Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

  1. Palanisamy NK, Ferina N, Amirulhusni AN, Mohd-Zain Z, Hussaini J, Ping LJ, et al.
    PMID: 24422704 DOI: 10.1186/1477-3155-12-2
    Nanomedicine is now being introduced as a recent trend in the field of medicine. It has been documented that metal nanoparticles have antimicrobial effects for bacteria, fungi and viruses. Recent advances in technology has revived the use of silver nanoparticles in the medical field; treatment, diagnosis, monitoring and control of disease. It has been used since ancient times for treating wide range of illnesses. Bacterial cells adheres to surfaces and develop structures known as biofilms. These structures are natural survival strategy of the bacteria to invade the host. They are more tolerant to commonly used antimicrobial agents, thus being more difficult to be controlled. This leads to increase in severity of infection. In this study, we have investigated the effect of silver nanoparticles in the formation of biofilm in multidrug resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Observation showed that biofilm formation occurred at bacterial concentration of 10(6) cfu/ml for the sensitive strain of P. aeruginosa while in the resistant strain, the biofilm was evident at bacterial concentration of about 10(3) cfu/ml. The biofilm were then tested against various concentrations of silver nanoparticles to determine the inhibitory effect of the silver nanoparticles. In the sensitive strain, 20 μg/ml of silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth optimally at bacterial concentration of 10(4) cfu/ml with an inhibition rate of 67%. Similarly, silver nanoparticles inhibited the formation of biofilm in the resistant strain at an optimal bacterial concentration of 10(5) cfu/ml with an inhibition rate of 56%. Thus, silver nanoparticles could be used as a potential alternative therapy to reduce severity of disease due to P. aeruginosa infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  2. Wren AW, Hassanzadeh P, Placek LM, Keenan TJ, Coughlan A, Boutelle LR, et al.
    Macromol Biosci, 2015 Aug;15(8):1146-58.
    PMID: 25923463 DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500109
    Silver (Ag) coated bioactive glass particles (Ag-BG) were formulated and compared to uncoated controls (BG) in relation to glass characterization, solubility and microbiology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed a crystalline AgNP surface coating while ion release studies determined low Ag release (<2 mg/L). Cell culture studies presented increased cell viability (127 and 102%) with lower liquid extract (50 and 100 ml/ml) concentrations. Antibacterial testing of Ag-BG in E. coli, S. epidermidis and S. aureus significantly reduced bacterial cell viability by 60-90%. Composites of Ag-BG/CMC-Dex Hydrogels were formulated and characterized. Agar diffusion testing was conducted where Ag-BG/hydrogel composites produced the largest inhibition zones of 7 mm (E. coli), 5 mm (S. aureus) and 4 mm (S. epidermidis).
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology
  3. Gharibshahi L, Saion E, Gharibshahi E, Shaari AH, Matori KA
    PLoS One, 2017;12(10):e0186094.
    PMID: 29045414 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186094
    Very narrow and pure silver nanoparticles were synthesized by modified thermal treatment method via oxygen and nitrogen flow in succession. The structural and optical properties of the calcined silver nanoparticles at 600°C with diverse Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) concentrations varied from 2% to 4% were studied by means of different techniques. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the production of pure Ag nanoparticles at a given Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) concentration. The X-ray powder diffraction spectra are evidence for the transformation of the amorphous sample at 30°C to the cubic crystalline nanostructures at the calcination temperatures for all Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) concentrations. The transmission electron microscopy images showed the creation of spherical silver nanoparticles with the average particle size decreased by increasing Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) concentrations from 4.61 nm at 2% to 2.49 nm at 4% Poly(vinylpyrrolidone). The optical properties were investigated by means of UV-vis absorption spectrophotometer, which showed an increase in the conduction band of Ag nanoparticles with increasing Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) concentrations from 2.83 eV at 2% Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) to 2.94 eV at 4% Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) due to decreasing particle size. This was due to less attraction between conduction electrons and metal ions for smaller particle size corresponding to fewer atoms that made up the metal nanoparticles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  4. Rivas-Cáceres RR, Luis Stephano-Hornedo J, Lugo J, Vaca R, Del Aguila P, Yañez-Ocampo G, et al.
    Microb Pathog, 2018 Feb;115:358-362.
    PMID: 29305184 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.12.075
    This study explored the use of silver nanoparticle as a bactericidal against the propagation of Clavibacter michiganensis onto tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). In Mexico, tomato production covers about 73% of the total vegetable production but it is affected by outbreak of bacteria canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies michiganensis (Cmm). Silver ions possess inhibitor properties, bactericides and high specter antimicrobials. In this study, 6 groups of culture were prepared using 6 different petri dishes where silver nanoparticles of varying concentrations (120, 84, 48, 24, 12 and 0 μg) were added. Furthermore, each group was observed for 20 min, 1, 2, 12 and 24 h. The optimum concentration is 84 μg, which shows an average of 2 Cmm colonies after 20 min. Further increase to 120 μg shows no significant change. However, the average colonies was observed for 48 μg after 1, 2, 12, and 24 h. The obtained results indicate that silver nanoparticles are a promising inhibitor, bactericide and high a specter antimicrobial for treatment or prevention of Cmm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  5. Rennukka M, Sipaut CS, Amirul AA
    Biotechnol Prog, 2014 Nov-Dec;30(6):1469-79.
    PMID: 25181613 DOI: 10.1002/btpr.1986
    This work aims to shed light in the fabrication of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-44%-4-hydroxybutyrate)[P(3HB-co-44%4HB)]/chitosan-based silver nanocomposite material using different contents of silver nanoparticle (SNP); 1-9 wt%. Two approaches were applied in the fabrication; namely solvent casting and chemical crosslinking via glutaraldehyde (GA). A detailed characterization was conducted in order to yield information regarding the nanocomposite material. X-ray diffraction analysis exhibited the nature of the three components that exist in the nanocomposite films: P(3HB-co-4HB), chitosan, and SNP. In term of mechanical properties, tensile strength, and elongation at break were significantly improved up to 125% and 22%, respectively with the impregnation of the SNP. The melting temperature of the nanocomposite materials was increased whereas their thermal stability was slightly changed. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that incorporation of 9 wt% of SNP caused agglomeration but the surface roughness of the material was significantly improved with the loading. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were completely inhibited by the nanocomposite films with 7 and 9 wt% of SNP, respectively. On the other hand, degradation of the nanocomposite materials outweighed the degradation of the pure copolymer. These bioactive and biodegradable materials stand a good chance to serve the vast need of biomedical applications namely management and care of wound as wound dressing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology
  6. Mie R, Samsudin MW, Din LB, Ahmad A, Ibrahim N, Adnan SN
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:121-7.
    PMID: 24379670 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S52306
    Development of a green chemistry process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles has become a focus of interest. This would offer numerous benefits, including ecofriendliness and compatibility for biomedical applications. Here we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the reduction of silver nitrate and an aqueous extract of the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum as a reductant as well as a stabilizer. The physical appearance of these silver nanoparticles was characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The results show that silver nanoparticles synthesized using P. praesorediosum have an average particle size of 19 nm with a cubic structure. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was tested against eight micro-organisms using the disk diffusion method. The results reveal that silver nanoparticles synthesized using P. praesorediosum have potential antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  7. Zargar M, Hamid AA, Bakar FA, Shamsudin MN, Shameli K, Jahanshiri F, et al.
    Molecules, 2011 Aug 08;16(8):6667-76.
    PMID: 25134770 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16086667
    Different biological methods are gaining recognition for the production of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) due to their multiple applications. One of the most important applications of Ag-NPs is their use as an anti-bacterial agent. The use of plants in the synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as a cost effective and eco-friendly approach. In this study the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Vitex negundo L. extract and its antimicrobial properties has been reported. The resulting silver particles are characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques. The TEM study showed the formation of silver nanoparticles in the 10-30 nm range and average 18.2 nm in size. The XRD study showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face centered cubic (fcc) structure. The silver nanoparticles showed the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Vitex negundo L. was found to display strong potential for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents by rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0).
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  8. Lau CP, Abdul-Wahab MF, Jaafar J, Chan GF, Abdul Rashid NA
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2017 Aug;50(4):427-434.
    PMID: 26427880 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2015.08.004
    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Currently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have gained importance in various industrial applications. However, their impact upon release into the environment on microorganisms remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped AgNPs synthesized in this laboratory on two bacterial strains isolated from the environment, Gram-negative Citrobacter sp. A1 and Gram-positive Enterococcus sp. C1.

    METHODS: Polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped AgNPs were synthesized by ultrasound-assisted chemical reduction. Characterization of the AgNPs involved UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Citrobacter sp. A1 and Enterococcus sp. C1 were exposed to varying concentrations of AgNPs, and cell viability was determined. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate the morphological alteration of both species upon exposure to AgNPs at 1000 mg/L.

    RESULTS: The synthesized AgNPs were spherical in shape, with an average particle size of 15 nm. The AgNPs had different but prominent effects on either Citrobacter sp. A1 or Enterococcus sp. C1. At an AgNP concentration of 1000 mg/L, Citrobacter sp. A1 retained viability for 6 hours, while Enterococcus sp. C1 retained viability only for 3 hours. Citrobacter sp. A1 appeared to be more resistant to AgNPs than Enterococcus sp. C1. The cell wall of both strains was found to be morphologically altered at that concentration.

    CONCLUSION: Minute and spherical AgNPs significantly affected the viability of the two bacterial strains selected from the environment. Enterococcus sp. C1 was more vulnerable to AgNPs, probably due to its cell wall architecture and the absence of silver resistance-related genes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  9. Musa SF, Yeat TS, Kamal LZM, Tabana YM, Ahmed MA, El Ouweini A, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Feb;98(3):1197-1207.
    PMID: 28746729 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8573
    BACKGROUND: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has become widely practiced worldwide. In this study, AgNPs were synthesized using a hot-water extract of the edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju. The product, PSC-AgNPs, was characterized by using UV-visible spectra, dynamic light scattering analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. To assess its antifungal activity against Candida albicans, gene transcription and protein expression analyses were conducted for CaICL1 and its product, ICL, using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively.

    RESULTS: PSC-AgNPs with an average particle size of 11.68 nm inhibited the growth of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans. Values for minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were 250 and 500 mg L-1 , respectively. TEM images revealed that the average particle size of PSC-AgNPs was 16.8 nm, with the values for zeta potential and the polydispersity index being -8.54 mV and 0.137, respectively. XRD and FTIR spectra showed PSC-AgNPs to have a face-centered cubic crystalline structure. The polysaccharides and amino acid residues present in P. sajor-caju extract were found to be involved in reducing Ag+ to AgNP. Both CaICL1 transcription and ICL protein expression were found to be suppressed in the cells treated with PSC-AgNPs as compared with the control.

    CONCLUSION: Our PSC-AgNP preparation makes for a promising antifungal agent that can downregulate isocitrate lyase. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  10. Majeed S, Abdullah MS, Dash GK, Ansari MT, Nanda A
    Chin J Nat Med, 2016 Aug;14(8):615-20.
    PMID: 27608951 DOI: 10.1016/S1875-5364(16)30072-3
    Biosynthesis of silver and other metallic nanoparticles is one of the emerging research area in the field of science and technology due to their potentiality, especially in the field of nano-biotechnology and biomedical sciences in order to develop nanomedicine. In our present study, Penicillium decumbens (MTCC-2494) was brought from Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH) Chandigarh and employed for extracellular biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Ag-NPs formation was appeared with a dark brown color inside the conical flask. Characterization of Ag-NPs were done by UV-Spectrophotometric analysis which showed absorption peak at 430 nm determines the presence of nanoparticles, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic analysis, showed amines and amides are the possible proteins involved in the stabilization of nanoparticles as capping agent. Atomic force Microscopy (AFM) confirmed the particle are spherical, size was around 30 to 60 nm and also the roughness of nanoparticles. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed the topology of the nanoparticles and were spherical in shape. The biosynthesis process was found fast, ecofriendly and cost effective. Nano-silver particle was found to have a broad antimicrobial activity and also it showed good enhancement of antimicrobial activity of Carbenicillin, Piperacillin, Cefixime, Amoxicillin, Ofloxacin and Sparfloxacin in a synergistic mode. These Ag-NPs showed good anti-cancer activity at 80 μg·mL(-1)upon 24 hours of incubation and toxicity increases upon 48 hours of incubation against A-549 human lung cancer cell line and the synergistic formulation of the antibiotic with the synthesized nanoparticles was found more effective against the pathogenic bacteria studied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  11. Astuti SD, Puspita PS, Putra AP, Zaidan AH, Fahmi MZ, Syahrom A, et al.
    Lasers Med Sci, 2019 Jul;34(5):929-937.
    PMID: 30413898 DOI: 10.1007/s10103-018-2677-4
    Candida albicans is a normal flora caused fungal infections and has the ability to form biofilms. The aim of this study was to improve the antifungal effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the light source for reducing the biofilm survival of C. albicans. AgNPs were prepared by silver nitrate (AgNO3) and trisodium citrate (Na3C6H5O7). To determine the antifungal effect of treatments on C. albicans biofilm, samples were distributed into four groups; L + P+ was treatment with laser irradiation and AgNPs; L + P- was treatment with laser irradiation only; L - P+ was treatment with AgNPs only (control positive); L - P- was no treatment with laser irradiation or AgNPs (control negative). The growth of fungi had been monitored by measuring the optical density at 405 nm with ELISA reader. The particle size of AgNPs was measured by using (particle size analyzer) and the zeta potential of AgNPs was measured by using Malvern zetasizer. The PSA test showed that the particle size of AgNPs was distributed between 7.531-5559.644 nm. The zeta potentials were found lower than - 30 mV with pH of 7, 9 or 11. The reduction percentage was analyzed by ANOVA test. The highest reduction difference was given at a lower level irradiation because irradiation with a density energy of 6.13 ± 0.002 J/cm2 resulted in the biofilm reduction of 7.07 ± 0.23% for the sample without AgNPs compared to the sample with AgNPs that increased the biofilm reduction of 64.48 ± 0.07%. The irradiation with a 450-nm light source had a significant fungicidal effect on C. albicans biofilm. The combination of light source and AgNPs provides an increase of biofilm reduction compared to the light source itself.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  12. Al-Sharqi A, Apun K, Vincent M, Kanakaraju D, Bilung LM, Sum MSH
    J Appl Microbiol, 2020 Jan;128(1):102-115.
    PMID: 31596989 DOI: 10.1111/jam.14471
    AIM: This work reports a new method for the use of lasers for the selective killing of bacteria targeted using light-absorbing Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) conjugated with a specific antibody against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Ag-NPs were synthesized using a chemical reduction method and characterized with respect to their surface plasmon resonance, surface morphology via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The bacterial surface was targeted using 20 nm Ag-NPs conjugated with an anti-protein A antibody. Labelled bacteria were irradiated with blue visible laser at 2·04 W/cm2 . The antibacterial activity of functionalized Ag-NPs was investigated by fluorescence microscopy after irradiation, and morphological changes in S. aureus after laser treatment were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The laser-irradiated, functionalized Ag-NPs exhibited significant bactericidal activity, and laser-induced bacterial damage was observed after 10 min of laser irradiation against S. aureus. The fluorescence microscopic analysis results supported that bacterial cell death occurred in the presence of the functionalized Ag-NPs.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that a novel method for the preparation of functionalized nanoparticles has potential as a potent antibacterial agent for the selective killing of resistant disease-causing bacteria.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study shows that Ag-NPs functionalized with a specific antibody, could be used in combination with laser radiation as a novel treatment to target resistant bacterial and fungal pathogens with minimal impact on normal microflora.

    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology
  13. Hussain MA, Ahmed D, Anwar A, Perveen S, Ahmed S, Anis I, et al.
    Int Microbiol, 2019 Jun;22(2):239-246.
    PMID: 30810990 DOI: 10.1007/s10123-018-00043-3
    Silver nanoparticles (SN) have been recently developed as a new class of antimicrobial agents against numerous pathogenic microorganisms. SN have also been used as efficient drug delivery systems and have been linked with increasing drug potency. Here, we demonstrated the enhanced antifungal efficacy of nystatin (NYT) and fluconazole (FLU) after conjugation with SN. The antifungal bioactivity of NYT- and FLU-coated SN was evaluated against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404 by the agar tube dilution method. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antifungal efficacy of NYT and FLU with their SN and, finally, the combination of both nanoparticles as NYT-SN + FLU-SN against pathogenic fungi. The results indicated that all test samples showed a dose-dependent response against tested fungi. SN significantly enhanced the antifungal effects of NYT and FLU as compared to drugs alone. We observed a remarkable increase in the percent inhibition of both fungi (90-100%) when treated with a combination of both nanoparticles NYT-SN + FLU-SN at 200 μg/mL only. Furthermore, the morphological modifications occurred at the surface of fungal species were also analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). While tested against primary human cell line, all SN showed negligible cytotoxicity. Hence, these results suggest that the combination of SN with NYT and FLU may have clinical implications in the treatment of fungal infections. However, in vivo studies are needed before recommending the use of these nanoparticles safely in clinical situations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  14. Kalantari K, Mostafavi E, Afifi AM, Izadiyan Z, Jahangirian H, Rafiee-Moghaddam R, et al.
    Nanoscale, 2020 Jan 28;12(4):2268-2291.
    PMID: 31942896 DOI: 10.1039/c9nr08234d
    Infections are the main reason why most people die from burns and diabetic wounds. The clinical challenge for treating wound infections through traditional antibiotics has been growing steadily and has now reached a critical status requiring a paradigm shift for improved chronic wound care. The US Centers for Disease Control have predicted more deaths from antimicrobial-resistant bacteria than from all types of cancers combined by 2050. Thus, the development of new wound dressing materials that do not rely on antibiotics is of paramount importance. Currently, incorporating nanoparticles into scaffolds represents a new concept of 'nanoparticle dressing' which has gained considerable attention for wound healing. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have been categorized as metal-based nanoparticles and are intriguing materials for wound healing because of their excellent antimicrobial properties. Ag-NPs embedded in wound dressing polymers promote wound healing and control microorganism growth. However, there have been several recent disadvantages of using Ag-NPs to fight infections, such as bacterial resistance. This review highlights the therapeutic approaches of using wound dressings functionalized with Ag-NPs and their potential role in revolutionizing wound healing. Moreover, the physiology of the skin and wounds is discussed to place the use of Ag-NPs in wound care into perspective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  15. Siddiqui R, Rajendran K, Abdella B, Ayub Q, Lim SY, Khan NA
    Parasitol Res, 2020 Jul;119(7):2351-2358.
    PMID: 32451717 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-020-06711-6
    Naegleria fowleri causes a deadly infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). To our knowledge, there are very few transcriptome studies conducted on these brain-eating amoebae, despite rise in the number of cases. Although the Naegleria genome has been sequenced, currently, it is not well annotated. Transcriptome level studies are needed to help understand the pathology and biology of this fatal parasitic infection. Recently, we showed that nanoparticles loaded with the flavonoid Hesperidin (HDN) are potential novel antimicrobial agents. N. fowleri trophozoites were treated with and without HDN-conjugated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver only, and then, 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The results revealed that the MIC of HDN-conjugated AgNPs was 12.5 microg/mL when treated for 3 h. As no reference genome exists for N. fowleri, de novo RNA transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq and differential gene expression analysis was performed using the Trinity software. Analysis revealed that more than 2000 genes were differentially expressed in response to N. fowleri treatment with HDN-conjugated AgNPs. Some of the genes were linked to oxidative stress response, DNA repair, cell division, cell signalling and protein synthesis. The downregulated genes were linked with processes such as protein modification, synthesis of aromatic amino acids, when compared with untreated N. fowleri. Further transcriptome studies will lead to understanding of genetic mechanisms of the biology and pathogenesis and/or the identification of much needed drug candidates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  16. Anwar A, Yi YP, Fatima I, Khan KM, Siddiqui R, Khan NA, et al.
    Parasitol Res, 2020 Jun;119(6):1943-1954.
    PMID: 32385711 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-020-06694-4
    Acanthamoeba causes diseases such as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) which leads to permanent blindness and granulomatous Acanthamoeba encephalitis (GAE) where there is formation of granulomas in the brain. Current treatments such as chlorhexidine, diamidines, and azoles either exhibit undesirable side effects or require immediate and prolonged treatment for the drug to be effective or prevent relapse. Previously, antifungal drugs amphotericin B, nystatin, and fluconazole-conjugated silver with nanoparticles have shown significantly increased activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii. In this study, two functionally diverse tetrazoles were synthesized, namely 5-(3-4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-tetrazole and 1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-5-phenoxy-1H-tetrazole, denoted by T1 and T2 respectively. These compounds were evaluated for anti-Acanthamoeba effects at different concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 μM. Furthermore, these compounds were conjugated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to enhance their efficacy. Particle size analysis showed that T1-AgNPs and T2-AgNPs had an average size of 52 and 70 nm respectively. After the successful synthesis and characterization of tetrazoles and tetrazole-conjugated AgNPs, they were subjected to anti-Acanthamoeba studies. Amoebicidal assay showed that at concentration 10 μM and above, T2 showed promising antiamoebic activities between the two compounds while encystation and excystation assays reveal that both T1 and T2 have inhibited differentiation activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii. Conjugation of T1 and T2 to AgNP also increased efficacy of tetrazoles as anti-Acanthamoeba agents. This may be due to the increased bioavailability as AgNP allows better delivery of treatment compounds to A. castellanii. Human cell cytotoxicity assay revealed that tetrazoles and AgNPs are significantly less toxic towards human cells compared with chlorhexidine which is known to cause undesirable side effects. Cytopathogenicity assay also revealed that T2 conjugated with AgNPs significantly reduced cytopathogenicity of A. castellanii compared with T2 alone, suggesting that T2-conjugated AgNP is an effective and safe anti-Acanthamoeba agent. The use of a synthetic azole compound conjugated with AgNPs can be an alternative strategy for drug development against A. castellanii. However, mechanistic and in vivo studies are needed to explore further translational values.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  17. Ranjani B, Pandian K, Kumar GA, Gopinath SCB
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Jul 15;133:1280-1287.
    PMID: 31051204 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.04.196
    Silver nanoparticle was synthesized using D-glucosamine chitosan base as green reducing agent at elevated temperature in alkaline pH ranges. The excess of D-glucosamine chitosan base was used as it is both stabilizing and reducing agent at different pHs, regulates the shape and size of the silver nanoparticles. The progressive growth of silver nanoparticles was monitored by UV-Visible spectral studies. A sharp peak at 420 nm indicates the formation of spherical silver nanoparticles. The size and shape of silver nanoparticles were observed from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) methods. The anisotropically grown nanoparticles were used as probe for Surface Enhanced Raman Studies (SERS) using ATP (4-aminothiophenol) as a model system. The catalytic behavior of silver nanoparticles was exploited for 4-nitrophenol reduction and observed that the reduction reaction follows pseudo first order kinetics with a rate constant 0.65 min. The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was also tested for both gram-positive and -negative microorganisms, in which higher zone of inhibition was observed for gram negative microorganism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
  18. Khattak A, Ahmad B, Rauf A, Bawazeer S, Farooq U, Ali J, et al.
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2019 Feb;13(1):36-41.
    PMID: 30964035 DOI: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2018.5063
    The development of reliable and green methods for the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has many advantages in the field of nanotechnology. In this direction, the present work describes an eco-friendly and cost-effective protocol for the production of silver NPs (AgNPs) using an aqueous extract of Quercus semecarpifolia leaves. Different techniques were carried out for the characterisation of the synthesised AgNPs. The ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the highest absorbance peak at 430 nm. The particle size and structure were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. From TEM imaging, it was revealed that the formed particles were spherical with an average size of 20-50 nm. The crystalline nature of the NPs was determined by X-ray powder diffraction patterns. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were also evaluated by a temperature increment from 100 to 1000°C. Bio-inspired synthesis of AgNPs was performed for their pharmacological evaluation in relation to the activities of the crude methanolic, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts. Good cytotoxic activity was exhibited by the green-synthesised AgNPs (77%). Furthermore, the AgNPs were found to exhibit significant antioxidant activity at 300 μg/ml (82%). The AgNPs also exhibited good phytotoxic potential (75%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology
  19. Hussain MA, Shah A, Jantan I, Tahir MN, Shah MR, Ahmed R, et al.
    J Nanobiotechnology, 2014;12:53.
    PMID: 25468206 DOI: 10.1186/s12951-014-0053-5
    Green synthesis of nanomaterials finds the edge over chemical methods due to its environmental compatibility. Herein, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) mediated with dextran. Dextran was used as a stabilizer and capping agent to synthesize Ag NPs using silver nitrate (AgNO3) under diffused sunlight conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver/pharmacology*
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