Transport of environmental pollutants in groundwater systems can be greatly influenced by colloids. In this study, the cotransport of Pb2+ and silica (SiO2) colloids at different Pb2+ concentrations was systematically investigated by batch adsorption and saturated sand column experiments. Results showed that SiO2 colloids had low adsorption capacity for Pb2+ (less than 1% of the input) compared with sands. In saturated porous media, SiO2 colloids showed a high mobility; however, with the increase of Pb2+ concentration in the sand column, the mobility of SiO2 colloids gradually decreased. Notably, SiO2 colloids could facilitate Pb2+ transport, although they did not serve as effective carriers of Pb2+. Under the condition of low Pb2+ concentration, SiO2 colloids promoted the Pb2+ transport mainly through the way of "transport channel," while changing the porosity of the medium and masking medium adsorption sites were the main mechanisms of SiO2 colloid-facilitated Pb2+ transport under the condition of high Pb2+ concentration. The discovery of this non-adsorption effect of colloids would improve our understanding of colloid-facilitated Pb2+ transport in saturated porous media, which provided new insights into the role of colloids, especially colloids with weak Pb2+ adsorption capacity, in Pb2+ occurrence and transport in soil-groundwater systems.
Biomass, which defined as plant- or animal-based materials, is intriguing tremendous scientific attentions due to its renewable attribute in serving energy security. Amongst, the plant-based biomasses, particularly those that co-generated in the agriculture activities, are commonly regarded as fuel for burning, which overlooked their hidden potentials for high-end applications. Organically, the plant-based biomass constitutes of lignocellulose components, which can be served as promising precursors for functionalized carbon materials. Meanwhile, its inorganic counterpart made up of various minerals, with Si being the most concerned one. With the advancement of biomass technologies and material synthesis in recent years, numerous attempts were endeavoured to obtain valorised products from biomass. Particularly, syntheses of catalytic and adsorptive materials are actively researched in the field of biomass reutilization. Herein, our work systematically summarized the advancements of biomass-materials for these applications in recent 10 years (2010-2020), with a special focus on the carbon-based and Si-based catalytic/adsorptive materials. Significantly, the deriving steps, inclusive of both pre-treatment and post-treatment of such materials, are incorporated in the discussion, alongside with their significances revealed too. The performance of the as-obtained materials in the respective application is systematically correlated to their physicochemical properties, hence providing valuable insights to the readers. Challenges and promising directions to be explored are raised too at the end of the review, aiming to advocate better-usage of biomass while offering great opportunities to sustain catalysis and adsorption in the industrial scale.
Polysulfone (PSF) based mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) are one of the most broadly studied polymeric materials used for CO2/CH4 separation. The performance of existing PSF membranes encounters a bottleneck for widespread expansion in industrial applications due to the trade-off amongst permeability and selectivity. Membrane performance has been postulated to be enhanced via functionalization of filler at different weight percentages. Nonetheless, the preparation of functionalized MMMs without defects and its empirical study that exhibits improved CO2/CH4 separation performance is challenging at an experimental scale that needs prior knowledge of the compatibility between the filler and polymer. Molecular simulation approaches can be used to explore the effect of functionalization on MMM's gas transport properties at an atomic level without the challenges in the experimental study, however, they have received less scrutiny to date. In addition, most of the research has focused on pure gas studies while mixed gas transport properties that reflect real separation in functionalized silica/PSF MMMs are scarcely available. In this work, a molecular simulation computational framework has been developed to investigate the structural, physical properties and gas transport behavior of amine-functionalized silica/PSF-based MMMs. The effect of varying weight percentages (i.e., 15-30 wt.%) of amine-functionalized silica and gas concentrations (i.e., 30% CH4/CO2, 50% CH4/CO2, and 70% CH4/CO2) on physical and gas transport characteristics in amine-functionalized silica/PSF MMMs at 308.15 K and 1 atm has been investigated. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles was found to increase the diffusion and solubility coefficients, leading to an increase in the percentage enhancement of permeability and selectivity for amine-functionalized silica/PSF MMM by 566% and 56%, respectively, compared to silica/PSF-based MMMs at optimal weight percentage of 20 wt.%. The model's permeability differed by 7.1% under mixed gas conditions. The findings of this study could help to improve real CO2/CH4 separation in the future design and concept of functionalized MMMs using molecular simulation and empirical modeling strategies.
Hard rock formations consisting of granite and metasedimentary rocks in Peninsular Malaysia, have beenconsidered to be of poor aquifers. The map of shows the area underlain by hard rock as having poorto moderate potential for groundwater production (
Strict environmental concerns, depleting natural recourses, and rising demand for building construction materials have promoted scientific research toward alternative building materials. This research supports the idea of sustainability and a circular economy via the utilization of waste to produce value-added products. The research explored the potential of waste plastics and silica sand for developing thermoplastic composite as floor tiles. The samples were characterized by water absorption, compressive strength, flexural strength, and sliding wear. The morphological analysis of the sand-plastic interfaces was covered under the umbrella of this study. The maximum compressive and flexural strength were found to be 46.20 N/mm2 and 6.24 N/mm2, respectively, with the minimum water absorption and sliding wear rate of 0.039% and 0.143 × 10-8 kg/m, respectively. The study suggests the workability of the developed floor tiles in non-traffic areas of public places. Thus, the study provides a green building material through recycling waste plastics for sustainable development.
The research on damages of structures that are supported by deep foundations has been quite intensive in the past decade. Kinematic interaction in soil-pile interaction is evaluated based on the p-y curve approach. Existing p-y curves have considered the effects of relative density on soil-pile interaction in sandy soil. The roughness influence of the surface wall pile on p-y curves has not been emphasized sufficiently. The presented study was performed to develop a series of p-y curves for single piles through comprehensive experimental investigations. Modification factors were studied, namely, the effects of relative density and roughness of the wall surface of pile. The model tests were subjected to lateral load in Johor Bahru sand. The new p-y curves were evaluated based on the experimental data and were compared to the existing p-y curves. The soil-pile reaction for various relative density (from 30% to 75%) was increased in the range of 40-95% for a smooth pile at a small displacement and 90% at a large displacement. For rough pile, the ratio of dense to loose relative density soil-pile reaction was from 2.0 to 3.0 at a small to large displacement. Direct comparison of the developed p-y curve shows significant differences in the magnitude and shapes with the existing load-transfer curves. Good comparison with the experimental and design studies demonstrates the multidisciplinary applications of the present method.
Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is the most widely used dielectric for electronic applications. It is usually produced by thermal oxidation of silicon or by using a wide range of vacuum-based techniques. By default, the growth of SiO2 by thermal oxidation of silicon requires the use of Si substrates whereas the other deposition techniques either produce low quality or poor interface material and mostly require high deposition or annealing temperatures. Recent investigations therefore have focused on the development of alternative deposition paradigms based on solutions. Here, we report the deposition of SiO2 thin film dielectrics deposited by spray pyrolysis in air at moderate temperatures of ≈350 °C from pentane-2,4-dione solutions of SiCl4. SiO2 dielectrics were investigated by means of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, XPS, XRD, UFM/AFM, admittance spectroscopy, and field-effect measurements. Data analysis reveals smooth (RRMS < 1 nm) amorphous films with a dielectric constant of about 3.8, an optical band gap of ≈8.1 eV, leakage current densities in the order of ≈10(-7) A/cm(2) at 1 MV/cm, and high dielectric strength in excess of 5 MV/cm. XPS measurements confirm the SiO2 stoichiometry and FTIR spectra reveal features related to SiO2 only. Thin film transistors implementing spray-coated SiO2 gate dielectrics and C60 and pentacene semiconducting channels exhibit excellent transport characteristics, i.e., negligible hysteresis, low leakage currents, high on/off current modulation ratio on the order of 10(6), and high carrier mobility.
Agriculture plays a crucial role in safeguarding food security, more so as the world population increases gradually. A productive agricultural system is supported by seed, soil, fertiliser and good management practices. Food productivity directly correlates to the generation of solid wastes and utilization of agrochemicals, both of which negatively impact the environment. The rice and paddy industry significantly adds to the growing menace of waste management. In low and middle-income countries, rice husk (RH) is an underutilized agro-waste discarded in landfills or burned in-situ. RH holds enormous potential in the development of value-added nanomaterials for agricultural applications. In this study, a simple and inexpensive sol-gel method is described to extract mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) from UKMRC8 RH using the bottom-up approach. RHs treated with hydrochloric acid were calcinated to obtain rice husk ash (RHA) with high silica purity (> 98% wt), as determined by the X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). Calcination at 650 °C for four hours in a box furnace yielded RHA that was devoid of metal impurities and organic matter. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed a broad peak at 2θ≈20-22 °C and was free from any other sharp peaks, indicating the amorphous property of the RHA. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) showed clusters of spherically shaped uniform aggregates of silica nanoparticles (NPs) while transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated an average particle size of
The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803-0.998, 0.144-0.248, and 1.727-2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated.
Separation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from gaseous mixture is an important issue for the removal of CO(2) in natural gas processing and power plants. The ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) with uniform pore structure and high density of silanol groups, have attracted the interest of researchers for separation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) using adsorption process. These mesoporous silicas after functionalization with amino groups have been studied for the removal of CO(2). The potential of functionalized ordered mesoporous silica membrane for separation of CO(2) is also recognized. The present paper reviews the synthesis of mesoporous silicas and important issues related to the development of mesoporous silicas. Recent studies on the CO(2) separation using ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) as adsorbent and membrane are highlighted. The future prospectives of mesoporous silica membrane for CO(2) adsorption and separation are also presented and discussed.
Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout.
Modern linear accelerators, the predominant teletherapy machine in major radiotherapy centres worldwide, provide multiple electron and photon beam energies. To obtain reasonable treatment times, intense electron beam currents are achievable. In association with this capability, there is considerable demand to validate patient dose using systems of dosimetry offering characteristics that include good spatial resolution, high precision and accuracy. Present interest is in the thermoluminescence response and dosimetric utility of commercially available doped optical fibres. The important parameter for obtaining the highest TL yield during this study is to know the dopant concentration of the SiO2 fibre because during the production of the optical fibres, the dopants tend to diffuse. To achieve this aim, proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), which has no depth resolution but can unambiguously identify elements and analyse for trace elements with detection limits approaching microg/g, was used. For Al-doped fibres, the dopant concentration in the range 0.98-2.93 mol% have been estimated, with equivalent range for Ge-doped fibres being 0.53-0.71 mol%. In making central-axis irradiation measurements a solid water phantom was used. For 6-MV photons and electron energies in the range 6, 9 and 12 MeV, a source to surface distance of 100 cm was used, with a dose rate of 400 cGy/min for photons and electrons. The TL measurements show a linear dose-response over the delivered range of absorbed dose from 1 to 4 Gy. Fading was found to be minimal, less than 10% over five days subsequent to irradiation. The minimum detectable dose for 6-MV photons was found to be 4, 30 and 900 microGy for TLD-100 chips, Ge- and Al-doped fibres, respectively. For 6-, 9- and 12-MeV electron energies, the minimum detectable dose were in the range 3-5, 30-50 and 800-1400 microGy for TLD-100 chip, Ge-doped and Al-doped fibres, respectively.
This study highlights the importance of mineralogical composition for potential carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage of mine waste materials. In particular, this study attempts to evaluate the role of mineral carbonation of sedimentary mine waste and their potential reutilization as supplementary cementitious material (SCM). Limestone and gold mine wastes were recovered from mine processing sites for their use as SCM in brick-making and for evaluation of potential carbon sequestration. Dominant minerals in the limestone mine waste were calcite and akermanite (calcium silicate) while the gold mine waste was dominated by illite (iron silicate) and chlorite-serpentine (magnesium silicate). Calcium oxide, CaO and silica, SiO2, were the highest composition in the limestone and gold mine waste, respectively, with maximum CO2 storage of between 7.17 and 61.37%. Greater potential for CO2 capture was observed for limestone mine waste as due to higher CaO content alongside magnesium oxide. Mineral carbonation of the limestone mine waste was accelerated at smaller particle size of
The co-existence of heavy metals and organic compounds including Cr(VI) and p-cresol (pC) in water environment becoming a challenge in the treatment processes. Herein, the synchronous photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of pC by silver oxide decorated on fibrous silica zirconia (AgO/FSZr) was reported. In this study, the catalysts were successfully developed using microemulsion and electrochemical techniques with various AgO loading (1, 5 and 10 wt%) and presented as 1, 5 and 10-AgO/FSZr. Catalytic activity was tested towards simultaneous photoredox of hexavalent chromium and p-cresol (Cr(VI)/pC) and was ranked as followed: 5-AgO/FSZr (96/78%) > 10-AgO/FSZr (87/61%) > 1-AgO/FSZr (47/24%) > FSZr (34/20%). The highest photocatalytic activity of 5-AgO/FSZr was established due to the strong interaction between FSZr and AgO and the lowest band gap energy, which resulted in less electron-hole recombination and further enhanced the photoredox activity. Cr(VI) ions act as a bridge between the positive charge of catalyst and cationic pC in pH 1 solution which can improve the photocatalytic reduction and oxidation of Cr(VI) and pC, respectively. The scavenger experiments further confirmed that the photogenerated electrons (e-) act as the main species for Cr(VI) to be reduced to Cr(III) while holes (h+) and hydroxyl radicals are domain for photooxidation of pC. The 5-AgO/FSZr was stable after 5 cycles of reaction, suggesting its potential for removal of Cr(VI) and pC simultaneously in the chemical industries.
Indentation size effect (ISE) and R-curve behaviour of Li2O-SiO2 and Li2O-2SiO2 glass ceramics are investigated using micro-indentation and indentation-strength (IS) techniques, respectively. Vickers micro-indentations were applied on both materials at the load of 0.10-19.6 N to determine the load influence on the measured hardness. For the IS-measured fracture toughness, the load ranged from 1.96 to 19.6 N. The hardness decreased with increasing load by 20% and 18% on Li2O-SiO2 and Li2O-2SiO2 glass ceramics, respectively, indicating the ISE behaviour on both materials. The fracture toughness increased with the load by 27% and 59% on Li2O-SiO2 and Li2O-2SiO2 glass ceramics, respectively, signifying the R-curve behaviour. The ISE behaviour of both materials was analysed using the Meyer's, Hays-Kendall (HK), proportional specimen resistance (PSR), Nix-Gao (NG), modified PSR (MPSR) and elastic plastic deformation (EPD) models while the R-curve behaviour was analysed by the fractional power law. The Meyer's index of both materials was less than 2, strongly confirming the ISE existence. The HK, PSR and NG models were only suitable to determine intrinsic Vickers hardness for Li2O-2SiO2 glass ceramic while the MPSR and EPD models were successful for both materials. The fractional power law gave higher R-curve steepness for Li2O-2SiO2 than Li2O-SiO2 glass ceramics. Also, material and brittleness indices predicted, respectively, higher quasi-plasticity and better machinability for Li2O-2SiO2 than Li2O-SiO2 glass ceramics indicating superior performance in the former to the latter. Finally, this study presents a new significant insight into the micro-mechanisms of fracture tolerance behaviour of these glass ceramics which is critical to their functional performance as structural ceramics.
We present a simulation study on negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) induced hole trapping in E' center defects, which leads to depassivation of interface trap precursor in different geometrical structures of high-k PMOSFET gate stacks using the two-stage NBTI model. The resulting degradation is characterized based on the time evolution of the interface and hole trap densities, as well as the resulting threshold voltage shift. By varying the physical thicknesses of the interface silicon dioxide (SiO2) and hafnium oxide (HfO2) layers, we investigate how the variation in thickness affects hole trapping/detrapping at different stress temperatures. The results suggest that the degradations are highly dependent on the physical gate stack parameters for a given stress voltage and temperature. The degradation is more pronounced by 5% when the thicknesses of HfO2 are increased but is reduced by 11% when the SiO2 interface layer thickness is increased during lower stress voltage. However, at higher stress voltage, greater degradation is observed for a thicker SiO2 interface layer. In addition, the existence of different stress temperatures at which the degradation behavior differs implies that the hole trapping/detrapping event is thermally activated.
Effects of immersing a microfiber knot resonator (MKR) in liquid solutions that have refractive indices close to that of silica are experimentally demonstrated and theoretically analyzed. Significant improvement in resonance extinction ratio within 2 to 10 dB was observed. To achieve a better understanding, a qualitative analysis of the coupling ratio and round-trip attenuation of the MKR is performed by using a curve-fitting method. It was observed that the coupling coefficient at the knot region increased when immersed in liquids. However, depending on the initial state of the coupling and the quantity of the increment in the coupling coefficient when immersed in a liquid, it is possible that the MKR may experience a deficit in the coupling parameter due to the sinusoidal relationship with the coupling coefficient.
α Cordierite is very important phase in MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system because of their very outstanding thermal, chemical and electrical properties. In this presents study nonstoichiometry cordierite (MgO:Al2O3:SiO2 = 3:1.5:5) using 2 different initial raw materials ( (i)mixture of pure oxide, and ii) mainly mixture of minerals) were fabricated and compared in terms of phase transformation and physical properties. Cordierite was prepared by glass method at low melting temperature (1350°C). Low melting temperature has resulted in partly crystalline glass which has possesses higher hardness, required longer milling time and result in contamination from grinding media. However, α-cordierite has successfully crystallized and fully densified at 850°C/2h. Activation energy for densification was investigated from thermal expansion coefficient (TCE) results. Other properties that were discussed included thermal properties using DTA/TGA.