. Our findings suggest that chronic kratom administration does not significantly impair social functioning of users in a natural context in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  7. Lim SH, Sim KM, Abdullah Z, Hiraku O, Hayashi M, Komiyama K, et al.
    J. Nat. Prod., 2007 Aug;70(8):1380-3.
    PMID: 17608533
    Four new indole alkaloids were obtained from two Kopsia species, 6-oxoleuconoxine (1) from the leaf extract of K. griffithii and kopsinitarine E (2), kopsijasminine (3), and kopsonoline (4) from the stem-bark extract of K. teoi. The structures of these alkaloids were determined using NMR and MS analysis. Kopsijasminine (3) showed moderate activity in reversing multidrug resistance in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology
  8. Takayama H
    Chem. Pharm. Bull., 2004 Aug;52(8):916-28.
    PMID: 15304982
    The leaves of a tropical plant, Mitragyna speciosa KORTH (Rubiaceae), have been traditionally used as a substitute for opium. Phytochemical studies of the constituents of the plant growing in Thailand and Malaysia have led to the isolation of several 9-methoxy-Corynanthe-type monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, including new natural products. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and/or synthetic methods. The potent opioid agonistic activities of mitragynine, the major constituent of this plant, and its analogues were found in in vitro and in vivo experiments and the mechanisms underlying the analgesic activity were clarified. The essential structural features of mitragynines, which differ from those of morphine and are responsible for the analgesic activity, were elucidated by pharmacological evaluation of the natural and synthetic derivatives. Among the mitragynine derivatives, 7-hydroxymitragynine, a minor constituent of M. speciosa, was found to exhibit potent antinociceptive activity in mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology
  9. Apryani E, Hidayat MT, Moklas MA, Fakurazi S, Idayu NF
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2010 Jun 16;129(3):357-60.
    PMID: 20371280 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.03.036
    AIM OF THE STUDY: Mitragyna speciosa Korth from Rubiaceae family is a tropical plant indigenous to Southeast Asia particularly in Thailand, Peninsular of Malaysia and Indonesia. The leaves have been used by natives for their opium-like effect and cocaine-like stimulant ability to combat fatigue and enhance tolerance to hard work. However there is no scientific information about the effect of mitragynine on the cognitive performances. This study is designed to examine the working memory effects of mitragynine which is extracted from Mitragyna speciosa mature leaves.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cognitive effect was studied using object location task and the motor activity in open-field test. Mitragynine 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg and were administered by intraperitoneal (IP) for 28 consecutive days and evaluated on day 28 after the last dose treatment. Scopolamine was used as the control positive drug.

    RESULTS: In this study there is prominent effects on horizontal locomotor activity was observed. Mitragynine significantly reduced locomotor activity in open-field test compared with vehicle. In object location task mitragynine (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) did not showed any significances discrimination between the object that had changed position than the object that had remain in a constant position.

    CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that chronic administration of mitragynine can altered the cognitive behavioral function in mice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  10. Prozialeck WC, Avery BA, Boyer EW, Grundmann O, Henningfield JE, Kruegel AC, et al.
    PMID: 31103778 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.05.003
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tree-like plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Its leaves, and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to stave off fatigue and to manage pain and opioid withdrawal. Evidence suggests kratom is being increasingly used by people in the United States and Europe for the self-management of opioid withdrawal and treatment of pain. Recent studies have confirmed that kratom and its chemical constituents have potentially useful pharmacological actions. However, there have also been increasing numbers of reports of adverse effects resulting from use of kratom products. In August 2016, the US Drug Enforcement Administration announced plans to classify kratom and its mitragynine constituents as Schedule I Controlled Substances, a move that triggered a massive response from pro-kratom advocates. The debate regarding the risks, and benefits and safety of kratom continues to intensify. Kratom proponents tout kratom as a safer and less addictive alternative to opioids for the management of pain and opioid addiction. The anti-kratom faction argues that kratom, itself, is a dangerous and addictive drug that ought to be banned. Given the widespread use of kratom and the extensive media attention it is receiving, it is important for physicians, scientists and policy makers to be knowledgeable about the subject. The purpose of this commentary is to update readers about recent developments and controversies in this rapidly evolving area. All of the authors are engaged in various aspects of kratom research and it is our intention to provide a fair and balanced overview that can form the basis for informed decisions on kratom policy. Our conclusions from these analyses are: (a) User reports and results of preclinical studies in animals strongly suggest that kratom and its main constituent alkaloid, mitragynine may have useful activity in alleviating pain and managing symptoms of opioid withdrawal, even though well-controlled clinical trials have yet to be done. (b) Even though kratom lacks many of the toxicities of classic opioids, there are legitimate concerns about the safety and lack of quality control of purported "kratom" products that are being sold in the US. (c) The issues regarding the safety and efficacy of kratom and its mitragynine constituent can only be resolved by additional research. Classification of the Mitragyna alkaloids as Schedule I controlled substances would substantially impede this important research on kratom.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology
  11. Obeng S, Kamble SH, Reeves ME, Restrepo LF, Patel A, Behnke M, et al.
    J. Med. Chem., 2020 01 09;63(1):433-439.
    PMID: 31834797 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01465
    Selected indole-based kratom alkaloids were evaluated for their opioid and adrenergic receptor binding and functional effects, in vivo antinociceptive effects, plasma protein binding, and metabolic stability. Mitragynine, the major alkaloid in Mitragyna speciosa (kratom), had higher affinity at opioid receptors than at adrenergic receptors while the vice versa was observed for corynantheidine. The observed polypharmacology of kratom alkaloids may support its utilization to treat opioid use disorder and withdrawal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  12. Harun N, Hassan Z, Navaratnam V, Mansor SM, Shoaib M
    Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 2015 Jul;232(13):2227-38.
    PMID: 25616583 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-015-3866-5
    RATIONALE: Mitragynine (MG) is the primary active alkaloid extracted from the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa or kratom and exhibits pharmacological activities mediated by opioid receptors. The plant has been traditionally used for its opium and psychostimulant-like effects to increase work efficiency or as a substitute in the self-treatment of opiate addiction.

    OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to investigate the discriminative stimulus effects of MG in rats. The pharmacological mechanism of MG action and its derivative, 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-HMG) with a specific focus on opioid receptor involvement was examined in rats trained to discriminate morphine from vehicle. In order to study the dual actions of MG, the effect of cocaine substitution to the MG discriminative stimulus was also performed in MG-trained rats.

    METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were trained to discriminate MG from vehicle in a two-lever drug discrimination procedure under a tandem variable-interval (VI 60') fixed-ratio (FR 10) schedule of food reinforcement.

    RESULTS: Rats acquired the MG discrimination (15.0 mg/kg, i.p.) which was similar to the acquisition of morphine discrimination (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in another group of rats. MG substituted fully to the morphine discriminative stimulus in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting pharmacological similarities between the two drugs. The administration of 7-HMG derivative in 3.0 mg/kg (i.p.) dose engendered full generalisation to the morphine discriminative stimulus. In addition, the MG stimulus also partially generalised to cocaine (10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) stimulus.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that the discriminative stimulus effect of MG possesses both opioid- and psychostimulant-like subjective effects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  13. Goh TB, Koh RY, Mordi MN, Mansor SM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(14):5659-65.
    PMID: 25081682
    BACKGROUND: To investigate the antioxidant value and anticancer functions of mitragynine (MTG) and its silane-reduced analogues (SRM) in vitro.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTG and SRM was analyzed for their reducing power ability, ABTS radical inhibition and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazylfree radicals scavenging activities. Furthermore, the antiproliferation efficacy was evaluated using MTT assay on K 562 and HCT116 cancer cell lines versus NIH/3T3 and CCD18-Co normal cell lines respectively.

    RESULTS: SRM and MTG demonstrate moderate antioxidant value with ABTS assay (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC): 2.25±0.02 mmol trolox / mmol and 1.96±0.04 mmol trolox / mmol respectively) and DPPH (IC50=3.75±0.04 mg/mL and IC50=2.28±0.02 mg/mL respectively). Both MTG and SRM demonstrate equal potency (IC50=25.20±1.53 and IC50= 22.19±1.06 respectively) towards K 562 cell lines, comparable to control, betulinic acid (BA) (IC5024.40±1.26). Both compounds showed concentration-dependent cytototoxicity effects and exert profound antiproliferative efficacy at concentration > 100 μM towards HCT 116 and K 562 cancer cell lines, comparable to those of BA and 5-FU (5-Fluorouracil). Furthermore, both MTG and SRM exhibit high selectivity towards HCT 116 cell lines with selective indexes of 3.14 and 2.93 respectively compared to 5-FU (SI=0.60).

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed that the medicinal and nutitional values of mitragynine obtained from ketum leaves that growth in tropical forest of Southeast Asia and its analogues does not limited to analgesic properties but could be promising antioxidant and anticancer or chemopreventive compounds.

    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  14. Hazim AI, Ramanathan S, Parthasarathy S, Muzaimi M, Mansor SM
    J Physiol Sci, 2014 May;64(3):161-9.
    PMID: 24464759 DOI: 10.1007/s12576-014-0304-0
    The effects of mitragynine on anxiety-related behaviours in the open-field and elevated plus-maze tests were evaluated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated with mitragynine (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) or diazepam (10 mg/kg) 60 min before behavioural testing. Mitragynine doses used in this study were selected on the basis of approximately human equivalent doses with reference to our previous literature reports. Acute administration of mitragynine (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) or diazepam (10 mg/kg) increased central zone and open arms exploration in the open-field and elevated plus-maze tests respectively. These anxiolytic-like effects of mitragynine were effectively antagonized by intraperitoneal administration of naloxone (2 mg/kg), flumazenil (10 mg/kg), sulpiride (0.5 mg/kg) or SCH 23390 (0.02 mg/kg) 15 min before mitragynine treatments. These findings reveal that the acute administration of mitragynine produces anxiolytic-like effects and this could be possibly attributed to the interactions among opioidergic, GABAergic and dopaminergic systems in brain regions involved in anxiety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  15. Lim EL, Seah TC, Koe XF, Wahab HA, Adenan MI, Jamil MF, et al.
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2013 Mar;27(2):812-24.
    PMID: 23274770 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2012.12.014
    CYP450 enzymes are key determinants in drug toxicities, reduced pharmacological effect and adverse drug reactions. Mitragynine, an euphoric compound was evaluated for its effects on the expression of mRNAs encoding CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 and protein expression and resultant enzymatic activity. The mRNA and protein expression of CYP450 isoforms were carried out using an optimized multiplex qRT-PCR assay and Western blot analysis. CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were evaluated using P450-Glo™ assays. The effects of mitragynine on human CYP3A4 protein expression were determined using an optimized hCYP3A4-HepG2 cell-based assay. An in silico computational method to predict the binding conformation of mitragynine to the active site of the CYP3A4 enzyme was performed and further validated using in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition assays. Mitragynine was found to induce mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A2. For the highest concentration of 25 μM, induction of mRNA was approximately 70% that of the positive control and was consistent with the increased CYP1A2 enzymatic activity. Thus, mitragynine is a significant in vitro CYP1A2 inducer. However, it appeared to be a weak CYP3A4 inducer at the transcriptional level and a weak CYP3A4 enzyme inhibitor. It is therefore, unlikely to have any significant clinical effects on CYP3A4 activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  16. Hassan Z, Muzaimi M, Navaratnam V, Yusoff NH, Suhaimi FW, Vadivelu R, et al.
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 2013 Feb;37(2):138-51.
    PMID: 23206666 DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.11.012
    Kratom (or Ketum) is a psychoactive plant preparation used in Southeast Asia. It is derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korth. Kratom as well as its main alkaloid, mitragynine, currently spreads around the world. Thus, addiction potential and adverse health consequences are becoming an important issue for health authorities. Here we reviewed the available evidence and identified future research needs. It was found that mitragynine and M. speciosa preparations are systematically consumed with rather well defined instrumentalization goals, e.g. to enhance tolerance for hard work or as a substitute in the self-treatment of opiate addiction. There is also evidence from experimental animal models supporting analgesic, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory as well as strong anorectic effects. In humans, regular consumption may escalate, lead to tolerance and may yield aversive withdrawal effects. Mitragynine and its derivatives actions in the central nervous system involve μ-opioid receptors, neuronal Ca²⁺ channels and descending monoaminergic projections. Altogether, available data currently suggest both, a therapeutic as well as an abuse potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology
  17. Shamima AR, Fakurazi S, Hidayat MT, Hairuszah I, Moklas MA, Arulselvan P
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(9):11427-42.
    PMID: 23109863 DOI: 10.3390/ijms130911427
    Cannabinoids and opioids systems share numerous pharmacological properties and antinociception is one of them. Previous findings have shown that mitragynine (MG), a major indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (MS) can exert its antinociceptive effects through the opioids system. In the present study, the action of MG was investigated as the antinociceptive agent acting on Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and effects on the opioids receptor. The latency time was recorded until the mice showed pain responses such as shaking, licking or jumping and the duration of latency was measured for 2 h at every 15 min interval by hot plate analysis. To investigate the beneficial effects of MG as antinociceptive agent, it was administered intraperitoneally 15 min prior to pain induction with a single dosage (3, 10, 15, 30, and 35 mg/kg b.wt). In this investigation, 35 mg/kg of MG showed significant increase in the latency time and this dosage was used in the antagonist receptor study. The treated groups were administered with AM251 (cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist), naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist) naloxonazine (μ(1)-receptor antagonist) and norbinaltorpimine (κ-opioid antagonist) respectively, prior to administration of MG (35 mg/kg). The results showed that the antinociceptive effect of MG was not antagonized by AM251; naloxone and naltrindole were effectively blocked; and norbinaltorpimine partially blocked the antinociceptive effect of MG. Naloxonazine did inhibit the effect of MG, but it was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  18. Kong WM, Chik Z, Mohamed Z, Alshawsh MA
    PMID: 29076424 DOI: 10.2174/1386207320666171026121820
    AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Mitragynine, a major active alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa, acts as an agonist on µ-opioid receptors, producing effects similar to morphine and other opioids. It has been traditionally utilized to alleviate opiate withdrawal symptoms. Besides consideration about potency and selectivity, a good drug must possess a suitable pharmacokinetic profile, with suitable absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-Tox) profile, in order to have a high chance of success in clinical trials.

    MATERIAL AND METHOD: The purity of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa alkaloid extract (MSAE) was determined using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography (UFLC). In vitro high throughput ADMETox studies such as aqueous solubility, plasma protein binding, metabolic stability, permeability and cytotoxicity tests were carried out to analyze the physicochemical properties of MSAE and mitragynine. The UFLC quantification revealed that the purity of mitragynine in the MSAE was 40.9%.

    RESULTS: MSAE and mitragynine are highly soluble in aqueous solution at pH 4.0 but less soluble at pH 7.4. A parallel artificial membrane permeability assay demonstrated that it is extensively absorbed through the semi-permeable membrane at pH 7.4 but very poorly at pH 4.0. Both are relatively highly bound to plasma proteins (> 85 % bound) and are metabolically stable to liver microsomes (> 84 % remained unchanged). In comparison to MSAE, mitragynine showed higher cytotoxicity against WRL 68, HepG2 and Clone 9 hepatocytes after 72 h treatment.

    CONCLUSION: The obtained ADME and cytotoxicity data demonstrated that both MSAE and mitragynine have poor bioavailability and have the potential to be significantly cytotoxic.

    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  19. Yusoff NHM, Mansor SM, Müller CP, Hassan Z
    Behav. Brain Res., 2018 06 01;345:65-71.
    PMID: 29499286 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2018.02.039
    Mitragynine is the major alkaloid found in the leaves of M. speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), a plant that is native to Southeast Asia. This compound has been used, either traditionally or recreationally, due to its psychostimulant and opioid-like effects. Recently, mitragynine has been shown to exert conditioned place preference (CPP), indicating the rewarding and motivational properties of M. speciosa. Here, the involvement of GABAB receptors in mediating mitragynine reward is studied using a CPP paradigm in rats. First, we examined the effects of GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg) on the acquisition of mitragynine (10 mg/kg)-induced CPP. Second, the involvement of GABAB receptors in the expression of mitragynine-induced CPP was tested. We found that the acquisition of mitragynine-induced CPP could be blocked by higher doses (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) of baclofen. Baclofen at a high dose inhibited locomotor activity and caused a CPP. Furthermore, we found that baclofen (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) also blocked the expression of mitragynine-induced CPP. These findings suggest that both, the acquisition and expression of mitragynine's reinforcing properties is controlled by the GABAB receptor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
  20. Utar Z, Majid MI, Adenan MI, Jamil MF, Lan TM
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Jun 14;136(1):75-82.
    PMID: 21513785 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.011
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: [corrected] Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae) is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat various types of diseases especially in Thailand and Malaysia. Its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in its crude form are well documented. In this study, the cellular mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of mitragynine, the major bioactive constituent, was investigated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of mitragynine on the mRNA and protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were investigated in LPS-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2. Protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 were assessed using Western blot analysis and the level of PGE(2) production was quantified using Parameter™ PGE(2) Assay (R&D Systems).

    RESULTS: Mitragynine produced a significant inhibition on the mRNA expression of COX-2 induced by LPS, in a dose dependent manner and this was followed by the reduction of PGE(2) production. On the other hand, the effects of mitragynine on COX-1 mRNA expression were found to be insignificant as compared to the control cells. However, the effect of mitragynine on COX-1 protein expression is dependent on concentration, with higher concentration of mitragynine producing a further reduction of COX-1 expression in LPS-treated cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that mitragynine suppressed PGE(2) production by inhibiting COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Mitragynine may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/pharmacology*
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