An analysis of the clinical and serological features of 12 male and 122 female patients with SLE was done to determine whether sex related differences exist. We found a lower incidence of mucocutaneous symptoms and arthritis but an increased incidence of discoid lesions, pleuritis and pericarditis in males at disease onset. During the disease course, there was a lower incidence of arthritis, a similar prevalence of mucocutaneous symptoms but an increased incidence of pleuritis in males with a trend towards renal involvement. These findings were however not statistically significant except for the higher incidence of thrombosis among males. Serologically, both groups showed similar frequencies of autoantibodies and hypocomplementaemia. Although the study was small, it was shown that several sex-related differences in the clinical and serological features exist in Malaysian SLE patients.
It is generally accepted that organisms that naturally exploit an ecosystem facilitate coexistence, at least partially, through resource partitioning. Resource availability is, however, highly variable in space and time and as such the extent of resource partitioning must be somewhat dependent on availability. Here we test aspects of resource partitioning at the inter- and intra-specific level, in relation to resource availability in an atypical aquatic environment using an isotope approach. Using closely related key organisms from an ephemeral pond, we test for differences in isotopic signatures between two species of copepod and between sexes within each species, in relation to heterogeneity of basal food resources over the course of the ponds hydroperiod. We show that basal food resource heterogeneity increases over time initially, and then decreases towards the end of the hydroperiod, reflective of the expected evolution of trophic complexity for these systems. Resource partitioning also varied between species and sexes, over the hydroperiod with intra- and inter-specific specialisation relating to resource availability. Intra-specific specialisation was particularly evident in the omnivorous copepod species. Our findings imply that trophic specialisation at both the intra- and inter-specific level is partly driven by basal food resource availability.
The fingerprints are very typical for a human being. The present study was undertaken to study the gender differences in fingerprint ridge density in Chinese and Malaysian population. The study done on 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) of Chinese origin and 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) of Malaysian origin revealed that significant gender differences occur in the finger ridge density. Fingerprint mean ridge density of 12 ridges/25 mm(2) or less is found to be more likely to be of males and a mean ridge count of more the 13 ridges/25 mm(2) is more likely of female origin in Chinese subjects. Fingerprint mean ridge density of 11 ridges/25 mm(2) or less is found to be more likely to be of males and a mean ridge count of more the 13 ridges/25 mm(2) is more likely of female origin in Malaysian subjects.
Sexual ornamentation needs to be conspicuous to be effective in attracting potential mates and defending territories and indeed, a multitude of ways exists to achieve this. Two principal mechanisms for increasing conspicuousness are to increase the ornament's colour or brightness contrast against the background and to increase the size of the ornament. We assessed the relationship between the colour and size of the dewlap, a large extendible throat-fan, across a range of species of gliding lizards (Agamidae; genus Draco) from Malaysia and the Philippines. We found a negative relationship across species between colour contrast against the background and dewlap size in males, but not in females, suggesting that males of different species use increasing colour contrast and dewlap size as alternative strategies for effective communication. Male dewlap size also increases with increasing sexual size dimorphism, and dewlap colour and brightness contrast increase with increasing sexual dichromatism in colour and brightness, respectively, suggesting that sexual selection may act on both dewlap size and colour. We further found evidence that relative predation intensity, as measured from predator attacks on models placed in the field, may play a role in the choice of strategy (high chromatic contrast or large dewlap area) a species employs. More broadly, these results highlight that each component in a signal (such as colour or size) may be influenced by different selection pressures and that by assessing components individually, we can gain a greater understanding of the evolution of signal diversity.
Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) is newly recorded from Malaysia. This record is based on 1male symbol 1female symbol from Sarawak, east Malaysia and 1male symbol 2female symbol from Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. It is included in the pusio group of Fannia wherein are included Fannia femoralis (Stein), Fannia howardi Malloch, Fannia trimaculata (Stein), Fannia leucosticta (Meigen) and Fannia punctiventris Malloch. The male of Fannia pusio is differentiated from other members of the group by the following features: hind femur with a swelling bearing a number of setae that are usually curled at tip; squamae creamy; tergite 1+2 broadly grey dusted at sides.
In this study, we have reported two direct observations of individuals from a one-male group of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) being killed by clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) in the riverine forest along the Menanggul river, a tributary of the Kinabatangan river in Sabah, Malaysia. One of the two individuals was an infant female and the other was a juvenile female. Based on literature reviews and the observations reported here, we suggest that clouded leopard and crocodile might be significant potential predators of proboscis monkeys of any age or sex and that predation threats elicit the monkeys' anti-predator strategies. Moreover, the observations of the monkeys' behaviour when the group is attacked by a predator suggest that the adult males in one-male groups play an important role as protectors.
This species, known only by a single male, is described from Mount Kinabalu and thus is recorded from the same area as Macrostylophora borneensis (Jordan, 1926), teste Traub (1972). It is distinguished from its congeneric and characterized by the absence of eriged setae on the thorax and first abdominal tergits, as well as by the shape of terminal segments and the phallosom. Macrostylophora kinabaluae was found to parasitize the Sciurid rodent Callosciurus prevostii that is widespread throughout most areas in the Malaysian subregion.
The nuts consumption pattern of Malaysian adults were assessed by a set of food frequency questionnaire collected from June to December 2008 from 364 adults (129 men and 235 women) which were selected by stratified random sampling from five areas of Penang state. Average total nuts consumption of 0.77 g/day among Penang adults was found to be no gender-specific difference but was significantly different (P
In oculoplastic operations, knowledge of the dimensions of periorbital features based on age, gender, and race is essential for achieving better aesthetic result. This article seeks to determine the racial and gender differences of periorbital features among Malaysian Malay (MM), Malaysian Indian (MI), and Malaysian Chinese (MI) subjects. Evaluation of periorbital features was done on photographs of 200 MM, 200 MI, and 200 MC subjects, aged 18 to 26 years. The measured values were evaluated by an independent t-test. A significant difference was found between MM and MI in all measurements except interbrow distance in males, eyebrow thickness in females, and apex to lateral limbus distance in both sexes. Between MI and MC the difference was insignificant for interbrow distance in male groups, apex to lateral limbus distance in females, and palpebral fissure inclination and eyebrow apex angle in both sexes. Between MM and MC, significant differences were found for eyebrow thickness and medial canthus tilt in female group. Male groups showed significant difference for apex to lateral limbus and lateral canthus distance and eyebrow apex angle. Eyebrow height, palpebral fissure width, and intercanthal distance were significantly different in both sexes. Sexual dimorphism was found for all measurements in MI, but MM and MC showed insignificant difference for eyebrow apex angle. Four types of epicanthus were observed in MM and MC and three types in MI. Eyebrow apex between lateral limbus and lateral canthus was the most common position in all racial groups. Significant racial and gender differences exist for certain periorbital measurements. The knowledge of these differences is expected to influence the surgical outcome.
The acoustic characteristics of sustained vowel have been widely investigated across various languages and ethnic groups. These acoustic measures, including fundamental frequency (F(0)), jitter (Jitt), relative average perturbation (RAP), five-point period perturbation quotient (PPQ5), shimmer (Shim), and 11-point amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ11) are not well established for Malaysian Malay young adults. This article studies the acoustic measures of Malaysian Malay adults using acoustical analysis. The study analyzed six sustained Malay vowels of 60 normal native Malaysian Malay adults with a mean of 21.19 years. The F(0) values of Malaysian Malay males and females were reported as 134.85±18.54 and 238.27±24.06Hz, respectively. Malaysian Malay females had significantly higher F(0) than that of males for all the vowels. However, no significant differences were observed between the genders for the perturbation measures in all the vowels, except RAP in /e/. No significant F(0) differences between the vowels were observed. Significant differences between the vowels were reported for all perturbation measures in Malaysian Malay males. As for Malaysian Malay females, significant differences between the vowels were reported for Shim and APQ11. Multiethnic comparisons indicate that F(0) varies between Malaysian Malay and other ethnic groups. However, the perturbation measures cannot be directly compared, where the measures vary significantly across different speech analysis softwares.
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of two dust mites, Sturnophagoides brasiliensis and Sturnophagoides halterophilus, are presented to provide an improved visualization of the taxonomic characters of these mites. Sturnophagoides halterophilus can be differentiated from S. brasiliensis by their expanded genu and femur of leg I. The differences in morphology of male and female S. brasiliensis are also discussed.
Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850), and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents' personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (a) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge toward adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (b) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (c) the emergence of sex differences was similar across cultures. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Information about the sex of individuals is important for human identification. This study was conducted to quantify classification rates of sex prediction models for Malaysians using odontometric profiles. Mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) crown dimensions of the permanent dentition were studied in 400 young adult Malaysians, giving a total of 28 tooth size variables. The sample consisted of three major ethnic groups, the Malays, Chinese and Tamils, since the aim was to assess sex dimorphism in Malaysians as a whole. Results showed that the mesiodistal diameter of the lower canine was the most sexually dimorphic dimension in Malaysian Malays and Tamils. Univariate analyses showed that the magnitude and pattern of sex dimorphism varies between these three ethnic groups, with Malaysian Chinese and Tamils being more dimorphic than the Malaysian Malays. Stepwise discriminant functions were generated bearing in mind their application in practical forensic situations. The range of classification rates was from 70.2% to 78.5% for the composite Malaysian group, and 83.8%, 77.9%, 72.4% for Malaysian Chinese, Malays and Tamils, respectively. The 'Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve statistics' indicated good classification rates for three prediction models obtained using a combination of all tooth size variables, mandibular teeth, and mesiodistal dimensions in the composite Malaysian group, and for all tooth size variables in each ethnic group. The present study provides strong support for the value of odontometry as an adjunct scientific method for sex prediction in human identification.
Although the vast majority of higher animals are fixed for one chiral morph or another, the cause for this directionality is known in only a few cases. In snails, for example, rare individuals of the opposite coil are unable to mate with individuals of normal coil, so directionality is maintained by frequency-dependent selection. The snail subgenus Amphidromus presents an unexplained exception, because dextral (D) and sinistral (S) individuals occur sympatrically in roughly equal proportions (so-called 'antisymmetry') in most species. Here we show that in Amphidromus there is sexual selection for dimorphism, rather than selection for monomorphism. We found that matings between D and S individuals occur more frequently than expected by chance. Anatomical investigations showed that the chirality of the spermatophore and the female reproductive tract probably allow a greater fecundity in such inter-chiral matings. Computer simulation confirms that under these circumstances, sustained dimorphism is the expected outcome.
Spirometry was performed on 1,485 male subjects ranging in age from 13 years to 78 years and comprising of all the main ethnic groups in Malaysia. They were divided into six age categories. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were 3.45 +/- 0.02 and 3.10 +/- 0.02, respectively. Both FVC and FEV1 correlated negatively with age. Regression analysis revealed an age-related decline in FVC of 295 ml per decade of life. Multiple stepwise regression of the data for the prediction of an individual's FVC above the age of 20 years gave the equation FVC (1) = 0.0404 (height in cm)-0.0295 (age in years)-2.2892. Predicted FVC values derived from equations based on other populations were considerably higher than the observed mean in this study. This study therefore, reemphasises the need to be cautions when applying formulae derived from one population to another. Grossly erroneous conclusions may be reached unless predicted equations for lung-function tests for a given population group are derived from studies based upon the same population group.
The white-bellied sea eagle, Haliaeetus leucogaster, displays reversed sexual size dimorphism and is monomorphic for adult plumage coloration. Early attempts to identify sex in sexually monomorphic birds were based on morphological or chromosomal characters, but since avian W-specific DNA sequences were identified, PCR amplification has become commonly used for molecular sexing. We used a PCR test employing primers that amplify two homologous fragments of both the CHD-W gene, unique to females, and the CHD-Z gene, occurring in both sexes. This test was applied to five individuals of H. leucogaster from the Malacca Zoo and to male and female domestic chickens, Gallus domesticus, for comparison. All individuals were sexed successfully with high reproducibility. We conclude that this PCR-based test with feathers as the DNA source is a reliable sexing method for H. leucogaster. This sexing technique is objective and non-invasive and could be used to test sex ratio theories, as well as to help improve conservation and management actions for captive breeding program of this species in Malaysia.
Many studies have shown that females smile more than males do in social situations. The present study extends this research by examining a large sample of high school yearbook photographs. In addition to assessing the degree of smiling, ratings were obtained of the following traits for each photograph: hair length, hair colour, masculine-feminine appearance and physical attractiveness. Results reconfirmed earlier research showing that females smile more than males do while they are being photographed. Other findings were that smiling was positively correlated with hair length, femininity and physical attractiveness for females but not for males. When a multivariate analysis was performed, none of these traits predicted smiling in males, and only femininity was significant in predicting smiling in females. Although social learning theories of smiling can account for some of these findings, a recently proposed neurohormonal theory seems to best explain why femininity is related to smiling in females but not in males.
Hyperglycaemia initiates endothelial dysfunction causing diabetic macro- and micro-vasculopathy, the main causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetes mellitus. The vasculopathy exhibits gender peculiarities. We therefore explored gender differences in comparing the effects of hyperglycaemia (50 mM) per se with its hyperosmolar (50 mM) effects on vascular tissue responses to insulin. Endothelium-intact or denuded thoracic aortic rings from age-matched male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated for 10 min or 6 h (acute versus chronic exposure) in normal, hyperglycaemic or hyperosmolar Krebs solution. Relaxant responses to insulin (6.9x10(-7)-6.9x10(-5) M) of the phenylephrine-contracted tissues were recorded. Endothelium denudation in both genders inhibited relaxation to insulin in all conditions, more significantly in female than in male tissues, suggesting the female response to insulin is more endothelium-dependent than the male. Acutely and chronically exposed normoglycemic endothelium-intact or -denuded tissues responded similarly to insulin. Chronic hyperglycemic or hyperosmolar exposure did not alter the endothelium-denuded tissue responses to insulin, whereas the responses of the endothelium-intact male and female hyperosmolar, and male hyperglycemic tissues were enhanced. The results show that insulin exerts an endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation with the female tissue responses more endothelium-dependent than the male. The data also suggest that hyperosmolarity per se enhances aortic tissue relaxant responses to insulin whereas hyperglycemia per se inhibits the same and more so in female than male tissues. These effects are endothelium-dependent.
Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences.