Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Tai L, Teoh HK, Cheong SK
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Dec;40(3):325-329.
    PMID: 30580364
    INTRODUCTION: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) that exhibit embryonic stem cell-like properties with unlimited self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties, are a potential cell source in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy. Although retroviral and lentiviral transduction methods to generate iPSC are well established, the risk of mutagenesis limits the use of these products for therapeutic applications.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, reprogramming of human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) into iPSC was carried out using non-integrative Sendai virus for transduction. The iPSC clones were characterised based on the morphological changes, gene expression of pluripotency markers, and spontaneous and directed differentiation abilities into cells of different germ layers.

    RESULTS: On day 18-25 post-transduction, colonies with embryonic stem cell-like morphology were obtained. The iPSC generated were free of Sendai genome and transgene after passage 10, as confirmed by RT-PCR. NHDF-derived iPSC expressed multiple pluripotency markers in qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. When cultured in suspension for 8 days, iPSC successfully formed embryoid body-like spheres. NHDF-derived iPSC also demonstrated the ability to undergo directed differentiation into ectoderm and endoderm.

    CONCLUSION: NHDF were successfully reprogrammed into iPSC using non-integrating Sendai virus for transduction.

    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology*
  2. Busra FM, Chowdhury SR, Saim AB, Idrus RB
    Saudi Med J, 2011 Dec;32(12):1311-2.
    PMID: 22159390
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology
  3. Lourith N, Kanlayavattanakul M, Sucontphunt A, Ondee T
    J Oleo Sci, 2014;63(7):709-16.
    PMID: 24976614
    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology
  4. Seet WT, Manira M, Maarof M, Khairul Anuar K, Chua KH, Ahmad Irfan AW, et al.
    PLoS One, 2012;7(8):e40978.
    PMID: 22927903 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040978
    Skin plays an important role in defense against infection and other harmful biological agents. Due to its fragile structure, skin can be easily damaged by heat, chemicals, traumatic injuries and diseases. An autologous bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™, was engineered to provide a living skin substitute to treat critical skin loss. However, one of the disadvantages of living skin substitute is its short shelf-life, hence limiting its distribution worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of MyDerm™ through assessment of cell morphology, cell viability, population doubling time and functional gene expression levels before transplantation. Skin samples were digested with 0.6% Collagenase Type I followed by epithelial cells dissociation with TrypLE Select. Dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were culture-expanded to obtain sufficient cells for MyDerm™ construction. MyDerm™ was constructed with plasma-fibrin as temporary biomaterial and evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after storage at 4°C for its shelf-life determination. The morphology of skin cells derived from MyDerm™ remained unchanged across storage times. Cells harvested from MyDerm™ after storage appeared in good viability (90.5%±2.7% to 94.9%±1.6%) and had short population doubling time (58.4±8.7 to 76.9±19 hours). The modest drop in cell viability and increased in population doubling time at longer storage duration did not demonstrate a significant difference. Gene expression for CK10, CK14 and COL III were also comparable between different storage times. In conclusion, MyDerm™ can be stored in basal medium at 4°C for at least 72 hours before transplantation without compromising its functionality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology*
  5. Ajlia SA, Majid FA, Suvik A, Effendy MA, Nouri HS
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2010 Jun 15;13(12):596-603.
    PMID: 21061910
    A new invention, papain-based wound cleanser is formulated by incorporating papain, a proteolytic enzyme extracted from Carica papaya into the formulation. This cleanser is invented to simplify the methods in wound management by combining wound cleansing and wound debridement using a single formulation. This study describes the preparation and preclinical study of papain-based wound cleanser in accelerating wound healing. In this study, papain-based wound cleanser was used to treat wound incision on Sprague-Dawley rats while distilled water and Betadine were used as negative and positive control. Twenty-seven clinically healthy white rats were randomly divided into three groups and treated accordingly until the 21st day post-incision. Wound reduction rates and histological analysis were obtained to asses the healing pattern. Rats treated with papain-based wound cleanser showed a progressive wound healing based on the wound reduction rates and histological analysis when compared with rats treated with distilled water and Betadine. Better collagen deposition and presence of skin organelles in rats treated with papain-based wound cleanser demonstrated its efficacy in promoting wound healing. In addition to its wound healing effect, papain-based wound cleanser is also integrated with antibacterial properties which make it a complete package for wound management. However, further studies should be carried out to ensure its safety for human usage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology
  6. Ruszymah BH
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:27-8.
    PMID: 19024966
    Tissue engineering applies the principle of engineering and life sciences towards the development of biological substitute that restore, maintain or improve tissue or organ function. Scientists grow tissues or organs in vitro and implant them when the body is unable to prompt into healing itself. This presentation aims to highlight the potential clinical application of engineered tissues being researched on at the Tissue Engineering Centre, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology*
  7. Mazlyzam AL, Aminuddin BS, Saim L, Ruszymah BH
    Arch Med Res, 2008 Nov;39(8):743-52.
    PMID: 18996287 DOI: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2008.09.001
    Standard fibroblast culture medium usually contains fetal bovine serum (FBS). In theory, unknown risks of infection from bovine disease or immune reaction to foreign proteins may occur if standard culture method is used for future human tissue-engineering development. Human serum (HS) theoretically would be another choice in providing a safer approach and autologous clinically reliable cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology*
  8. Nasir NAM, Paus R, Ansell DM
    Wound Repair Regen, 2019 01;27(1):126-133.
    PMID: 30575205 DOI: 10.1111/wrr.12688
    Ex vivo wounded human skin organ culture is an invaluable tool for translationally relevant preclinical wound healing research. However, studies incorporating this system are still underutilized within the field because of the low throughput of histological analysis required for downstream assessment. In this study, we use intravital fluorescent dye to lineage trace epidermal cells, demonstrating that wound re-epithelialization of human ex vivo wounds occurs consistent with an extending shield mechanism of collective migration. Moreover, we also report a relatively simple method to investigate global epithelial closure of explants in culture using daily fluorescent dye treatment and en face imaging. This study is the first to quantify healing of ex vivo wounds in a longitudinal manner, providing global assessments for re-epithelialization and tissue contraction. We show that this approach can identify alterations to healing with a known healing promoter. This methodological study highlights the utility of human ex vivo wounds in enhancing our understanding of mechanisms of human skin repair and in evaluating novel therapies to improve healing outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology
  9. Loh EYX, Fauzi MB, Ng MH, Ng PY, Ng SF, Mohd Amin MCI
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Sep 15;159:497-509.
    PMID: 32387606 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.011
    In skin tissue engineering, a biodegradable scaffold is usually used where cells grow, produce its own cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular matrix, until the regenerated tissue gradually replaces the scaffold upon its degradation. However, the role of non-biodegradable scaffold remains unexplored. This study investigates the potential of a non-biodegradable bacterial nanocellulose/acrylic acid (BNC/AA) hydrogel to transfer human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) to the wound and the resulting healing effects of transferred HDF in athymic mice. Results demonstrated that the fabricated hydrogel successfully transferred >50% of HDF onto the wound site within 24 h, with evidence of HDF detected on day 7. The gene and protein study unveiled faster wound healing in the hydrogel with HDF group and characterized more mature newly formed skin microstructure on day 7, despite no visible differences. These findings give a new perspective regarding the role of non-biodegradable materials in skin tissue engineering, in the presence of exogenous cells, mainly at the molecular level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology
  10. Imrigha NAA, Bidin N, Lau PS, Musa N, Zakaria N, Krishnan G
    J Biophotonics, 2017 Oct;10(10):1287-1291.
    PMID: 28464516 DOI: 10.1002/jbio.201600295
    Q-switched Nd: YAG laser is the most effective laser for tattoo removal. Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy is an alternative method applied to accelerate the wound healing. This paper investigated the effects of PBM therapy using 808 nm diode laser on tattooed skin after laser tattoo removal. Forty-five rats were selected and tattooed with black ink on their dorsal, and then distributed into three groups. G0 was received non-laser irradiation. G1 was treated by laser tattoo removal using 1064 nm with energy density of 3.4 J/cm2 without PBM therapy, while G2 was treated daily with PBM therapy using 808 nm diode laser of 5 J/cm2 after a single session of laser tattoo removal. The effects of tattoo removal and healing progress of the wound were analyzed using histological studies. Findings showed 808 nm laser promotes the healing process through enhancing epithelialization and collagen deposition. Moreover, PBM therapy stimulated immune cells to improve phagocytosis process for removing the tattoo ink fragments effectively. The PBM therapy treated group was capable of improving the healing process and increasing the quality of skin following the laser tattoo removal. It was also found that stimulation of cellular function by PBM therapy increased tattoo clearance efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology
  11. Ibrahim SM, Kareem OH, Saffanah KM, Adamu AA, Khan MS, Rahman MBA, et al.
    Cryobiology, 2018 06;82:27-36.
    PMID: 29679551 DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2018.04.012
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Afp1m as a cryopreservative agent for skin by examining the transplanted skin histological architecture and mechanical properties following subzero cryopreservation. Thirty four (34) rats with an average weight of 208 ± 31 g (mean ± SD), were used. Twenty four (n = 24) rats were equally divided into four groups: (i) immediate non-cryopreserved skin autografts (onto same site), (ii) immediate non-cryopreserved skin autografts (onto different sites), (iii) skin autografts cryopreserved with glycerol for 72 h and (iv) skin autografts cryopreserved with Afp1m for 72 h at -4 °C. Rounded shaped full-thickness 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter skin was excised from backs of rats for the autograft transplantation. Non-cryopreserved or cryopreserved auto skin graft were positioned onto the wound defects and stitched. Non-transplanted cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved skin strips from other ten rats (n = 10) were allowed for comparative biomechanical test. All skin grafts were subjected to histological and mechanical examinations at the end of day 21. Histological results revealed that tissue architecture especially the epidermal integrity and dermal-epidermal junction of the Afp1m cryopreserved skin grafts exhibited better histological appearance, good preservation of tissue architecture and structural integrity than glycerolized skin. However, there was no significant difference among these groups in other histological criteria. There were no significant differences among the 4 groups in skin graft mechanical properties namely maximum load. In conclusion, Afp1m were found to be able to preserve the microstructure as well as the viability and function of the skin destined for skin transplantation when was kept at -4 °C for 72 h.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology
  12. Mohd Nor NH, Berahim Z, Azlina A, Mokhtar KI, Kannan TP
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2017;12(8):675-681.
    PMID: 28969579 DOI: 10.2174/1574888X12666170929124621
    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts are the common cells used in clinical regenerative medicine and dentistry. These cells are known to appear heterogeneous in vivo. Previous studies have only investigated the biological properties of these cell subpopulations in vitro. Despite sharing similarity in their spindle-shaped appearance, previous literatures revealed that they play distinguished functional and biological activities in the body.

    OBJECTIVE: This paper highlights the similarities and differences among these cell subpopulations, particularly between intraoral fibroblasts (human periodontal ligament, gingival and oral mucosa fibroblasts) and dermal fibroblasts based on several factors including their morphology, growth and proliferation rate.

    RESULTS: It could be suggested that each subpopulation of fibroblasts demonstrate different positionspecified gene signatures and responses towards extracellular signals. These dissimilarities are crucial to be taken into consideration to employ specific methodologies in stimulating these cells in vivo.

    CONCLUSION: A comparison of the characteristics of these cell subpopulations is desired for identifying appropriate cellular applications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology
  13. Abe N, Ito T, Ohguchi K, Nasu M, Masuda Y, Oyama M, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2010 Sep 24;73(9):1499-506.
    PMID: 20735051 DOI: 10.1021/np1002675
    Five new stilbenoids, vatalbinosides A-E (1-5), and 13 known compounds (6-18) were isolated from the stem of Vatica albiramis. The effects of these new compounds on interleukin-1β-induced production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in human dermal fibroblasts were examined. Three resveratrol tetramers, (-)-hopeaphenol (6), vaticanol C (13), and stenophyllol C (14), were identified as strong inhibitors of MMP-1 production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology
  14. Zulkifli FH, Hussain FSJ, Rasad MSBA, Mohd Yusoff M
    Carbohydr Polym, 2014 Dec 19;114:238-245.
    PMID: 25263887 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.08.019
    In this study, a novel fibrous membrane of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/poly(vinyl alcohol) blend was successfully fabricated by electrospinning technique and characterized. The concentration of HEC (5%) with PVA (15%) was optimized, blended in different ratios (30-50%) and electrospun to get smooth nanofibers. Nanofibrous membranes were made water insoluble by chemically cross-linking by glutaraldehyde and used as scaffolds for the skin tissue engineering. The microstructure, morphology, mechanical and thermal properties of the blended HEC/PVA nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning colorimetry, universal testing machine and thermogravimetric analysis. Cytotoxicity studies on these nanofibrous scaffolds were carried out using human melanoma cells by the MTT assays. The cells were able to attach and spread in the nanofibrous scaffolds as shown by the SEM images. These preliminary results show that these nanofibrous scaffolds that supports cell adhesion and proliferation is promising for skin tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology*
  15. Keong LC, Halim AS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2009 Mar;10(3):1300-1313.
    PMID: 19399250 DOI: 10.3390/ijms10031300
    One of the ultimate goals of wound healing research is to find effective healing techniques that utilize the regeneration of similar tissues. This involves the modification of various wound dressing biomaterials for proper wound management. The biopolymer chitosan (beta-1,4-D-glucosamine) has natural biocompatibility and biodegradability that render it suitable for wound management. By definition, a biocompatible biomaterial does not have toxic or injurious effects on biological systems. Chemical and physical modifications of chitosan influence its biocompatibility and biodegradability to an uncertain degree. Hence, the modified biomedical-grade of chitosan derivatives should be pre-examined in vitro in order to produce high-quality, biocompatible dressings. In vitro toxicity examinations are more favorable than those performed in vivo, as the results are more reproducible and predictive. In this paper, basic in vitro tools were used to evaluate cellular and molecular responses with regard to the biocompatibility of biomedical-grade chitosan. Three paramount experimental parameters of biocompatibility in vitro namely cytocompatibility, genotoxicity and skin pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, were generally reviewed for biomedical-grade chitosan as wound dressing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology
  16. Zulkepli NA, Rou KV, Sulaiman WN, Salhin A, Saad B, Seeni A
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(1):259-63.
    PMID: 21517268
    One of the main aims of cancer chemopreventive studies is to identify ideal apoptotic inducers, especially examples which can induce early apoptotic activity. The present investigation focused on chemopreventive effects of a hydrazone derivative using an in vitro model with tongue cancer cells. Alteration in cell morphology was ascertained, along with stage in the cell cycle and proliferation, while living-dead status of the cells was confirmed under a confocal microscope. In addition, cytotoxicity test was performed using normal mouse skin fibroblast cells. The results showed that the compound inhibited the growth of tongue cancer cells with an inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 0.01 mg/ml in a dose and time-dependent manner, with a two-fold increase in early apoptotic activity and G0G1 phase cell cycle arrest compared to untreated cells. Exposure to the compound also resulted in alterations of cell morphology including vacuolization and cellular shrinkage. Confocal microscope analysis using calcein and ethidium staining confirmed that the compound caused cell death, whereas no cytotoxic effects on normal mouse skin fibroblast cells were observed. In conclusion, the findings in this study suggested that the hydrazone derivative acts as an apoptotic inducer with anti-proliferative chemopreventive activity in tongue cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology
  17. Manira M, Khairul Anuar K, Seet WT, Ahmad Irfan AW, Ng MH, Chua KH, et al.
    Cell Tissue Bank, 2014 Mar;15(1):41-9.
    PMID: 23456438 DOI: 10.1007/s10561-013-9368-y
    Animal-derivative free reagents are preferred in skin cell culture for clinical applications. The aim of this study was to compare the performance and effects between animal-derived trypsin and recombinant trypsin for skin cells culture and expansion. Full thickness human skin was digested in 0.6 % collagenase for 6 h to liberate the fibroblasts, followed by treatment with either animal-derived trypsin; Trypsin EDTA (TE) or recombinant trypsin; TrypLE Select (TS) to liberate the keratinocytes. Both keratinocytes and fibroblasts were then culture-expanded until passage 2. Trypsinization for both cell types during culture-expansion was performed using either TE or TS. Total cells yield was determined using a haemocytometer. Expression of collagen type I, collagen type III (Col-III), cytokeratin 10, and cytokeratin 14 genes were quantified via RT-PCR and further confirmed with immunocytochemical staining. The results of our study showed that the total cell yield for both keratinocytes and fibroblasts treated with TE or TS were comparable. RT-PCR showed that expression of skin-specific genes except Col-III was higher in the TS treated group compared to that in the TE group. Expression of proteins specific to the two cell types were confirmed by immunocytochemical staining in both TE and TS groups. In conclusion, the performance of the recombinant trypsin is comparable with the well-established animal-derived trypsin for human skin cell culture expansion in terms of cell yield and expression of specific cellular markers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology*
  18. Maarof M, Mh Busra MF, Lokanathan Y, Bt Hj Idrus R, Rajab NF, Chowdhury SR
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 02;9(1):144-161.
    PMID: 30547385 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-00612-z
    Skin substitutes are one of the main treatments for skin loss, and a skin substitute that is readily available would be the best treatment option. However, most cell-based skin substitutes require long production times, and therefore, patients endure long waiting times. The proteins secreted from the cells and tissues play vital roles in promoting wound healing. Thus, we aimed to develop an acellular three-dimensional (3D) skin patch with dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM) and collagen hydrogel for immediate treatment of skin loss. Fibroblasts from human skin samples were cultured using serum-free keratinocyte-specific media (KM1 or KM2) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2, and DFCM-FM, respectively. The acellular 3D skin patch was soft, semi-solid, and translucent. Collagen mixed with DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 showed higher protein release compared to collagen plus DFCM-FM. In vitro and in vivo testing revealed that DFCM and collagen hydrogel did not induce an immune response. The implantation of the 3D skin patch with or without DFCM on the dorsum of BALB/c mice demonstrated a significantly faster healing rate compared to the no-treatment group 7 days after implantation, and all groups had complete re-epithelialization at day 17. Histological analysis confirmed the structure and integrity of the regenerated skin, with positive expression of cytokeratin 14 and type I collagen in the epidermal and dermal layer, respectively. These findings highlight the possibility of using fibroblast secretory factors together with collagen hydrogel in an acellular 3D skin patch that can be used allogeneically for immediate treatment of full-thickness skin loss.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology*
  19. Rezvanian M, Ahmad N, Mohd Amin MC, Ng SF
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Apr;97:131-140.
    PMID: 28064048 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.12.079
    Natural polymer-based hydrogel films have great potential for biomedical applications and are good candidates for wound dressings. In this study, we aimed to develop simvastatin-loaded crosslinked alginate-pectin hydrogel films by ionic crosslinking to improve the mechanical characteristics, wound fluid uptake and drug release behavior. Alginate-pectin hydrocolloid films were chemically crosslinked by immersing in different concentrations of CaCl2 (0.5-3% w/v) for 2-20min. The degree of crosslinking was influenced by both contact time and CaCl2 concentration. The optimized conditions for crosslinking were 0.5% and 1% (CaCl2) for 2min. The optimized hydrogel films were then characterized for their physical, mechanical, morphological, thermal, in vitro drug release, and cytocompatibility profiles. Crosslinking improved the mechanical profile and wound fluid uptake capacity of dressings. The hydrogel films were able to maintain their physical integrity during use, and the best results were obtained with the film in which the extent of crosslinking was low (0.5%). Thermal analysis confirmed that the crosslinking process enhanced the thermal stability of hydrogel films. Sustained, slow release of simvastatin was obtained from the crosslinked films and in vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the hydrogel films were non-toxic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology
  20. Xi Loh EY, Fauzi MB, Ng MH, Ng PY, Ng SF, Ariffin H, et al.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018 Nov 21;10(46):39532-39543.
    PMID: 30372014 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b16645
    The evaluation of the interaction of cells with biomaterials is fundamental to establish the suitability of the biomaterial for a specific application. In this study, the properties of bacterial nanocellulose/acrylic acid (BNC/AA) hydrogels fabricated with varying BNC to AA ratios and electron-beam irradiation doses were determined. The manner these hydrogel properties influence the behavior of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) at the cellular and molecular levels was also investigated, relating it to its application both as a cell carrier and wound dressing material. Swelling, hardness, adhesive force (wet), porosity, and hydrophilicity (dry) of the hydrogels were dependent on the degree of cross-linking and the amount of AA incorporated in the hydrogels. However, water vapor transmission rate, pore size, hydrophilicity (semidry), and topography were similar between all formulations, leading to a similar cell attachment and proliferation profile. At the cellular level, the hydrogel demonstrated rapid cell adhesion, maintained HDFs viability and morphology, restricted cellular migration, and facilitated fast transfer of cells. At the molecular level, the hydrogel affected nine wound-healing genes (IL6, IL10, MMP2, CTSK, FGF7, GM-CSF, TGFB1, COX2, and F3). The findings indicate that the BNC/AA hydrogel is a potential biomaterial that can be employed as a wound-dressing material to incorporate HDFs for the acceleration of wound healing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin/cytology*
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