The simuliid fauna of the Oriental Region is reviewed in comparison with those in five other zoogeographical regions. It is relatively young, represented by only one genus Simulium, which is regarded as the most specialized among 26 genera of the family Simuliidae. The Oriental Region has the second largest simuliid fauna with 524 species or 23.8% of the world total of 2204 extant species. This species richness is associated with a high speciation index (15.4), reflected especially by the high speciation rates of two dominant subgenera Gomphostilbia and Simulium although the number of lineages in the Oriental Region is moderate (34 or 20.6% of the total 165). The Oriental fauna has relationships with all other zoogeographical regions at the lineage level, having the highest affinity index (31.9) with the Palearctic Region. It is inferred that eight of 10 Oriental subgenera moved during the ice ages from the Palaearctic to the Oriental Regions; the subgenus Gomphostilbia evolved into 11 species-groups and underwent species radiation in the Oriental Region. On the other hand, two other subgenera, Nevermannia and Simulium, moved southward during the ice ages after evolving into species-groups. In the post-ice ages, most lineages retreated northward, with different portions of species left in the Oriental Region, although some lineages failed to retreat and survived as relict lineages in the Oriental Region.
Simulium (Simulium) rasuli sp. nov. is described from two females collected by a Malaise trap in Genting Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is placed in the Simulium christophersi species-group of the subgenus Simulium. The female of this new specie is characterized by the scutum with three longitudinal vittae, dark legs, claw with a small subbasal tooth, and ovipositor valve triangular with its inner margin nearly straight. This new species is distinguished in the female from all the six named species of the species-group by the entirely brownish-black femora and tibiae.
Two new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) tekamense and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) jerantutense, are described based on adult females emerged from pupae in Peninsular Malaysia, and assigned to the binuanense subgroup of the batoense species-group in the subgenus Gomphostilbia. Simulium (G.) tekamense sp. nov. is characterized in the female by the subcosta with 0-2 hairs, and presence of a deep notch on the apex of the mediolongitudinal ridge of the cibarium, and in the pupa by one of two paired gill filaments of the middle triplet much thicker than the counter filament. Simulium (G.) jerantutense sp. nov. is characterized in the female by the short claw tooth 0.46 times the length of the claw, and in the pupa by the gill filaments arranged as [2+1+(1+2)]+2 filaments from dorsal to ventral. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish these new species from related species.
The female and larva of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) udomi Takaoka & Choochote from Thailand are described for the first time. The female of this species is similar to those of S. (G.) asakoae Takaoka & Davies from Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Hong Kong and Vietnam, and S. (G.) chiangdaoense Takaoka & Srisuka from Thailand. The larva of this species is similar to S. (G.) curtatum Jitklang et al. and S. (G.) nr. asakoae 2 from Thailand in having a medium-long postgenal cleft. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this species from these related species. The COI gene sequence of S. (G.) udomi is compared with those of eight species of the S. asakoae species-group and three species of the S. ceylonicum species-group. This species is transferred from the S. ceylonicum species-group to the S. asakoae species-group based on the adult female and male morphological characters, comparisons of the genetic distances and phylogenetic relationships inferred from the COI gene sequences.
Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies were carried out in Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa and Flores in the Lesser Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia, where 10 species were known. A total of 14 simuliid species including four new species and five new records of the genus Simulium were collected, bringing the number of species from the Lesser Sunda Archipelago to 19. They are classified into four subgenera: two in Nevermannia, nine in Gomphostilbia, seven in Simulium and one in Wallacellum. One of four new species, Simulium (Simulium) baliense, is described based on females, males, pupae and larvae from Bali and Lombok. This new species, which is placed in the Simulium striatum species-group of the subgenus Simulium, is closely related to S. (S.) argyrocinctum De Meijere from Java and Sumatra, but it is distinguished from the latter species by the smaller number of the male enlarged upper-eye facets and larval abdomen lacking dorsal pairs of conical protuberances. The distribution record of S. (S.) upikae Takaoka & Davies from Flores is corrected as that of S. (S.) eximium De Meijere. Some aberrant characters of the pupal gill filaments of S. (G.) atratum De Meijere, S. (G.) floresense Takaoka, Hadi & Sigit and S. (G.) sunapii Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Suana are illustrated. Characteristics of the fauna of black flies in this archipelago are briefly noted. Keys to all 19 species are provided for females, males, pupae and larvae.
A man-biting black fly species so far regarded as Simulium rufibasis Brunetti in Thailand was morphologically analyzed. It was found to be almost indistinguishable in the female from S. rufibasis sensu stricto but distinguishable in the male by the slender fore basitarsus and abdominal segments 2, 6, and 7 each with a pair of shiny dorsolateral patches, and in the pupa by the absence of spine-combs on abdominal segment 7 and terminal hooks on segment 9. It is described as a new species, Simulium tenebrosum. Taxonomic notes are given to separate it from all 11 known species of the S. rufibasis subgroup of the Simulium (Simulium) tuberosum species-group. An analysis of the COI gene sequences shows that this new species is distantly separated from the closely related species.
Indonesia is one of the megadiversity country in the world endowed with rich and unique biodiversity insects such as blackflies species (Diptera: Simuliidae). Blackflies are found almost anywhere with running water suitable as habitat for the immature stages. This family is one of the most important groups of blood-sucking insects. This study collates the records of Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) in previous publications related fauna of Indonesia. Based on the results of this study, there were 124 species of blackflies in Indonesian Archipelago. All species are assigned to the genus Simulium Latreille s.l., and are placed into five subgenera, i.e. Gomphostilbia Enderlein, Morops Enderlein, Nevermannia Enderlein, Simulium Latreille s.str. and Wallacellum Takaoka. Further classification into 27 species groups within the subgenera were also made. Checklists of Indonesian Simuliidae are provided including data on the distribution of each species.
A new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) pangsidaense, is described on the basis of adult female, male, pupal exuviae and mature larvae from Pang Sida National Park, Sa Kaew Province, Eastern Thailand. This new species is placed in the Simulium ceylonicum species-group. It is distinguished from three Thai members of the S. ceylonicum species-group by the following characteristics: from S. (G.) curtatum Jitklang et al. and S. (G.) sheilae Takaoka & Davies by the wide pupal terminal hooks (triangular terminal hooks in the latter two species), and from S. (G.) sheilae and S. (G.) trangense Jitklang et al. by the number of male upper-eye facets in 13 vertical columns and 14 or 15 horizontal rows (10 or 11 vertical columns and 12 or 13 horizontal rows in the latter two species). This is the fourth member of the S. ceylonicum species-group recorded from Thailand.
A total of 29 female black flies were captured by a hand net as they swarmed around humans in Tam Dao National Park, Vinh Phuc Province, Vietnam. They included one species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia (Simulium (Gomphostilbia) asakoae Takaoka & Davies) and five species of the subgenus Simulium, of which one species is described as Simulium (Simulium) vietnamense sp. nov. and the other four species (S. (S.) chungi Takaoka & Huang, S. (S.) grossifilum Takaoka & Davies, S. (S.) maenoi Takaoka & Choochote, and S. (S.) rufibasis Brunetti) are newly recorded from Vietnam.
Two new blackfly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) azhari and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) johorense, are described based on adult females, males, pupae, and larvae collected from Peninsular Malaysia, and assigned to the parahiyangum subgroup and the duolongum subgroup of the batoense species group of the subgenus Comphostilbia, respectively. S. (G.) azhari sp. nov. is characterized in the female by the narrow frons, and in the male by the broad style and the ventral plate moderately produced ventrally. S. (G.) johorense sp. nov. is also remarkable in having the female subcosta lacking hairs or bearing a reduced number of hairs ranging from one to five. The pupae of both new species share a similar arrangement of the eight gill filaments (i.e., stalks of dorsal and middle triplets and ventral pair arising at the same level from the short common basal stalk), although relative lengths of filaments of the ventral pair to those of the dorsal and middle triplets are different between the two new species. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish these new species from other related species. Keys to identify all 10 species of the batoense species group in Peninsular Malaysia are provided for adult females, males, pupae, and mature larvae.
Simulium (Comphostilbia) izuae sp. nov. is described from female, male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is placed in the asakoae species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia. The pupa of this new species is characterized by the gill with eight long filaments arranged as (3 + 3) + 2 filaments, of which the ventral pair of filaments is borne on a stalk that is always shorter than the common basal stalk. Taxonomic notes to distinguish this new species from five other Malaysian species and 12 other species of the asakoae species-group from other countries are given. Keys to identify all 18 species of the asakoae species-group are also provided for females, males, pupae, and mature larvae.
ABSTRACT A new black fly species, Simulium (Comphostilbia) langkawiense, is described based on adult female, adult male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Langkawi Island, Malaysia. This new species is similar in the configuration of the pupal gill to Simulium (Comphostilbia) gombakense Takaoka & Davies, 1995, originally described from Peninsular Malaysia, but differs from the latter species by the female genital fork with an anterolaterally angulated plate on each arm, the female tarsal claw tooth shorter than one half of the claw, the small number of male upper-eye large facets, the ventral plate with its ventral margin nearly flat in the middle when viewed posteriorly, and the inflated structure of the pupal gill with a less produced middle portion (width of middle inflated portion: length of inflated structure = 0.24). Taxonomic notes are also given to separate this new species from two other related species from Nepal and India. This represents another example of a unique species of black fly on one of the continental islands of Peninsular Malaysia.
Simulium (Asiosimulium) furvum sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described from female, male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Maewa National Park, Lampang Province, Thailand. This new species represents the fourth member of the subgenus Asiosimulium Takaoka & Chochoote, one of two small black fly subgenera endemic in the Oriental Region. It is characterized by a pear-shaped spermatheca in the female; a ventral plate in the male with a laterally compressed median keel directed ventrally and with a deep notch posteromedially, and aedeagal membrane with stout spines; and by 22 gill filaments in the pupa. Taxonomic notes are provided to separate this new species from three known species, Simulium (Asiosimulium) oblongum Takaoka & Choochote and Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, both from Thailand, and Simulium (Asiosimulium) suchitrae Takaoka from Nepal.
Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Comphostilbia) terengganuense sp. nov. and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) aziruni sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae), are described on the basis of reared adult, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Peninsular Malaysia. Both species are placed in the batoense species-group within the subgenus Gomphostilbia, one of two dominant subgenera of the genus Simulium in Peninsular Malaysia as well as in the Oriental Region. Strikingly, three morphological characteristics that rarely occur in the subgenus Gomphostilbia are found in these two new species: the very narrow female frons and the mushroom-like pupal terminal hooks in S. (G.) terengganuense sp. nov. and the pupal gill composed of an inflated horn-like structure and eight slender filaments in S. (G.) aziruni sp. nov.
Simulium (Simulium) kisapense sp. nov. is described on the basis of reared adult, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Langkawi Island, Peninsular Malaysia, and placed in the multi-striatum species-group in the subgenus Simulium. This new species is characterized by the bare basal section of the female radial vein, the male ventral plate with setae, the eight pupal gill filaments divergent at an angle of >90 degrees, and the shoe-shaped cocoon with small lateral window(s). Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from S. (S.) hirtinervis Edwards and S. (S.) malayense Takaoka and Davies, both from Peninsular Malaysia, and several other known species from Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Thailand.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from Yagyakarta, Java, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium epistum species-group, and is characterized by the pupal gill with eight short filaments all arising at the same level from a short stalk, somewhat enlarged basal fenestra, entirely bare pupal head and thoracic integument, and small and short larval postgenal cleft. These characters rarely are found in the subgenus. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from related species of the S. epistum species-group.
Simulium (Simulium) lomkaoense sp. nov. is described from females, males, pupae, and larvae in Thailand. This new species is assigned to the Simulium malyschevi Dorogostaisky, Rubtsov & Vlasenko species-group of the subgenus Simulium, and appears to be closely related to Simulium baimaii Kuvangkadilok & Takaoka from Thailand in having a similar shape of the female and male genitalia, pupal gill with two inflated filaments, and simple wall-pocket-shaped cocoon. This new species is compared taxonomically with S. baimaii and other related species. It represents the third species of the S. malyschevi species-group known from Thailand.
This is the first study on the seasonal biodiversity of black flies and evaluation of ecological factors influencing their distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, northern Thailand. Larvae were collected from six fixed-stream sites in relation to altitude gradients from May 2011 to April 2013. The water temperature, water pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), salt, water velocity, stream width and depth, streambed particle sizes, riparian vegetation, and canopy cover were recorded from each site. Monthly collections from the six sites yielded 5475 last-instar larvae, belonging to 29 black fly species. The most frequently found species from all sites were Simulium asakoae (100%) followed by Simulium yuphae (83.3%), and Simulium chiangdaoense, Simulium gombakense, Simulium phahompokense, Simulium fruticosum, Simulium maeaiense and Simulium fenestratum (66.6%). Of the 5475 last-instar larvae, S. maeaiense (19.3%), S. chiangdaoense (15.8%) and S. asakoae (14.8%), were the three most abundant species. The Shannon diversity index (H) at the six sites with different altitudes of 2100m, 2000m, 1500m, 1400m, 700m, and 500m above mean sea level, were 2.042, 1.832, 2.158, 2.123, 1.821 and 1.822, respectively. The Shannon index and number of taxa in the cold season were higher than those in the rainy and hot seasons. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that at least three principal components have eigen values >1.0 and accounted for 93.5% of the total variability of ecological factors among sampling sites. The Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that most species had a trend towards altitude, canopy cover, riparian vegetation and water velocity.
The increasing attention on Vietnam as a biodiversity hotspot prompted an investigation of the potential for cryptic diversity in black flies, a group well known elsewhere for its high frequency of isomorphic species. We analyzed the banding structure of the larval polytene chromosomes in the Simulium tuberosum species group to probe for diversity beyond the morphological level. Among 272 larvae, 88 different chromosomal rearrangements, primarily paracentric inversions, were discovered in addition to 25 already known in the basic sequences of the group in Asia. Chromosomal diversity in Vietnam far exceeds that known for the group in Thailand, with only about 5% of the rearrangements shared between the two countries. Fifteen cytoforms and nine morphoforms were revealed among six nominal species in Vietnam. Chromosomal evidence, combined with available molecular and morphological evidence, conservatively suggests that at least five of the cytoforms are valid species, two of which require formal names. The total chromosomal rearrangements and species (15) now known from the group in Vietnam far exceed those of any other area of comparable size in the world, supporting the country's status as a biodiversity hotspot. Phylogenetic inference based on uniquely shared, derived chromosomal rearrangements supports the clustering of cytoforms into two primary lineages, the Simulium tani complex and the Southeast Asian Simulium tuberosum subgroup. Some of these taxa could be threatened by habitat destruction, given their restricted geographical distributions and the expanding human population of Vietnam.
Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Simulium) srisukai and S. (S.) kiewmaepanense, are described from specimens collected in Thailand. Both species are assigned to the Simulium variegatum species-group of the subgenus Simulium (Simulium) Latreille. They are characterized by the darkened female femora and tibiae and six inflated pupal gill filaments, and the darkened female tibiae and six ordinary thread-like pupal gill filaments, respectively. Taxonomic notes are given to separate these new species from 10 related species among the group. These new species represent the third and fourth species of the S. variegatum species-group from Thailand.