This study evaluates the sanitary and physico-chemical quality of Sg. Jarum Mas shellfish waters in order to establish its suitability as a model farm. Seawater and shellfish from nine stations (4 shellfish harvesting waters, 4 surrounding waters and 1 control site) were collected and analyzed monthly from September 2004 - September 2005. The results show that shellfish harvesting waters in Sg. Jarum Mas can be classified as ‘approved’ and ‘conditionally approved’. Hepatitis A virus was not detected in any of the shellfish examined. Dinophysis caudata and Pseuodonitzshia spp. were the most common harmful alga species observed. Harmful species that are known to produce toxins and cause shellfish poisoning such as Alexandrium spp., Gymnodinum spp., Pyrodinium sp. and Prorocentrum spp. were not detected. The physico-chemical characteristics of shellfish waters in Sg. Jarum Mas imply that they are suitable for aquaculture activity of moderately tolerant species such as shellfish.
Snail is one of the worst causes of food allergy. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the major and minor allergens of the local marine snail (Cerithidea obtusa) and subsequently to investigate the impacts of heat treatment on the IgE-binding activity of snail allergens. Proteins from raw and heat-treated snails (boiled, roasted and fried) were extracted and then resolved by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunoblotting of all extracts were then performed using sera from patients with snail allergy. The results showed that the raw extract contains numerous protein bands between 12 to>250 kDa. Some thermostable proteins, predominantly the 33 and 42 kDa bands, remained detected in all cooked extracts with decreasing intensities from boiled to roasted to fried extracts, while the majority of thermolabile bands denatured after heating. Boiled snail had more protein bands compared to roasted and fried snails. Immunoblotting of raw extract demostrated 19 IgE-binding bands ranging from 15 to 240 kDa. The thermostable bands of 33 and 42 kDa and a thermolabile of 30 kDa band were identified as the major allergens of this snail. The cooked extracts yielded less allergenic bands. The boiled extract yielded approximately 14 IgE-binding bands with some smeared bands at high molecular weight regions. The roasted extract had lesser IgE-binding bands and the majority appeared as smears, while the IgE-reactivity in the fried extract was less visible and appeared as weak smears. This study indicated that both raw and cooked snails played a crucial role in snail allergenicity, as this species of snail contains both thermostable and thermolabile major allergens. The degree of snail allergenicity was revealed in the order: raw> boiled > roasted> fried. Thus, the results would facilitate in the development of effective diagnosis and management strategies of snail allergy in this country.
The worldwide depletion of major fish stocks through intensive industrial fishing is thought to have profoundly altered the trophic structure of marine ecosystems. Here we assess changes in the trophic structure of the English Channel marine ecosystem using a 90-year time-series (1920-2010) of commercial fishery landings. Our analysis was based on estimates of the mean trophic level (mTL) of annual landings and the Fishing-in-Balance index (FiB). Food webs of the Channel ecosystem have been altered, as shown by a significant decline in the mTL of fishery landings whilst increases in the FiB index suggest increased fishing effort and fishery expansion. Large, high trophic level species (e.g. spurdog, cod, ling) have been increasingly replaced by smaller, low trophic level fish (e.g. small spotted catsharks) and invertebrates (e.g. scallops, crabs and lobster). Declining trophic levels in fisheries catches have occurred worldwide, with fish catches progressively being replaced by invertebrates. We argue that a network of fisheries closures would help rebalance the trophic status of the Channel and allow regeneration of marine ecosystems.
Allergy diagnosis needs to be improved in polysensitized patients due to the existence of possible confounding factors in this type of patients. Component resolved diagnosis (CRD) is a new concept in the investigation of polysensitized patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the utilization of ImmunoCAP ISAC improve the diagnosis of the polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Skin prick test (SPT) to 58 crude allergen extracts and CRD (ImmunoCAP ISAC) were carried out for 5 polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Two patients had a shellfish allergy and avoidance of shellfish was the only way to prevent an allergic reaction. In contrast, although the remaining three patients had low risk for shellfish allergy, but they were the best candidates for immunotherapy using mite extracts. CRD and particularly ImmunoCAP ISAC have proven to be a valuable diagnostic tool in polysensitized patients. ImmunoCAP ISAC helps refine the individual patient's sensitization profile and predict the potential risk of allergic reactions and improve the selection of patients for immunotherapy.
This study was conducted to improve the formulation of chili shrimp paste (CSP) based on sensory evaluation in terms of acidity, source of acid and coarseness of chili paste and to improve the production process of CSP. The effectiveness of dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) as a microbial reduction agent was also evaluated. To produce CSP with different coarseness, a milling machine was used. Two types of preference test were conducted, i.e. ranking and hedonic. The preferred pH level was 4.0, the best acid source was kalamansi juice, and the most preferred coarseness for chili paste was when milling plates with a gap of 120 µm was used. DMDC has no effect on microbial reduction due to the presence of fat globules in CSP which hindered the inactivation action. Milling can substitute pounding as it is much faster and can produce a uniform CSP with higher volume.
Green mussel (Perna viridis) was hydrolysed with alcalase under two different conditions consisting of pH7, E/S5% or pH 9, E/S 3% at 60°C for two hours. Hydrolysis at pH 9, E/S3% resulted in a higher degree of hydrolysis (DH) than pH7, E/S5% with degree of hydrolysis of 37.00% and 28.33%, respectively. The green mussel hydrolysates were characterized by molecular weight of
During the months of January-February and May-June 2013 coinciding with the red tide occurrence in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, six episodes involving 58 cases of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) or saxitoxin (STX) poisoning and resulting in four deaths were reported. Many of them were intoxicated from consuming shellfish purchased from the markets, whereas others were intoxicated from eating shellfish collected from the beach. Levels of STX in shellfish collected from the affected areas were high (mean 2,920 ± 780 and 360 ± 140 µg STX equivalents/100 g shellfish meat respectively for the two periods). The count of toxic dinoflagellates (Pyrodinium bahamense var compressum) of the sea water sampled around the coast was also high (mean 34,200 ± 10,300 cells/L). Species of shellfish containing high levels of STX were Atrina fragilis, Perna viridis, and Crassostrea belcheri. The age of victims varied from 9 to 67 years. Symptoms presented were typical of PSP, such as dizziness, numbness, vomiting, and difficulty in breathing. Recommended steps to prevent or reduce PSP in future red tide season include better monitoring of red tide occurrence, regular sampling of shellfish for determination of STX level, wider dissemination of information on the danger of eating contaminated shellfish among the communities, fishermen, and fishmongers.
The shrimp paste called belacan is a traditional umami taste condiment extensively used in Malaysia that is rich in glutamate and 5'-nucleotides. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of glutamate and 5'-nucleotides of various types of foods prepared with belacan and to measure their sensory attributes. The concentration of free glutamic acid found in different brands of belacan was 180-530mg/100g and in local dishes 601-4207mg/100g. The total amount of 5'-nucleotides in belacan samples ranged from 0.85 to 42.25μg/g. A Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) using a list of 17 sensory attributes showed a good correlation between belacan concentration in the final food and a range of positive sensory attributes, except for bitter, sweet, sour taste and astringency. Belacan also contains bitter, sweet and sour compounds that change the positive attributes of belacan at higher concentrations. The highest aroma attributes were linked to nasi goreng belacan (belacan fried rice) while the highest flavour attributes were found in sambal belacan. There was a 32 folds significant increase of umami attributes with the addition of belacan to final foods. The optimum amount of belacan was 0.45% for asam pedas (tamarind flavoured dish with belacan), 18% for sambal belacan (chilli belacan), 1.5-2.5% for kangkong goreng belacan (stir fried water convolous with belacan), and 2% for nasi goreng belacan.
This is the first report in which a marine mollusc, Oliva vidua fulminans (olives), generally not known to be poisonous, was responsible for death in five children after consuming boiled olives with tamarind. The onset of symptoms was rapid 10 to 20 min after consumption of the olives. Signs and symptoms included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, tingling sensation around the lips, numbness around the mouth, drowsiness, lethargy and generalized weakness with paraesthesia in the limbs. The five deaths occurred within 3 to 4 hours after eating the poisoned olives and resulted from respiratory failure. Left-over olives from the affected household and freshly collected live olives had a toxicity of 14,200 mouse units (M.U.) and 15,000 M.U. per 100 g meat respectively. No other common chemical poison and organophosphorus insecticides were detected. The neurotoxic agent was acid and heat stable and was toxic at pH less than 4. Its action was similar to that of paralytic shellfish poisoning which was caused by toxins from certain dinoflagellates.
Species of the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus produce polyether neurotoxins that caused ciguatera fish/shellfish poisoning in human. The toxins enter marine food webs by foraging of herbivores on the biotic substrates like macroalgae that host the toxic dinoflagellates. Interaction of Gambierdiscus and their macroalgal substrate hosts is believed to shape the tendency of substrate preferences and habitat specialization. This was supported by studies that manifested epiphytic preferences and behaviors in Gambierdiscus species toward different macroalgal hosts. To further examine the supposition, a laboratory-based experimental study was conducted to examine the growth, epiphytic behaviors and host preferences of three Gambierdiscus species towards four macroalgal hosts over a culture period of 40 days. The dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus balechii, G. caribaeus, and a new ribotype, herein designated as Gambierdiscus type 7 were initially identified based on the thecal morphology and molecular characterization. Our results showed that Gambierdiscus species tested in this study exhibited higher growth rates in the presence of macroalgal hosts. Growth responses and attachment behaviors, however, differed among different species and strains of Gambierdiscus over different macroalgal substrate hosts. Cells of Gambierdiscus mostly attached to substrate hosts at the beginning of the experiments but detached at the later time. Localized Gambierdiscus-host interactions, as demonstrated in this study, could help to better inform efforts of sampling and monitoring of this benthic toxic dinoflagellate.
The concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead, in the total soft tissues of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis of a wide range of sizes (2-11 cm), were determined from a population at Pasir Panjang. The metal contents (μg per individual) and concentrations (μg per g) of cadmium, lead, copper and zinc were studied in P. viridis to find the relationships with body sizes. Smaller and younger mussels showed higher concentrations (μg per g) of Cd, Pb and Zn than the larger and older ones. The results of the present study showed that the plotting of the metal content, against dry body flesh weight on a double logarithmic basis, gave good positive straight lines; this observation is in agreement with Boyden’s formula (1977). This indicated that P. viridis showed a different physiological strategy for each metal being studied, which is related to age.
This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and energetic value of selected marine fish and shellfish from the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This study has included 20 species of fish (10 pelagic fish and 10 demersal fish) and 4 species of shellfish. For pelagic fish, Longtail shad (terubuk) was found to contain significantly lower moisture (59.31+0.00%), but significantly higher fat content (23.15+0.00%) compared to other fish species. For demersal fish, moisture and ash contents ranged between 74-82%, and 0.9-2.1%, respectively. Long-tailed butterfly ray contained the highest protein (22.22+1.24%) compared to other fish studied. The highest fat content of demersal fish was in Moonfish at 6.89+2.76%. For shellfish, prawn contained the highest protein (19.12+1.44%). The fat content of shellfish ranged between 1-2%. Oyster contained significantly higher carbohydrate at 6.45+0.00%, compared to other shellfish. Longtail shad contained the highest energetic value of 13.34 kJ g-1 of all samples. These values are useful references for consumers in order to choose fish and shellfish based on their nutritional contents.
DNA damaging effect of the salted and fermented food products (salted fishes, dried shrimps and shrimp pastes) collected from three different locations in Malacca namely Pantai Puteri, Batang Tiga and Kelemak on the DNA of the Chang liver cells were evaluated via Alkaline Comet Assay. Treatment at 62.5 mg/ml following 24 hours of incubation was used based on the preliminary cytotoxicity data. Percentage of damage to the DNA was calculated using software for scoring based on the tail moment and tail intensity (severity of the DNA damage). Hydrogen peroxide was used as positive control at 0.1 mM following 30 minutes of incubation in 4 C. The results showed that the methanol extracts of shrimp pastes and salted fish from Pantai Puteri, exhibited a higher DNA damage (shrimp pastes - TM - 8.33 ± 2.19; TI - 31.67 ± 5.84, salted fishes - TM - 2.25 ± 0.86; TI - 9.25 ± 1.55) and were expressed as (shrimp pastes) 56.66 ± 8.74% of DNA damage and methanol salted fish extracts from the same location showed 13.00 ± 2.84% of the DNA damage on Chang liver cells compared to the other extracts. Values for methanol extract of shrimp pastes from Pantai Puteri were comparable to the positive control - Hydrogen peroxide (TM- 9.50 ± 1.50; TI - 30.50 ± 2.50). On the other hand, aqueous salted fishes extract from Pantai Puteri (TM - 1.33 ± 0.42; TI - 8.67 ± 2.42) and shrimp pastes extracts from Kelemak (methanol extract - TM -1.75 ± 0.15; TI -7.50 ± 0.50, aqueous extract - TM - 1.00 ± 0.00; TI - 5.00 ± 0.00) showed slightly high value for tail moment and tail intensity as compared to negative control (TM - 0.29 ± 0.05; TI - 2.50 ± 0.29). Values for methanol extracts of shrimp pastes from Pantai Puteri were comparable to the positive control (TM- 9.50 ± 1.50; TI - 30.50 ± 2.50). In conclusion, our results demonstrate genotoxic damage induced by few salted and fermented food extracts in Chang liver cell.
Level of heavy metals in marine ecosystem has been intensively studied during recent years as these hazardous substances could be accumulated in the biota. Generally, the presence of contaminants in fish is a result of human activities such as industrial and agricultural wastes. In this study, the marine fish and shellfish from the Straits of Malacca were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) and Flow Injection Mercury System (FIMS) for Cd, As and Pb and Hg, respectively. The Straits of Malacca is one of the busiest shipping routes in the world that make the level of heavy metals potentially high besides the various industrial activities along the west region of Peninsular Malaysia. The range of heavy metals in samples were 1.0-3-6.5-3 µg/ g wet sample for Hg, 0.5-2-47-2 µg/ g wet sample for Cd, 0.01-0.39 µg/ g wet sample for Pb and 0.14-6.57 µg/ g wet sample for As. Most part of the values was below the permitted limit set by FAO/WHO 2004 as well as Food Act 1983 and Food Regulations 1985. Therefore it can be generalized that fish and shellfish from the Straits of Malacca are safe to consume in terms of these heavy metals concentrationand do not constitute a risk for human health.
The study was conducted to determine the mineral contents of 20 species of marine fish and 4 species of shellfish from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.Overall, the contents of micro minerals in all samples were below the permissible limits; except for oyster; with copper slightly higher than the limit set by FAO/WHO (1984), but below the limit set by Malaysian Food Regulations (1985); and zinc content higher than the limit set by Malaysian Food Regulations (1985), but below the limit set by FAO/WHO (1984). Meanwhile for macro minerals, most samples contained comparable sodium contents, significantly lower of potassium contents, higher calcium contents, and extremely higher of magnesium contents compared to the common ranges reported in the literatures. All samples were good sources of micro and macro minerals and could provide multi-health benefits if consumed in recommended amounts.