Malaysian adolescents, like their Western counterparts, undergo rapid growth and development. It is hypothesized that self-concept improves as adolescents mature and become more adjusted to the changes. This study therefore sought to ascertain whether the self-concept changes with age, not only in the global sense but in the various components of the self-concept. The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale and the Brookover Scale of Academic Ability were administered to 375 adolescent boys, ranging in age from 14.7 to 17.0 years, and to 289 adolescent girls, ranging in age from 14.4 to 17.2 years. The findings show that the self-concept of adolescent boys changes with age in the direction predicted. The trend is less obvious and less consistent for girls.
Demographic, economic and social changes have had major impact on health and illness globally, including in Malaysia, and present significant challenges to the structure and delivery of health services. While these changes have influenced the epidemiology of disease, the diagnosis, experience and response to changes in health status for individuals and their families are influenced by additional environmental and personal factors. We describe these factors in relation to our ongoing research program on personal and social aspects of impairment and disability. The Resilience study aims to understand how people with impairments and their families live with chronic health conditions, how these conditions impact on self-esteem, social relationships and societal participation, and how structure, context and environment affect individual functioning, disability and well-being. We described our methodology and summarize the baseline data that will inform our future enquiries.
This initial study was conducted from September to February 2009 to examine predictors of general well-being among academic college residents at a higher learning institution. A set of questions was sent to 150 students who identified themselves as residents of the academic college, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - short version was used to measure personality traits.The Rosenberg Self-esteem Questionnairewas used to measure self-esteem and Satisfaction with Life Scale to measure life-satisfaction. The general well-being scale was used to measure general well-being. Inter-correlation analysis has shown that extraversion was significantly correlated to self-esteem, life-satisfaction and general well-being whilst life-satisfaction was significantly correlated to general well-being. Multiple regression analysis showed that three factors significantly contributed to general well-being with a 24% explained variance. No significant differences were found between gender and general well-being.
Markus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-report measures of independence and interdependence frequently fail to show predicted cultural differences. We revisited the conceptualization and measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals in 2 large-scale multinational surveys, using improved methods for cross-cultural research. We developed (Study 1: N = 2924 students in 16 nations) and validated across cultures (Study 2: N = 7279 adults from 55 cultural groups in 33 nations) a new 7-dimensional model of self-reported ways of being independent or interdependent. Patterns of global variation support some of Markus and Kitayama's predictions, but a simple contrast between independence and interdependence does not adequately capture the diverse models of selfhood that prevail in different world regions. Cultural groups emphasize different ways of being both independent and interdependent, depending on individualism-collectivism, national socioeconomic development, and religious heritage. Our 7-dimensional model will allow future researchers to test more accurately the implications of cultural models of selfhood for psychological processes in diverse ecocultural contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record
Self-esteem is an important determinant of psychological well-being that is particularly problematic during adolescent life stage. There is a correlation between low self-esteem and other social problems among today's adolescents. This study was conducted to determine the mean self-esteem score, and to determine the association between self-esteem and age, sex, race, religion, number of siblings, ranking among siblings, family function, parental marital status and smoking among adolescents aged 12 to 20-years-old. A cross sectional study design using random cluster sampling method was done. Four out of a total of 35 secondary schools in Klang District, Selangor were selected. Respondents consisted of individual students in selected classes from the four selected schools. Data was collected using a self-administered, structured, pre-tested questionnaire and was analyzed using the SPSS version 12.0. Out of 1089 respondents, 793 completed the questionnaire (response rate 73.82%). The overall mean self-esteem score was 27.65. The mean self-esteem score for males (27.99) was slightly higher than females (27.31). The differences in the mean scores by race were statistically significant. There was a statistically significant relationship between mean self-esteem scores and sex, age, race, religion, number of siblings, smoking and family function. There was no statistically significant difference between mean self-esteem score with parental marital status and with ranking among siblings. The overall mean self-esteem score was 27.65. Self-esteem was associated with sex, age, race, religion, number of siblings, smoking and family function.
Previous work has shown that exposure to images of nature results in elevated state body appreciation, but static images may lack ecological validity. Here, we examined the impact of exposure to short films of simulated, first-person walks in natural or built environments. Thirty-six university students completed a measure of state body appreciation before and after watching films of either a walk in a natural or a built environment created specifically for the present study. Two weeks later, they completed the same task but watched the other film type. Results indicated that exposure to the film of a natural environment resulted in significantly elevated state body appreciation (d = 0.66). There was no significant change in state body appreciation following exposure to the film of the built environment (d = 0.14). These findings suggest that exposure to films depicting the natural environment may promote immediate, moderate-sized improvements in state body image.
This study examines the relationship between religiosity and level of happiness in an Islamic context among Muslim students studying at Malaysian universities. The determinants of happiness included in this research are positive attitudes, self-esteem, and other-esteem. Religiosity has long been considered as the main determinant in increasing happiness, and educational level strengthens its relationship. For this purpose, the researchers sampled 230 Muslim students aged 17-40 years studying at Malaysian universities in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The study found a positive and significant correlation between religious commitment and level of happiness. Religious commitment also shows positive and significant correlations with positive attitudes, self-esteem, and other-esteem. The study also concludes that educational attainment moderates the relationship between religious commitment and happiness. Thus, religious commitment plays a very important role in increasing levels of happiness.
Thank you for the comments received on the article "The Sensitivity, Specificity and Accuracy of Warning Signs in Predicting Severe Dengue, the Severe Dengue Prevalence and its Associated Factors" [...].
A board game has been designed in order to improve entrepreneurship among teenagers. This paper discusses about the development of the game and a preliminary study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a playing the board game in improving elements of entrepreneurship among the participants. Because entrepreneurship skill can be defined as skills in pursuing opportunities, a success in entrepreneurship is defined as success in pursuing opportunities, both Kirnzerian (discovery, exploitation) and Schumpeterian (creation, innovation) type. Features in the game is designed to represent the following psychological traits that literature suggested as elements of successful opportunity pursuing namely (1) self-esteem, (2) competitiveness, (3) resilience, (4) self-efficacy, (5) practical intelligence and (6) experience. In the preliminary study, a group of participants between 11 to 15 years old played the game twice a week for four weeks, where their behavior are observed during the game, and the collected data is analyzed in two cycles, namely in vivo and thematic analyses. At the moment this abstract is written, the participants had only been played twice; however some qualitative improvement can be seen in terms of competitiveness, resilience, and practical intelligence. It is suggested that the research be done on larger samples, conducted in mixed methods, and the game to be introduced to public in order to arouse entrepreneurship in early ages.
This qualitative study has been done to 24 teachers and 72 students from various secondary schools in Penang, Malaysia, related to the effect of between class ability grouping (BCAG). Studies reported that BCAG triggered correspondence bias among teachers, which eventually affect them to show different perception and expectations towards high achiever classes (HAC) and low achiever classes (LAC) students. However, even teachers tend to expect HAC students not to be significantly involved in disciplinary problems; they still do, such as distrusting schoolteachers, paying less attention to in the classroom, doing external work during classes at school, and being blatantly arrogant to the teachers. Semi-structured interview have been utilized in order to collect the data, and two-cycled analyses method, namely In-Vivo and Thematic Analyses has been operated in order to analyze the massive amount of qualitative data. Findings of this study showed that the disciplinary problems among HAC are related to their self-esteem types due to locus of control difference, as well as bigger issues apart from the competition among themselves. School management system, BCAG itself, and reciprocal envy between HAC and LAC students, as well as their inclination towards tuition centers contributed to disciplinary problems among HAC students.
Education is one of the most important aspects for every individual including people with visual impairments. Visually impaired students also have the right to a good educational opportunity to higher education. In this regard, this article explores the issues and challenges of visually impaired students in higher learning institution. This study uses a full qualitative approach, a case study in the Klang Valley. In-depth interviews were used in data collection involving 5 students with visual impairment: four males and one female. The findings showed that among the major issues faced by visually impaired students pursuing higher education in tertiary institution were self-esteem, financial and public stigma. In addition, visually impaired students also faced challenges in accessibility, peer-to-peer acceptance and difficulties in learning at the university. In conclusion, this study emphasises on issues and challenges often faced by students with visual impairments at higher learning institution so that appropriate supports and facilities can be effectively provided by the university.
Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is important and should be mastered by House Officers (HO). House officers who have just completed their studies are assigned to acute medical and surgical wards. If a patient in the ward has a cardiac arrest (CA), these doctors are usually the first to attend. Therefore an HO must be confident with CPR skills. They must be competent in performing CPR. The authors assessed 26 new HOs from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Hospital (HUKM) with respect to their self-perception about CPR skills, confidence level in performing CPR and knowledge in performing CPR. Knowledge was assessed by a questionnaire. We found that 16 of 26 (61.5%) assessed themselves to have inadequate knowledge and 46.2% had no confidence in performing CPR. The mean score of the written test was 5.7 ± 1.8. Seven out of 26 (27.0%) HOs had incorrect hand placement position for CPR. Only 4 and 9 out of 26 HOs had their sternal paddle and cardiac apex paddle positions correctly placed respectively. In conclusion, knowledge, perception of skills and confidence levels of HOs on CPR are inadequate and need further assessment and improvement. Medical schools need to review their CPR curriculum in order to prepare HOs adequately to work in emergency situations.
Each nursing student comes to nursing with a lay image of nursing portrayed by nurses they have seen. This lay perception of nursing that a nursing student holds is transformed to a more professional understanding that is acquired in nursing schools. This process is known as professional socialization. It is a process of learning the norms, attitudes, behaviours, skills, roles, and values of the profession. It involves the internalization of the values and norms of the profession in the individual’s own behaviour and self-concept. The ultimate goal of professional socialization is to internalize a professional identity of the profession. Professional socialization sets in to reduce the tension from the scenario of reality shock and facilitate adaptation during the transition process. This paper serves as a concept paper with the main purpose of introducing and explaining the concept of professional socialization in nursing to help the readers in gaining further understanding of the concept, especially within the local context. The first author has also incorporated her own personal reflections with regards to her socialization process to nursing.
A total of 200 university students were surveyed to ascertain if gender, personality traits and social support were associated with self-esteem. There were equal numbers of males and females in the study, with controls for living and education status. The results showed that gender was not significantly associated with self-esteem. Whilst all the personality and social support factors were found to be associated with levels of self-esteem, only extraversion, openness to new experiences, conscientiousness, emotional stability and total amount of social support were found to predict self-esteem. Recommendations are made for early identification and interventions for populations at risk of low self-esteem based on the findings of the study.
Previous studies have shown that the experience of infertility is linked with psychological responses such as depression, anxiety, guilt, social isolation, and decreased self-esteem in both men and women. The prevalence of depression among infertile women ranges from 8% to 54%. Treating gynecologists and healthcare professionals seldom recognized the psychosocial distress in women undergoing fertility treatment. Therefore this paper reviewed the bio-psychosocial response towards infertility among women with infertility.
Background: Self-esteem is a person’s appraisal of his own worth, significance, attractiveness, and competence. Low self-esteem could also lead to social, health and psychological problems including eating disorders. Eating disorder is when a person uses measures such as dieting, restricting intake of food or purging to control his or her body weight. Objective: The current study explores the relationship between self-esteem and anorectic eating concerns among female university students in Malaysia. Method: 217 female university students were studied, using Rosenberg’s Self Esteem Scale (SE-10) and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40). Results: Students with low self esteem had higher anorectic eating concerns. Race of the student had no significance in predicting eating disorder. Age plays an important role in eating disorder. Young students with low self-esteem are more vulnerable to anorectic eating concerns than older students. Conclusion: It was found that there exists an inverse but low correlation between the two variables self esteem and anorectic eating concerns.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify the influence of early clinical exposure for undergraduate students on self-perception of different aspects of geriatric dental care.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have selected two different colleges from Japan and India, namely, Tokyo Dental College (TDC), Tokyo, and Government Dental College (GDC), Nagpur, respectively. The GDC students exposed to patients in a 3(rd) year and TDC in the 5(th) year of course. Survey of 74 undergraduate students GDC and 95 of TDC was conducted. The questionnaire was developed based on to the 50 points undergraduate curriculum by European College of Gerodontology. The questionnaire categorized into four parts; Part I (15 questions) on aging and medicine, Part II (15 questions) on communication skills, Part III (15 questions) on diagnosis/treatment, and Part IV (5 questions) on need of more training in Gerodontology. Their own-perception on self-knowledge and competency was scored on 4 level scale as 3, 2, 1, and 0 for response yes, rather yes, rather no, and no, respectively. Average scores were calculated and presented.
RESULTS: The differences of the opinions as per students' perception level were found to be slightly more affirmative in GDC students (1.9 for the 4(th) year and 2 for the 5(th) year) than TDC students (1.1 for 5(th) grade and 1.5 for 6(th) grade). Both clinical and didactic hours should be increased in curriculum according to the TDC (89%) and GDC (79%) students. Separate gerodontology subject is suggested from TDC (76%) to GDC (81%) students.
CONCLUSION: Average scores about own-perception of knowledge and competency about aging, medicine, and communication skills were almost same in both GDC and TDC students. With early clinical exposure, GDC students appear have better self-perception regarding the different aspects of the geriatric dental care including subject knowledge, communications, diagnosis, and treatment planning than TDC students with late clinical exposure.
The purpose of this study was to identify whether a novice teachers have a self-esteem while teaching physical education. This study access the level of self-esteem among novice teachers between gender and option teachers teach in physical education. This study is a quantitative research survey and this study design is selected using questionnaires based on Rosenberg self-esteem scale for collecting data. 30 novice physical education teachers have been selected from one of the schools in the district of Sepang, Selangor. 15 males and 15 female teachers were randomly selected from the target group. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0 for frequency distribution, mean, standard deviation and independent sample t-test to measure the level of self-esteem of teachers with the dependent variable. The study found that there was no significant difference between the level of self-esteem between genders. While in terms of options, there are significant differences in the level of self-esteem for non-option physical education teachers. The self-esteem level among novice teachers are very important to enhance the quality of learning, especially in the subjects of physical education.