METHODS: Polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped AgNPs were synthesized by ultrasound-assisted chemical reduction. Characterization of the AgNPs involved UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Citrobacter sp. A1 and Enterococcus sp. C1 were exposed to varying concentrations of AgNPs, and cell viability was determined. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate the morphological alteration of both species upon exposure to AgNPs at 1000 mg/L.
RESULTS: The synthesized AgNPs were spherical in shape, with an average particle size of 15 nm. The AgNPs had different but prominent effects on either Citrobacter sp. A1 or Enterococcus sp. C1. At an AgNP concentration of 1000 mg/L, Citrobacter sp. A1 retained viability for 6 hours, while Enterococcus sp. C1 retained viability only for 3 hours. Citrobacter sp. A1 appeared to be more resistant to AgNPs than Enterococcus sp. C1. The cell wall of both strains was found to be morphologically altered at that concentration.
CONCLUSION: Minute and spherical AgNPs significantly affected the viability of the two bacterial strains selected from the environment. Enterococcus sp. C1 was more vulnerable to AgNPs, probably due to its cell wall architecture and the absence of silver resistance-related genes.
RESULTS: PSC-AgNPs with an average particle size of 11.68 nm inhibited the growth of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans. Values for minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were 250 and 500 mg L-1 , respectively. TEM images revealed that the average particle size of PSC-AgNPs was 16.8 nm, with the values for zeta potential and the polydispersity index being -8.54 mV and 0.137, respectively. XRD and FTIR spectra showed PSC-AgNPs to have a face-centered cubic crystalline structure. The polysaccharides and amino acid residues present in P. sajor-caju extract were found to be involved in reducing Ag+ to AgNP. Both CaICL1 transcription and ICL protein expression were found to be suppressed in the cells treated with PSC-AgNPs as compared with the control.
CONCLUSION: Our PSC-AgNP preparation makes for a promising antifungal agent that can downregulate isocitrate lyase. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Ag-NPs were synthesized using a chemical reduction method and characterized with respect to their surface plasmon resonance, surface morphology via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The bacterial surface was targeted using 20 nm Ag-NPs conjugated with an anti-protein A antibody. Labelled bacteria were irradiated with blue visible laser at 2·04 W/cm2 . The antibacterial activity of functionalized Ag-NPs was investigated by fluorescence microscopy after irradiation, and morphological changes in S. aureus after laser treatment were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The laser-irradiated, functionalized Ag-NPs exhibited significant bactericidal activity, and laser-induced bacterial damage was observed after 10 min of laser irradiation against S. aureus. The fluorescence microscopic analysis results supported that bacterial cell death occurred in the presence of the functionalized Ag-NPs.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that a novel method for the preparation of functionalized nanoparticles has potential as a potent antibacterial agent for the selective killing of resistant disease-causing bacteria.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study shows that Ag-NPs functionalized with a specific antibody, could be used in combination with laser radiation as a novel treatment to target resistant bacterial and fungal pathogens with minimal impact on normal microflora.