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  1. Tan HM, Tong SF, Ho CC
    J Sex Med, 2012 Mar;9(3):663-71.
    PMID: 22188573 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02582.x
    INTRODUCTION: Sexual dysfunction in men, such as erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism, and premature ejaculation, generates considerable attention. Its association with physical and psychological health is an issue which should be addressed seriously.
    AIM: A review of the literature pertaining to the correlation between sexual dysfunction and physical and psychological health.
    METHODS: PubMed search for relevant publications on the association between sexual dysfunction in men and physical and psychological health.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical and epidemiological evidence that demonstrates the association between sexual dysfunction in men and physical and psychological health.
    RESULTS: Sexual dysfunction, i.e., erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism, and premature ejaculation, has been shown to be associated with physical and psychological health. There is a strong correlation between sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, quality of life, and depression.
    CONCLUSION: The association between men's sexual dysfunction and physical and psychological health is real and proven. Therefore, it should not be taken lightly but instead treated as a life-threatening medical problem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/physiopathology*
  2. Kadir ZS, Sidi H, Kumar J, Das S, Midin M, Baharuddin N
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(8):916-926.
    PMID: 28228081 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170222153908
    Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-5), it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis. The etiology of vaginismus is complex: through multiple biopsycho- social processes, involving bidirectional connections between pelvic-genital (local) and higher mental function (central regulation). It has robust neural and psychological-cognitive loop feedback involvement. The internal neural circuit involves an inter-play of at least two-pathway systems, i.e. both "quick threat assessment" of occipital-limbic-occipital-prefrontal-pelvic-genital; and the chronic pain pathways through the genito-spinothalamic-parietal-pre-frontal system, respectively. In this review, a neurobiology root of vaginismus is deliberated with the central role of an emotional-regulating amygdala, and other neural loop, i.e. hippocampus and neo-cortex in the core psychopathology of fear, disgust, and sexual avoidance. Many therapists view vaginismus as a neglected art-and-science which demands a better and deeper understanding on the clinico-pathological correlation to enhance an effective model for the bio-psycho-social treatment. As vaginismus has a strong presentation in psychopathology, i.e. fear of penetration, phobic avoidance, disgust, and anticipatory anxiety, we highlighted a practical psychiatric approach to the clinical management of vaginismus, based on the current core knowledge in the perspective of neuroscience.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/physiopathology
  3. Lechmiannandan S, Panirselvam M, Muninathan P, Hussin N, Rajan R, Sidi H, et al.
    Obes Surg, 2019 05;29(5):1571-1575.
    PMID: 30706310 DOI: 10.1007/s11695-019-03722-w
    INTRODUCTION: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) among the obese women is often under diagnosed and ignored especially in Malaysia, a nation of conservative multiethnic society. There are only a few studies on FSD resolution post-bariatric surgery. The objective was to identify the rate and resolution or improvement of FSD, among obese multiethnic Malaysian women post-bariatric surgery.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of women undergoing bariatric surgery, between May 2017 and April 2018. FSD was diagnosed using the Malay version of Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSFI) questionnaire. Patients filled up the questionnaire before and 6 months after surgery. Association between BMI reduction and FSFI score improvement was measured using Fisher's exact test. Outcomes between types of surgery (sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass) was compared.

    RESULTS: Fifty-two women completed the study. The mean age was 38.77 ± 6.7. There were 44 (84.6%) Malay patients, 7 (13.5%) Indian patients, and 1 (1.9%) Chinese patient. There was a significant reduction in mean BMI, 39.89 ± 6.9 pre-surgery to 30.32 ± 5.4 post-surgery (p value sexual domains and should be considered as a management option in this group of women.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/physiopathology
  4. Chung CM, Lu MZ, Wong CY, Goh SG, Azhar MI, Lim YM, et al.
    Diabet. Med., 2016 May;33(5):674-80.
    PMID: 26202696 DOI: 10.1111/dme.12864
    AIM: The aim of this study is to construct a new tool for the assessment of sexual dysfunction among men with diabetes that is valid and reliable across different ethnicities, languages and socio-economic backgrounds in South East Asia.

    METHODS: Focus group interviews were conducted to determine the construct of the questionnaire. Content and face validity were assessed by a panel of experts. A pilot study was conducted to validate the Sexual Dysfunction in Asian Men with Diabetes (SAD-MEN) questionnaire in English and Malay. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) was used for comparison. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, reliability was determined using Cronbach's α (> 0.700), and test-retest reliability using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.

    RESULTS: The SAD-MEN questionnaire yielded moderate face and content validity, with high reliability as shown by Cronbach's α values of 0.949 for sexual performance and 0.775 for sexual desire for the English version. The Malay language questionnaire had a Cronbach's α value of 0.945 for sexual performance and 0.750 for sexual desire. Test-retest reliability using Spearman's test gave correlation coefficients of r = 0.853, P = 0.000 for the English language questionnaire and r = 0.908, P = 0.000 for the Malay language questionnaire.

    CONCLUSION: The SAD-MEN questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool by which to assess sexual dysfunction in English- and Malay-speaking Malaysian and South East Asian men with diabetes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/physiopathology
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