This paper describes a modified method of quantitative determination of histamine in human skin wounds using fluorescence spectrophotometer. In this study, histamine was used as an indicator to differentiate antemortem from postmortem wounds. Skin samples were obtained from 20 corpses which were brought to Hospital Kuala Lumpur and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for medicolegal autopsy. Sections of human skin were processed biochemically for histamine determination using fluorescence spectrophotometer. Results revealed no significant difference in the histamine content of the antemortem wounds in comparison to postmortem wounds. Based on these results, detection of histamine is not suitable to differentiate antemortem from postmortem wounds.
We report two cases of body piercing as a religious practice that subsequently led to the development of granulomatous nodules at previously punctured sites of the skin and oral mucosa. These lesions were diagnosed as sarcoid-like foreign body reaction after other possible causes including sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, tuberculoid leprosy, fungal infections, viral infections, and Crohn's disease were excluded.
Ex vivo wounded human skin organ culture is an invaluable tool for translationally relevant preclinical wound healing research. However, studies incorporating this system are still underutilized within the field because of the low throughput of histological analysis required for downstream assessment. In this study, we use intravital fluorescent dye to lineage trace epidermal cells, demonstrating that wound re-epithelialization of human ex vivo wounds occurs consistent with an extending shield mechanism of collective migration. Moreover, we also report a relatively simple method to investigate global epithelial closure of explants in culture using daily fluorescent dye treatment and en face imaging. This study is the first to quantify healing of ex vivo wounds in a longitudinal manner, providing global assessments for re-epithelialization and tissue contraction. We show that this approach can identify alterations to healing with a known healing promoter. This methodological study highlights the utility of human ex vivo wounds in enhancing our understanding of mechanisms of human skin repair and in evaluating novel therapies to improve healing outcome.
Wound management and healing in several physiological or pathological conditions, particularly when comorbidities are involved, usually proves to be difficult. This presents complications leading to socio-economic and public health burdens. The accelerative wound healing potential of biocompatible poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates)-co-(6-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHA-PCL) composite hydrogel is reported herein. The biosynthesized PHA-PCL macromer was cross-linked with PEGMA to give a hydrogel. Twenty-four rats weighing 200-250 g each were randomly assigned to four groups of six rats. Rats in group I (negative control) were dressed with sterilized gum acacia paste in 10% normal saline while PEGMA-alone hydrogel (PH) was used to dress group II (secondary control) rats. Group III rats were dressed with PHAs-PCL cross-linked PEGMA hydrogel (PPH). For the positive control (group IV), the rats were dressed with Intrasite(®) gel. Biochemical, histomorphometric and immunohistomorphometric analyses revealed a significant difference in area closure and re-epithelialization on days 7 and 14 in PPH or Intrasite(®) gel groups compared to gum acacia or PEGMA-alone groups. Furthermore, wounds dressed with PPH or Intrasite(®) gel showed evident collagen deposition, enhanced fibrosis and extensively organized angiogenesis on day 14 compared to the negative control group. While improvement in wound healing of the PH dressed group could be observed, there was no significant difference between the negative control group and the PH dressed group in any of the tests. The findings suggested that topical application of PPH accelerated the rats' wound healing process by improving angiogenesis attributed to the increased microvessel density (MVD) and expressions of VEGF-A in tissue samples. Thus, PPH has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous wounds in rats, and could be a potential novel agent in the management and acceleration of wound healing in humans and animals.
Frequent repositioning is important to prevent pressure ulcer (PU) development, by relieving pressure and recovering damages on skin areas induced by repetitive loading. Although repositioning is the gold standard to prevent PU, there is currently no strategy for determining tissue condition under preventive approaches. In this study, the peak reactive hyperemia (RH) trends and ultrasonographic (US) features are compared with the tissue condition under histopathological examination to determine the potential use of these features in determining the tissue condition noninvasively. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats (seven per group), with body weight of 385-485 g, were categorized into three groups and subjected to different recovery times, each with three repetitive loading cycles at skin tissues above of right trochanter area. The first, second, and third groups were subjected to short (3 minutes), moderate (10 minutes), and prolonged (40 minutes) recovery, respectively, while applying fixed loading time and pressure (10 minutes and 50 mmHg, respectively), to provide different degree of recovery and tissue conditions (tissue damage and tissue recovery). Peak RH was measured in the three cycles to determine RH trend (increasing, decreasing, and inconsistent). All rat tissues were evaluated using ultrasound at pre- and post-experiment and rated by two raters to categorize the severity of tissue changes (no, mild, moderate, and severe). The tissue condition was also evaluated using histopathological examination to distinguish between normal and abnormal tissues. Most of the samples with increasing RH trend is related to abnormal tissue (71%); while inconsistent RH trends is more related to normal tissue (82%). There is no relationship between the tissue conditions evaluated under ultrasonographic and histopathological examination. Peak RH trend over repetitive loading may serve as a new feature for determining the tissue condition that leading to pressure ulcer.
Haruan (Channa striatus) is a type of fresh water fish in Malaysia that is known to promote wound healing. Haruan water extract has been formulated in an aerosol system which can produce a film for wound dressing. As topical preparation, Haruan spray needs to be evaluated in terms of the possibility to cause irritation reaction or toxic response. Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the safety of Haruan spray which are Primary Skin Irritation test, Intracutaneous test and Systemic Injection test. The result shows that Haruan spray gave no significant responses to all the above tests. The investigation of the effect of Haruan spray as wound dressing in the healing process was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats where 6-cm long full-thickness incision wound and burn wound were made on the back of the animals. Haruan spray was tested and compared with blank formula as control. Tensile strength test of treated wound was carried out at the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th day after wounding and treatment. The burn wounds contraction was measured daily for 21 days. Results showed that haruan water extract spray formula is not only effective but also safe for application to both incision and burn wounds.
This study investigated critical physicochemical attributes of low (LV), medium (MV) and high molecular weight (HV) sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) scaffolds in partial thickness wound healing. SCMC scaffolds were prepared by solvent-evaporation technique. Their in vitro erosion, moisture affinity, morphology, tensile strength, polymer molecular weight and carboxymethyl substitution, and in vivo wound healing profiles were determined. Inferring from rat wound size, re-epithelialization and histological profiles, wound healing progressed with HV scaffold>LV-MV scaffold>control with no scaffold. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from wound of rats treated by control>HV scaffold>LV-MV scaffold. HV scaffold had the highest tensile strength of all matrices and was resistant to erosion in simulated wound fluid. In spite of constituting small nanopores, it afforded a substantial TEWL than MV and LV scaffolds from wound across an intact matrix through its low moisture affinity characteristics. The HV scaffold can protect moisture loss without its excessive accumulation at wound bed which hindered re-epithelialization process. Regulation of transepidermal water movement and wound healing by scaffolds was governed by SCMC molecular weight instead of its carboxymethyl substitution degree or matrix pore size distribution, with large molecular weight HV preferred over lower molecular weight samples.
Tissue recovery is important in preventing tissue deterioration, which is induced by pressure and may lead to pressure ulcers (PU). Reactive hyperaemia (RH) is an indicator used to identify people at risk of PU. In this study, the effect of different recovery times on RH trend is investigated during repetitive loading. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats (seven per group), with body weight of 385-485 g, were categorised into three groups and subjected to different recovery times with three repetitive loading cycles. The first, second, and third groups were subjected to short (3 min), moderate (10 min), and prolonged (40 min) recovery, respectively, while fixed loading time and pressure (10 min and 50 mmHg, respectively). Peak hyperaemia was measured in the three cycles to determine trends associated with different recovery times. Three RH trends (increasing, decreasing, and inconsistent) were observed. As the recovery time is increased (3 min vs. 10 min vs. 40 min), the number of samples with increasing RH trend decreases (57% vs. 29% vs. 14%) and the number of samples with inconsistent RH trend increases (29% vs. 57% vs. 72%). All groups consists of one sample with decreasing RH trend (14%). Results confirm that different recovery times affect the RH trend during repetitive loading. The RH trend may be used to determine the sufficient recovery time of an individual to avoid PU development.
Advances in tissue engineering led to the development of various tissue-engineered skin substitutes (TESS) for the treatment of skin injuries. The majority of the autologous TESS required lengthy and costly cell expansion process to fabricate. In this study, we determine the possibility of using a low density of human skin cells suspended in platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-enriched medium to promote the healing of full-thickness skin wounds. To achieve this, full-thickness wounds of size 1.767 cm2 were created at the dorsum part of nude mice and treated with keratinocytes (2 × 104 cells/cm2) and fibroblasts (3 × 104 cells/cm2) suspended in 10% PRP-enriched medium. Wound examination was conducted weekly and the animals were euthanized after 2 weeks. Gross examination showed that re-epithelialization was fastest in the PRP+cells group at both day 7 and 14, followed by the PRP group and NT group receiving no treatment. Only the PRP+cells group achieved complete wound closure by 2 weeks. Epidermal layer was presence in the central region of the wound of the PRP+cells and PRP groups but absence in the NT group. Comparison between the PRP+cells and PRP groups showed that the PRP+cells-treated wound was more mature as indicated by the presence of thinner epidermis with single cell layer thick basal keratinocytes and less cellular dermis. In summary, the combination of low cell density and diluted PRP creates a synergistic effect which expedites the healing of full-thickness wounds. This combination has the potential to be developed as a rapid wound therapy via the direct application of freshly harvested skin cells in diluted PRP.
Skin injury is quite common, and the wound healing is a complex process involving many types of cells, the extracellular matrix, and soluble mediators. Cell differentiation, migration, and proliferation are essential in restoring the integrity of the injured tissue. Despite the advances in science and technology, we have yet to find the ideal dressing that can support the healing of cutaneous wounds effectively, particularly for difficult-to-heal chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, bed sores, and venous ulcers. Hence, there is a need to identify and incorporate new ideas and methods to design a more effective dressing that not only can expedite wound healing but also can reduce scarring. Calcium has been identified to influence the wound healing process. This review explores the functions and roles of calcium in skin regeneration and reconstruction during would healing. Furthermore, this review also investigates the possibility of incorporating calcium into scaffolds and examines how it modulates cutaneous wound healing. In summary, the preliminary findings are promising. However, some challenges remain to be addressed before calcium can be used for cutaneous wound healing in clinical settings.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of topical application of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus fruiting bodies (HEFB) on the rate of wound healing enclosure and histology of the healed wound. Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were experimentally wounded in the posterior neck area. A uniform wound area of 2.00 cm in diameter, using a circular stamp, was excised from the nape of the dorsal neck of all rats with the aid of a round seal. The animal groups were topically treated, respectively, with 0.2 mL each of sterilized distilled water (sdH2O); Intrasite gel; and 20, 30, and 40 mg/mL HEFB. Macroscopically, those rats whose wounds were dressed with HEFB and those in the Intrasite gel-treated group healed earlier than those treated with sdH2O. Histological analysis of healed wounds dressed with HEFB showed less scar width at wound enclosure and the healed wound contained fewer macrophages and more collagen with angiogenesis, compared to wounds dressed with sdH2O. In conclusion, wounds dressed with HEFB significantly enhanced the acceleration of wound healing enclosure in rats.
Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herb commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. It is also used for the rapid healing of wounds.
The effect of supplementing 200 mg/kg body weight palm vitamin E (PVE) and 200 mg/kg body weight alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) on the healing of wounds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was evaluated. The antioxidant potencies of these two preparations of vitamin E were also evaluated by determining the antioxidant enzyme activities, namely, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the healing of dermal wounds. Healing was evaluated by measuring wound contractions and protein contents in the healing wounds. Cellular redistribution and collagen deposition were assessed morphologically using cross-sections of paraffin-embedded day-10 wounds stained according to the Van Gieson method. GPx and SOD activities as well as MDA levels were determined in homogenates of day-10 dermal wounds. Results showed that PVE had a greater potency to enhance wound repair and induce the increase in free radical-scavenging enzyme activities than alpha-Toc. Both PVE and alpha-Toc, however, were potent antioxidants and significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation levels in the wounds as measured by the reduction in MDA levels.
The wound-healing potential of Phaleria macrocarpa was evaluated by monitoring the levels of inflammatory mediators, collagen, and antioxidant enzymes. Experimentally, two-centimeter-wide full-thickness-deep skin excision wounds were created on the posterior neck area of the rats. The wounds were topically treated with gum acacia as a vehicle in the control group, intrasite gel in the reference group, and 100 and 200 mg/mL P. macrocarpa fruit extract in the treatment group. Granulation tissues were excised on the 15th day and were further processed for histological and biochemical analyzes. Wound healing was evaluated by measuring the contractions and protein contents of the wounds. Cellular redistribution and collagen deposition were assessed morphologically using Masson's trichrome stain. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, along with malondialdehyde (MDA) level were determined in skin tissue homogenates of the dermal wounds. Serum levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were evaluated in all the animals. A significant decrease in wound area was caused by a significant increase in TGF-β1 level in the treated groups. Decrease in TNF-α level and increase in the collagen formation were also observed in the treated groups. Topical treatment with P. macrocarpa fruit extract increased the SOD and CAT activities in the healing wounds, thereby significantly increasing MDA level. The topical treatment with P. macrocarpa fruit extract showed significant healing effect on excision wounds and demonstrated an important role in the inflammation process by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, thereby accelerating the wound healing process and reducing tissue injury.
Annona muricata, a member of the Annonaceae family, is commonly known as soursop and graviola. The leaves of this tropical fruit tree are widely used in folk medicine against skin diseases and abscesses, however there is no scientific evidence justifying the use of A. muricata leaves. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the wound healing potential of ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAM) towards excisional wound models in rats.
The aetiology of the keloid scar has not been completely elucidated. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed in the past to explain the unusual characteristics of the keloid scar. While we do know that there is excessive and ongoing collagen-deposition, the exact triggering stimulus is a subject of conjecture. We present some of our photographic records of keloids and electron microscopic findings of keloid edges and reiterate the sebum hypothesis. We also attempt to explain the features of keloids in the light of the present knowledge of immunology and cell biology.
Wound healing is a physiological event that generates reconstitution and restoration of granulation tissue that ends with scar formation. As omega fatty acids are part of membrane phospholipids and participate in the inflammatory response, we investigated the effects of omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids in the form of oils on wound healing. Linseed (LO), evening primrose (EPO), and olive oils (OO) rich in omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were formulated into emulsions and were topically applied on rats with excision wounds. All omega-3-, omega-6-, and omega-9-rich oil formulations were found to accelerate wound closure compared to untreated, with significant improvement (p
We have recently shown that Latent transforming growth factor-beta-1 binding protein-2 (LTBP-2) has a single high-affinity binding site for fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and that LTBP-2 blocks FGF-2 induced cell proliferation. Both proteins showed strong co-localisation within keloid skin from a single patient. In the current study, using confocal microscopy, we have investigated the distribution of the two proteins in normal and fibrotic skin samples including normal scar tissue, hypertrophic scars and keloids from multiple patients. Consistently, little staining for either protein was detected in normal adult skin and normal scar samples but extensive co-localisation of the two proteins was observed in multiple examples of hypertrophic scars and keloids. LTBP-2 and FGF-2 were co-localised to fine fibrous elements within the extracellular matrix identified as elastic fibres by immunostaining with anti-fibrillin-1 and anti-elastin antibodies. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of RNA samples from multiple patients confirmed dramatically increased expression of LTBP-2 and FGF-2, similar TGF-beta 1, in hypertrophic scar compared to normal skin and scar tissue. Overall the results suggest that elevated LTBP-2 may bind and sequester FGF-2 on elastic fibres in fibrotic tissues and modulate FGF-2's influence on the repair and healing processes.
Previously we developed and characterized a novel hydrogel film wound dressing containing Sodium Alginate and Pectin loaded with Simvastatin with multi-functional properties. This study investigated the in-vivo efficacy of the developed wound dressing on type I diabetic wound model. Experiments were performed on male Wistar rats for the period of 21-days. Animals developed diabetes after intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg) of Streptozotocin then randomly divided into different groups. On days 7, 14, and 21 of post-wounding, animals were euthanized and the wounds tissue were harvested for analysis. The wound healing rate, hematology and histological analysis, hydroxyproline assay, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A measurements were noted. The results revealed that the wound dressing healed the wounded area significantly (p