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  1. Thompson, Holly Knox, Hasking, Penelope A.
    MyJurnal
    Self-injury is a significant predictor of future self-harm and suicide, and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. However, despite an
    apparent increase in prevalence, very little research on this behaviour has been conducted within Malaysia. This paper reviews the definitional issues
    pertinent to the study of self-injury including the need to adopt a consistent nomenclature for the behaviour, separate self-injury which occurs with and
    without suicidal intent, and to address role of culture in defining self-injurious behaviour. A review and critique of research exploring the prevalence, function, aetiology, and correlates of self-injury across both clinical and community samples is provided. Finally, in light of the current international knowledge regarding self-injurious behaviour, recommendations to guide future research in Malaysia are proposed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior
  2. Armitage CJ, Panagioti M, Abdul Rahim W, Rowe R, O'Connor RC
    Gen Hosp Psychiatry, 2015 Mar-Apr;37(2):153-65.
    PMID: 25636361 DOI: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2014.12.002
    Most of the research into suicide and self-harm has been conducted in the United States and Europe, yet the volume of research does not reflect the distribution of suicide globally, with Asia accounting for up to 60% of all suicides. The present study systematically reviews the literature to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal acts in Malaysia in Southeast Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology*
  3. Hamidin, A., Maniam, T.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of life events among parasuicide patients
    with the prevalence of similar life events among age, sex and race matched patients with non-chronic
    medical illness. Methods: A hospital-based case-control study using convenience sampling method
    was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur for a period of three and a half months. A total of 50 patients
    admitted consecutively after an episode of parasuicide and who fulfilled criteria for entry into the study
    agreed to participate. For each case one age-, sex- and race-matched control was selected from the list of patients who were admitted to the same hospital for non-chronic medical illness. Result: Statistical analysis showed that compared with medically ill patients, parasuicide patients had significantly higher prevalence of threatening life events six months (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior
  4. Chan LF, Maniam T, Saini SM, Shah SA, Loh SF, Sinniah A, et al.
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:123-6.
    PMID: 23857848 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12057
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 6786 adolescents aged 17-18 years, selected randomly from all Malaysian adolescents to undergo compulsory youth camps located in Selangor, Malaysia (2008-2009). Participants were assessed using self-administered questionnaires developed to reflect the local cultural setting. However, only 4581 subjects were analyzed after excluding incomplete data.
    RESULTS: The rates of SI, SP and DSH were 7.6%, 3.2% and 6.3%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio showed that sexual abuse was associated with SI 1.99 (95% CI: 1.56-2.55), SP 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09-2.27) and DSH 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.94); illicit drug use was associated with SI 4.05 (95% CI: 2.14-7.67), SP 2.62 (95% CI: 1.05-6.53) and DSH 2.06, (95% CI: 1.05-4.04); for alcohol use DSH was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00-1.79). Being female was associated with all suicidal behaviors: SI 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.30), SP 2.07 (95% CI: 1.39-3.08) and DSH 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.11).
    DISCUSSION: Given the well-founded concern of increasing risk of suicidal behavior among youth, preventive efforts should adopt a more comprehensive approach in dealing with sexual abuse and substance abuse, and their sequelae, especially in girls.
    KEYWORDS: adolescent; risks; sexual abuse; substance abuse; suicidal behavior
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology; Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology
  5. Kamarul Aryffin Baharuddin, Mohd Hashairi Fauzi, Mohd Boniami Yazid, Mohammad Zikri Ahmad, Wan Hazuraini Wan Zain
    MyJurnal
    Severe acutepoisoning of cypermethrin is rare. We reportedthiscase about a47-year old man who was brought to the Emergency Departmentwith drowsiness and drooling of saliva after intentional self-harm with 2.25gram of cypermethrin.His initial condition was stable. However, nine hours after admission, he developed seizures and reduced conscious level. He was ventilated overnight for airway protection. Management of acute severe poisoning is discussed in this case report.
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior
  6. Wu Y, Levis B, Riehm KE, Saadat N, Levis AW, Azar M, et al.
    Psychol Med, 2020 06;50(8):1368-1380.
    PMID: 31298180 DOI: 10.1017/S0033291719001314
    BACKGROUND: Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.

    METHODS: We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.

    RESULTS: 16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (-0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.

    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior
  7. Lim IR, Aw CY
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Oct;58(4):613-6.
    PMID: 15190641
    Penetrating neck trauma present difficult management issues by virtue of their rarity. Undiagnosed laryngotracheal injuries have serious implications, especially in the context of multiple trauma, where other injuries overshadow that of the laryngotracheal complex. This is a case of a schizophrenic patient with multiple self-inflicted cuts on his throat and abdomen. Injuries include open, comminuted laryngeal complex lacerations with vocal cord avulsion, as well as evisceration of small bowel. Adequate assessment using both direct laryngoscopy and rigid endoscopy, coupled with open exploration, allowed optimal exposure and fixation of the larynx in the anatomical configuration. The post-operative outcome of the airway and voice remained satisfactory at follow-up. A high index of suspicion coupled with adequate surgical approach allowed establishment of a functional larynx.
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior*
  8. Chen BC, Balasubramaniam S, McGown IN, O'Neill JP, Chng GS, Keng WT, et al.
    Brain Dev, 2014 Aug;36(7):593-600.
    PMID: 24055166 DOI: 10.1016/j.braindev.2013.08.013
    BACKGROUND: Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a rare X-linked recessive neurogenetic disorder caused by deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT, EC 2.4.2.8) which is responsible for recycling purine bases into purine nucleotides. Affected individuals have hyperuricemia leading to gout and urolithiasis, accompanied by a characteristic severe neurobehavioural phenotype with compulsive self-mutilation, extrapyramidal motor disturbances and cognitive impairment.
    AIM: For its theoretical therapeutic potential to replenish the brain purine nucleotide pool, oral supplementation with S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) was trialed in 5 Malaysian children with LND, comprising 4 related Malay children from 2 families, including an LND girl, and a Chinese Malaysian boy.
    RESULTS: Dramatic reductions of self-injury and aggressive behaviour, as well as a milder reduction of dystonia, were observed in all 5 patients. Other LND neurological symptoms did not improve during SAMe therapy.
    DISCUSSION: Molecular mechanisms proposed for LND neuropathology include GTP depletion in the brain leading to impaired dopamine synthesis, dysfunction of G-protein-mediated signal transduction, and defective developmental programming of dopamine neurons. The improvement of our LND patients on SAMe, particularly the hallmark self-injurious behaviour, echoed clinical progress reported with another purine nucleotide depletion disorder, Arts Syndrome, but contrasted lack of benefit with the purine disorder adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency. This first report of a trial of SAMe therapy in LND children showed remarkably encouraging results that warrant larger studies.
    KEYWORDS: Aggression; Dystonia; HGPRT; HPRT1; Lesch–Nyhan disease; S-adenosylmethionine; Self-injury
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior/drug therapy
  9. Hayati AN, Kamarul AK
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Sep;63 Suppl C:50-4.
    PMID: 19227674
    To create a nationwide system to capture data on completed suicide in Malaysia i.e. the morbidity, geographic and temporal trends and the population at high risk of suicide. Data from this registry can later be used to stimulate and facilitate further research on suicide. This paper describes the rationale and processes involved in developing a national suicide registry in 2007. The diagnosis of suicide is based on the ICD-10 codes for fatal intentional self-harm (X60-X84). A case report form with an accompanying instruction manual had been prepared to ensure systematic and uniform data collection. State Forensic Pathologist's offices are responsible for data collection in their respective states, and in turn will submit the data to a central data management unit. Data collection began in July 2007 and currently in data cleaning process. Training for source data producers is ongoing. In 2008, the NSRM plans to involve university hospitals into its network as currently only Ministry of Health hospitals are involved. The NSRM will be launching its online application for case registration this year while an overview of results will be available via its public domain at www.nsrm.gov.my beginning 20 April 2008. To efficiently capture the data on suicide, a concerted effort between various agencies is needed. A lot of conceptual work and data base development remains to be done in order to position preventive efforts on a more solid foundation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology
  10. Pritchard C, Amanullah S
    Psychol Med, 2007 Mar;37(3):421-30.
    PMID: 17176500
    Suicide is expressly condemned in the Qu'ran, and traditionally few Islamic countries have reported suicide. Undetermined deaths are classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as Other Violent Deaths (OVD) in ICD-9, or Other External Causes (OEC) in ICD-10. It has been suggested that to avoid under-reporting of suicides, both formal suicide verdicts and OVD should be considered together because OVD may contain 'hidden' suicides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior/mortality
  11. Wai BH, Heok KE
    Ethn Health, 1998 Nov;3(4):255-63.
    PMID: 10403107
    This study was undertaken to determine whether there were ethnic and social variations in parasuicide in the population of Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior
  12. Maniam T
    Br J Psychiatry, 1988 Aug;153:222-5.
    PMID: 3255436 DOI: 10.1192/bjp.153.2.222
    Ninety-five cases of suicide and 134 cases of parasuicide that occurred between October 1973 and September 1984 in the hill resort district of Cameron Highlands in Malaysia were analysed. Eighty-one per cent of suicides and 78% of parasuicides were of Indians, although they only form 25% of the population. The average annual suicide rate for Indians (over 10 years of age) was 157 per 100,000. About 94% of suicides and 66% of parasuicides were by ingesting agricultural poisons. The age- and sex-specific suicide rates for women were highest in the 20-24-year-old age group. Some possible reasons for high suicide rates among Indians are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior
  13. Ng CW, How CH, Ng YP
    Singapore Med J, 2017 Feb;58(2):72-77.
    PMID: 28210741 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2017006
    Major depression is a common condition seen in the primary care setting. This article describes the suicide risk assessment of a depressed patient, including practical aspects of history-taking, consideration of factors in deciding if a patient requires immediate transfer for inpatient care and measures to be taken if the patient is not hospitalised. It follows on our earlier article about the approach to management of depression in primary care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior
  14. Kumar, P.R., Vincent, S.D.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: This study aimed to collect data on features of parasuicide cases
    presented to Hospital Melaka from January to December 2015. Methods:
    This was a descriptive study with retrospective review of medical records of
    parasuicide cases that were warded for observation in Hospital Melaka from
    January to December 2015. Data collected included sociodemographic factors,
    previous attempts, methods implicated and reasons for parasuicide which
    were presented in descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 88 parasuicide
    cases were studied. The median age was 25.6 (17.7) with a majority in age
    group between 15-24 years old (43.2%). Females were the highest with 58
    cases (65.9%). In terms of ethnicity, the Malays was the highest at 38 cases
    (43.2 %). However, after corrected to proportion of ethnicity in Melaka,
    Indians yield the highest cases. Those who were single (50.0%) and
    unemployed (64.8%) contributed to higher number of cases. About 40 cases
    (45.5%) had underlying psychiatry illness and majority of them were those
    diagnosed with major depressive disorder (47.5%). In general, the most
    common method used was self poisoning with anti-epileptics,
    sedative-hypnotic, psychotropics (22.1%). Among male cases, pesticide
    ingestion (37%) was more common while among female, medication overdose
    (53%) was preferred. In terms of reasons for parasuicide, individuals with
    interpersonal conflicts contributed to the highest percentage of cases (57.7%).
    Conclusion: Data gathered in this study is useful to reflect the current
    situation of parasuicide in Melaka and could serve as a foundation in
    designing future studies on preventive and intervention programs in Hospital
    Melaka.
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior
  15. Haagsma JA, James SL, Castle CD, Dingels ZV, Fox JT, Hamilton EB, et al.
    Inj Prev, 2020 Oct;26(Supp 1):i12-i26.
    PMID: 31915273 DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043296
    BACKGROUND: The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates.

    METHODS: Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate.

    RESULTS: For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.

    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior
  16. Ahmad, H.S.
    MyJurnal
    The past decade has seen a marked increase in the popularity of ATS use, particularly methamphetamine, within East Asia,and the Pacific region. In Malaysia, the National Anti Drug Agency has identified 8,870 addicts (from January till August 2008) out of which 1,126 was ATS dependence. During the same period, the police have arrested 46,388 people under the Dangerous Drug Act 1952. They also has seize 283kg of syabu, 545kg of ecstacy powder, 66194 tablets of esctacy pills and 222,376 tablets of yaba pills from Jan till August this year. The occurrence of psychosis arising from the use of ATS was first reported in the late 1930's. With growing ATS use, particularly methamphetamine, ATS-induced psychosis has become a major impact on public health.Symptoms of ATS-induced psychosis: Methamphetamine use produces a variety of effects, ranging from irritability, to physical aggression, hyperawareness, hypervigilance, and psychomotor agitation. Repeated or high-dose use of the stimulant can cause drug-induced psychosis resembling paranoid schizophrenia, characterized by hallucinations, delusions and thought disorders. When used in long term, methamphetamine may lead to development of psychiatric symptoms due to dopamine depletion in the striatum. The most common lifetime psychotic symptoms among methamphetamine psychotic patients - as reported in a cross-country study involving Australia, Japan, the Philippines and Thailand - are persecutory delusion, auditory hallucinations, strange or unusual beliefs and thought reading. Those patients were also reported to suffer from impaired speech, psychomotor retardation, depression and anxiety. An ATS psychosis can be distinguished from primary psychotic disorders by time. In ATS-induced psychosis symptoms usually resolve after the drug is discontinued. If symptoms do not resolve within 2 weeks after cessation of stimulant use, a primary psychiatric disorder should be suspected. When compared with other stimulants, such as cocaine, psychosis is induced more commonly by ATS, possibly due to the longer duration of action produced by amphetamines.For example, while smoking cocaine produces a high that lasts for 20-30 minutes, smoking methamphetamine produces a high that lasts 8-24 hours. Other symptoms of ATS-induced psychosis reported include affective blunting,(6) violent behavior, and self-mutilation and self-injurious behavior.
    Matched MeSH terms: Self-Injurious Behavior
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