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  1. Tan HM, Tong SF, Ho CC
    J Sex Med, 2012 Mar;9(3):663-71.
    PMID: 22188573 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02582.x
    INTRODUCTION: Sexual dysfunction in men, such as erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism, and premature ejaculation, generates considerable attention. Its association with physical and psychological health is an issue which should be addressed seriously.
    AIM: A review of the literature pertaining to the correlation between sexual dysfunction and physical and psychological health.
    METHODS: PubMed search for relevant publications on the association between sexual dysfunction in men and physical and psychological health.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical and epidemiological evidence that demonstrates the association between sexual dysfunction in men and physical and psychological health.
    RESULTS: Sexual dysfunction, i.e., erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism, and premature ejaculation, has been shown to be associated with physical and psychological health. There is a strong correlation between sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, quality of life, and depression.
    CONCLUSION: The association between men's sexual dysfunction and physical and psychological health is real and proven. Therefore, it should not be taken lightly but instead treated as a life-threatening medical problem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/psychology*
  2. Kadir ZS, Sidi H, Kumar J, Das S, Midin M, Baharuddin N
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(8):916-926.
    PMID: 28228081 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170222153908
    Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-5), it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis. The etiology of vaginismus is complex: through multiple biopsycho- social processes, involving bidirectional connections between pelvic-genital (local) and higher mental function (central regulation). It has robust neural and psychological-cognitive loop feedback involvement. The internal neural circuit involves an inter-play of at least two-pathway systems, i.e. both "quick threat assessment" of occipital-limbic-occipital-prefrontal-pelvic-genital; and the chronic pain pathways through the genito-spinothalamic-parietal-pre-frontal system, respectively. In this review, a neurobiology root of vaginismus is deliberated with the central role of an emotional-regulating amygdala, and other neural loop, i.e. hippocampus and neo-cortex in the core psychopathology of fear, disgust, and sexual avoidance. Many therapists view vaginismus as a neglected art-and-science which demands a better and deeper understanding on the clinico-pathological correlation to enhance an effective model for the bio-psycho-social treatment. As vaginismus has a strong presentation in psychopathology, i.e. fear of penetration, phobic avoidance, disgust, and anticipatory anxiety, we highlighted a practical psychiatric approach to the clinical management of vaginismus, based on the current core knowledge in the perspective of neuroscience.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/psychology
  3. Norhayati MN, Azman Yacob M
    Int J Psychiatry Med, 2017 11 08;52(4-6):328-344.
    PMID: 29117756 DOI: 10.1177/0091217417738933
    There was limited knowledge on the sexual function in women who have survived severe obstetric complications. The aim of this study was to compare the level of sexual functioning among women with and without severe morbidity at six months postpartum and to identify the factors associated with sexual function scores of women. A prospective double-cohort study design was applied at two tertiary hospitals over a six-month period. Postpartum women with and without severe maternal morbidity were selected as the exposed and the non-exposed group, respectively. The study included 145 exposed and 187 non-exposed women. Those with severe maternal morbidity were significantly ( P Sexual Function Index scores ( P = 0.895) between the two groups. Both groups showed the highest sexual dysfunction in pain and the lowest dysfunction in orgasm. Linear regression analyses showed no association between Female Sexual Function Index scores and sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive history, or quality of life. Sexual function in women with severe maternal morbidity did not differ from that in women without severe maternal morbidity. In-depth qualitative studies of women who have experienced potentially life-threatening conditions may improve the understanding of their sexual function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/psychology*
  4. Muhamad R, Horey D, Liamputtong P, Low WY
    Arch Sex Behav, 2019 04;48(3):949-960.
    PMID: 30238183 DOI: 10.1007/s10508-018-1236-1
    Recognizing barriers to managing sexual issues makes it more likely that effective ways to overcome them will be found. In Malaysia, where discussion of sexual issues is taboo, sociocultural factors may influence how physicians manage patients with these types of problems. This article focuses on the challenges encountered by 21 Malay family physicians when women experiencing sexual problems and female sexual dysfunction (FSD) attended their clinics, an uncommon occurrence in Malaysia, despite their high prevalence. This qualitative study employed a phenomenological framework and conducted face-to-face in-depth interviews. Three main barriers to managing women with sexual problems were identified that can hinder assessment and treatment: insufficient knowledge and training; unfavorable clinic environments; and personal embarrassment. Some barriers were associated with physician characteristics but many were systemic. These were further evaluated using social cognitive theory. Professional attitudes appear important as those physicians with an interest in managing women's health seemed to make greater effort to explore issues further and work to gain trust. Physicians who appeared indifferent to the impact of FSD showed greater reluctance to find solutions. Systemic issues included unfavorable clinical settings, lack of training, and lack of local evidence. Any strategy to address FSD needs to be underpinned by appropriate policies and resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/psychology*
  5. Lai PS, Tan SY, Liew SM
    Arch Sex Behav, 2016 Nov;45(8):2081-2089.
    PMID: 27502351 DOI: 10.1007/s10508-016-0796-1
    Sociocultural factors have been shown to be important influencers of sexual health and sexuality. Hence, the aim of our study was to explore the views and experiences of family medicine trainees regarding female sexual dysfunction (FSD) with a focus on the barriers and facilitators towards the initiation of conversation on this topic. A qualitative study design involving semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs) was conducted with 19 family medicine trainees in Malaysia. The conceptual framework used was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Participants perceived FSD as being uncommon and unimportant. According to our participants, patients often presented with indirect complaints, and doctors were not proactive in asking about FSD. Three main barriers were identified: doctor factors, perceived patient factors, and system factors. Lack of confidence, knowledge, experience, time, and embarrassment were the key barriers identified at the doctors' level. Lack of awareness, among patients regarding FSD, and local cultural and religious norms were the perceived patient barriers. System barriers were lack of time and privacy. Various facilitators, such as continuous medical education and public forums, were suggested as means to encourage family medicine trainees to initiate discussion on sexual matters during consultations. In conclusion, family medicine trainees found it difficult to initiate conversation on FSD with patients. Interventions to encourage conversation on FSD should target this and other identified barriers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/psychology
  6. Dashti S, Latiff LA, Hamid HA, Sani SM, Akhtari-Zavare M, Abu Bakar AS, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(8):3747-51.
    PMID: 27644611
    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a combination of chronic anovulation, obesity, and hyperandrogenism and can affect sexual function in women of reproductive age. It is also associated with endometrial cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency and predisposing factors of sexual dysfunction in PCOS patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 16 married women with a definite diagnosis of PCOS were recruited. Sexual function was assessed in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain using the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Patients were also assessed for mental health using the depression, anxiety and stress (DASS-21) questionnaire. Presence of hirsutism was assessed using the Ferriman-Gallwey (FG) scoring system. Demographic data were obtained from patients during in-person interview.

    RESULTS: Sexual dysfunction was present in 62.5% of patients with the domains of arousal and lubrication particularly affected (93.8% and 87.5%, respectively). Patients with symptoms of depression and anxiety were significantly more likely to suffer sexual dysfunction than those without these symptoms (p=0.04 and p=0.03 respectively). Patients with stress symptoms reported higher orgasm dysfunction than those without (p=0.02). No significant difference in any of the FSFI score domains was observed between patients with and without hirsutism.

    CONCLUSIONS: PCOS patients markedly suffer from sexual dysfunction and therefore it seems appropriate to be screened for intervention. Poor mental health conditions that may be the result of infertility or other complications of PCOS should also be considered as curable causes of sexual dysfunction in these patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/psychology*
  7. Quek KF, Low WY, Razack AH, Chua CB, Loh CS
    J Sex Marital Ther, 2002 Oct-Dec;28(5):423-6.
    PMID: 12378843
    The purpose of this study is to validate the English version of the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Marital State (GRIMS) in a Malaysian population. Using the test-retest method and Cronbach's alpha, we assessed reliability and internal consistency. Sensitivity to change was expressed as the effect size. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha value = 0.59 to 0.91) Test-retest correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient were highly significant in majority items (ICC = 0.62 and above), and there was a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. The GRIMS is suitable, reliable, valid, and sensitive to clinical change in a Malaysian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/psychology*
  8. Masiran R, Sidi H, Mohamed Z, Mohd Nazree NE, Nik Jaafar NR, Midin M, et al.
    J Sex Med, 2014 Apr;11(4):1047-1055.
    PMID: 24533444 DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12452
    INTRODUCTION: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known for their sexual side effects. Different SSRIs may affect different areas of sexual function at different rates.
    AIMS: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), its clinical correlates, and association with 5HT2A (rs6311) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who were on SSRI therapy.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 95 female outpatients with MDD treated with SSRI. The patients were in remission as determined by Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Genomic DNA was isolated from buccal swabs and samples were processed using a real time polymerase chain reaction.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The presence or absence of FSD as measured by the Malay Version of Female Sexual Function Index and 5HT2A-1438 G/A (rs6311) SNP.
    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of FSD was 32.6%. After controlling for age, number of children, education level, total monthly income, SSRI types, and SSRI dosing, being employed significantly enhanced FSD by 4.5 times (odds ratio [OR] = 4.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 20.30; P = 0.05). Those having marital problems were 6.7 times more likely to have FSD (OR = 6.67; 95% CI 1.57, 28.34). 5HT2A-1438 G/A (rs6311) SNP was not significantly associated with FSD.
    CONCLUSION: There was no significant association between FSD and the 5HT2A (rs6311) SNP in patients with MDD on SSRI therapy. Employment status and marital state were significantly associated with FSD among these patients.
    Study site: Psychiatry clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/psychology*
  9. Kheng Yee O, Muhd Ramli ER, Che Ismail H
    J Sex Med, 2014 Apr;11(4):956-965.
    PMID: 23845160 DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12246
    INTRODUCTION: Despite the high prevalence of sexual dysfunction among male schizophrenia patients, there is still a paucity of research on this area.
    AIMS: The study aims to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and any association between male patients with schizophrenia in remission and the sociodemographic profile, medication, depression, anxiety, psychopathology of illness, body mass index, and waist circumference.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study with nonprobability sampling method was conducted in a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Taiping Hospital (Perak, Malaysia) over a 7-month period. A total of 111 remitted male schizophrenia patients were recruited. The validated Malay version of the International Index of Erectile Function (Mal-IIEF-15) was administered to the patients and assessed over 4-week duration in the domains of erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was employed.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and associated factors for sexual dysfunction in each domain are the main outcome measures.
    RESULTS: All five domains of sexual functioning in patients showed a high prevalence of dysfunction ranging from 78.4% to 97.1% with orgasmic dysfunction being the least impaired and intercourse satisfaction the worst impaired. Among the domains, only orgasmic dysfunction was significantly associated with race, i.e., Chinese at lower risk for impairment than the Malays (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.76; P = 0.018); education, i.e., patients with education higher than primary level were at higher risk for dysfunction (OR = 6.49; 95% CI: 1.32, 32.05; P = 0.022); and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)-positive subscale, i.e., higher PANSS-positive score was a protective factor for orgasmic dysfunction (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.89; P = 0.015).
    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was generally high. Malay patients and those with education higher than primary level were at higher risk for orgasmic dysfunction whereas higher PANSS-positive score was protective against the impairment. The high rate of sexual dysfunction in schizophrenia patients warrants a routine inquiry into patients' sexuality and the appropriate problems being addressed.
    Study site: Psychiatric clinic, Hospital Taiping, Perak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/psychology
  10. Lechmiannandan S, Panirselvam M, Muninathan P, Hussin N, Rajan R, Sidi H, et al.
    Obes Surg, 2019 05;29(5):1571-1575.
    PMID: 30706310 DOI: 10.1007/s11695-019-03722-w
    INTRODUCTION: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) among the obese women is often under diagnosed and ignored especially in Malaysia, a nation of conservative multiethnic society. There are only a few studies on FSD resolution post-bariatric surgery. The objective was to identify the rate and resolution or improvement of FSD, among obese multiethnic Malaysian women post-bariatric surgery.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of women undergoing bariatric surgery, between May 2017 and April 2018. FSD was diagnosed using the Malay version of Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSFI) questionnaire. Patients filled up the questionnaire before and 6 months after surgery. Association between BMI reduction and FSFI score improvement was measured using Fisher's exact test. Outcomes between types of surgery (sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass) was compared.

    RESULTS: Fifty-two women completed the study. The mean age was 38.77 ± 6.7. There were 44 (84.6%) Malay patients, 7 (13.5%) Indian patients, and 1 (1.9%) Chinese patient. There was a significant reduction in mean BMI, 39.89 ± 6.9 pre-surgery to 30.32 ± 5.4 post-surgery (p value sexual domains and should be considered as a management option in this group of women.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/psychology
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