Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 99 in total

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  1. Chaubal T, Bapat R
    Am J Med, 2017 Nov;130(11):e493-e494.
    PMID: 28602875 DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2017.05.020
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects*
  2. Huan NC, Sidhu C, Thomas R
    Clin Chest Med, 2021 12;42(4):711-727.
    PMID: 34774177 DOI: 10.1016/j.ccm.2021.08.007
    Pneumothorax is a common problem worldwide. Pneumothorax develops secondary to diverse aetiologies; in many cases, there may be no recognizable lung abnormality. The pathogenetic mechanism(s) causing spontaneous pneumothorax may be related to an interplay between lung-related abnormalities and environmental factors such as smoking. Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for primary spontaneous pneumothorax; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is most frequently associated with secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. This review article provides an overview of the historical perspective, epidemiology, classification, and aetiology of pneumothorax. It also aims to highlight current knowledge and understanding of underlying risks and pathophysiological mechanisms in pneumothorax development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects
  3. Khajotia R, Somaweera N
    Aust Fam Physician, 2013 Aug;42(8):560-2.
    PMID: 23971064
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects*
  4. Ngamwong Y, Tangamornsuksan W, Lohitnavy O, Chaiyakunapruk N, Scholfield CN, Reisfeld B, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(8):e0135798.
    PMID: 26274395 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135798
    Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10) and cohort (N = 7) studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S-) were compared with; (i) asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-), (ii) non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+), and (iii) asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+). Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-), odds ratios for the disease (95% CI) were (i) 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31-2.21), (ii) 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38-9.42), (iii) 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8-13.10). The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26-1.77) and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63-1.30). Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00-1.28) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31-0.85). Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects*
  5. Wong ML, Chen PC
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Dec;44(4):317-23.
    PMID: 2520041
    On the basis of a questionnaire on smoking behaviour, knowledge and attitudes administered to medical students in the University of Malaya in July 1987, the prevalence of smoking was found to be low (10%) among medical students. Smokers and non-smokers were equally well informed about common smoking complications. Most students, irrespective of smoking status, felt that they would as future doctors, often advise sick smokers against smoking. In contrast, less than half would do so for healthy smokers who do not themselves raise the question of smoking. The students' personal smoking behaviour also influenced their view of their professional role. Appropriate values, attitudes and a preventive approach towards smoking need to be further developed in the medical students' thinking and behaviour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects
  6. Ordóñez-Mena JM, Walter V, Schöttker B, Jenab M, O'Doherty MG, Kee F, et al.
    Ann Oncol, 2018 02 01;29(2):472-483.
    PMID: 29244072 DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx761
    Background: Smoking has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in previous studies and might also be associated with prognosis after CRC diagnosis. However, current evidence on smoking in association with CRC prognosis is limited.

    Patients and methods: For this individual patient data meta-analysis, sociodemographic and smoking behavior information of 12 414 incident CRC patients (median age at diagnosis: 64.3 years), recruited within 14 prospective cohort studies among previously cancer-free adults, was collected at baseline and harmonized across studies. Vital status and causes of death were collected for a mean follow-up time of 5.1 years following cancer diagnosis. Associations of smoking behavior with overall and CRC-specific survival were evaluated using Cox regression and standard meta-analysis methodology.

    Results: A total of 5229 participants died, 3194 from CRC. Cox regression revealed significant associations between former [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.20] and current smoking (HR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.04-1.60) and poorer overall survival compared with never smoking. Compared with current smoking, smoking cessation was associated with improved overall (HR<10 years = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.69-0.88; HR≥10 years = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.63-0.97) and CRC-specific survival (HR≥10 years = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.67-0.85).

    Conclusion: In this large meta-analysis including primary data of incident CRC patients from 14 prospective cohort studies on the association between smoking and CRC prognosis, former and current smoking were associated with poorer CRC prognosis compared with never smoking. Smoking cessation was associated with improved survival when compared with current smokers. Future studies should further quantify the benefits of nonsmoking, both for cancer prevention and for improving survival among CRC patients, in particular also in terms of treatment response.

    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects*
  7. Al-Bayaty FH, Baharuddin N, Abdulla MA, Ali HM, Arkilla MB, ALBayaty MF
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:684154.
    PMID: 24286083 DOI: 10.1155/2013/684154
    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin in Malaysian smokers. A total of 197 male smokers and nonsmokers were recruited for this study. Plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), and levels of serum cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were evaluated. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, with the significance level set at α ≤ 0.05. Linear regression analyses were performed. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 13.39 ± 5.75 cigarettes; the mean duration was 16.03 ± 8.78 years. Relatively low BOP values (26.05 ± 1.48) and moderate plaque indexes (51.35 ± 11.27) were found. The levels of serum cotinine (106.9 ± 30.71 ng/dL), haptoglobin (76.04 ± 52.48 mg/dL), and alpha 1-antitrypsin (141.90 ± 18.40 mg/dL) were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression models for all variables and smokers demonstrated observed differences between BOP, the number of cigarettes per day, and duration of smoking, while serum cotinine, haptoglobin and alpha-1 antitrypsin levels showed no significant differences. Duration of smoking (years) and the cotinine level in serum showed a significant correlation with plaque index. The present analysis demonstrated that the duration of smoking in years, but not the number of cigarettes smoked per day, was associated with reduced gingival bleeding in smokers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects
  8. Yasin SM, Retneswari M, Moy FM, Taib KM, Isahak M, Koh D
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(4):2317-23.
    PMID: 23725134
    The role of The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) in predicting relapse is limited. We aimed to assess whether this model can be utilised to predict relapse during the action stage. The participants included 120 smokers who had abstained from smoking for at least 24 hours following two Malaysian universities' smoking cessation programme. The smokers who relapsed perceived significantly greater advantages related to smoking and increasing doubt in their ability to quit. In contrast, former smokers with greater self-liberation and determination to abstain were less likely to relapse. The findings suggest that TTM can be used to predict relapse among quitting smokers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects*
  9. Nasir MH, Rampal KG
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):81-6.
    PMID: 22582554 MyJurnal
    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common and important source of disability among the workers and often caused by occupational noise exposure. Aims of the study were to determine the prevalence and contributing factors of hearing loss among airport workers. A cross-sectional study was carried out at an airport in Malaysia. This study used stratified sampling method that involved 358 workers who were working in 3 different units between November 2008 and March 2009. Data for this study were collected by using questionnaires eliciting sociodemographic, occupational exposure history (previous and present), life-style including smoking habits and health-related data. Otoscopic and pure-tone audiometric tests were conducted for hearing assessment. Noise exposure status was categorize by using a noise logging dosimeter to obtain 8-hour Time-Weighted Average (TWA). Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 12.0.1 and EpiInfo 6.04. The prevalence of hearing loss was 33.5%. Age >40 years old (aOR 4.3, 95%CI 2.2-8.3) is the main risk factors for hearing loss followed by duration of noise exposure >5 years (aOR 2.5, 95%CI 1.4-4.7), smoking (aOR 2.1, 95%CI 1.2-3.4), duration of service >5 years (aOR 2.1, 95%CI 1.1-3.9), exposure to explosion (aOR 6.1, 95%CI 1.3-29.8), exposure to vibration (aOR 2.2, 95%CI 1.1-4.3) and working in engineering unit (aOR 5.9, 95%CI 1.1-30.9). The prevalence rate ratio of hearing loss for nonsmokers aged 40 years old and younger, smokers aged 40 years old and younger, non-smokers older than 40 years old and smokers older than 40 years old was 1.0, 1.7, 2.8 and 4.6 respectively. This result contributes towards better understanding of risk factors for hearing loss, which is relatively common among Malaysian workers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects
  10. Hammond D
    Tob Control, 2011 Sep;20(5):327-37.
    PMID: 21606180 DOI: 10.1136/tc.2010.037630
    OBJECTIVE: To review evidence on the impact of health warning messages on tobacco packages.
    DATA SOURCES: Articles were identified through electronic databases of published articles, as well as relevant 'grey' literature using the following keywords: health warning, health message, health communication, label and labelling in conjunction with at least one of the following terms: smoking, tobacco, cigarette, product, package and pack.
    STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant articles available prior to January 2011 were screened for six methodological criteria. A total of 94 original original articles met inclusion criteria, including 72 quantitative studies, 16 qualitative studies, 5 studies with both qualitative and qualitative components, and 1 review paper: Canada (n=35), USA (n=29) Australia (n=16), UK (n=13), The Netherlands (n=3), France (n=3), New Zealand (n=3), Mexico (n=3), Brazil (n=2), Belgium (n=1), other European countries (n=10), Norway (n=1), Malaysia (n=1) and China (n=1).
    RESULTS: The evidence indicates that the impact of health warnings depends upon their size and
    DESIGN: whereas obscure text-only warnings appear to have little impact, prominent health warnings on the face of packages serve as a prominent source of health information for smokers and non-smokers, can increase health knowledge and perceptions of risk and can promote smoking cessation. The evidence also indicates that comprehensive warnings are effective among youth and may help to prevent smoking initiation. Pictorial health warnings that elicit strong emotional reactions are significantly more effective.
    CONCLUSIONS: Health warnings on packages are among the most direct and prominent means of communicating with smokers. Larger warnings with pictures are significantly more effective than smaller, text-only messages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects*
  11. King B, Yong HH, Borland R, Omar M, Ahmad AA, Sirirassamee B, et al.
    Tob Control, 2010 Dec;19(6):444-50.
    PMID: 20852322 DOI: 10.1136/tc.2009.034256
    This study explored the extent to which Malaysian and Thai smokers believe "light" and menthol cigarettes are less harmful than "regular" cigarettes and the correlates of these beliefs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects*
  12. Al-Sadat N, Misau AY, Zarihah Z, Maznah D, Tin Tin Su
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2010 Jul;22(3 Suppl):175S-180S.
    PMID: 20566551 DOI: 10.1177/1010539510372835
    The use of tobacco by adolescents is a major public health concern worldwide. There are 1.2 billion smokers globally, of which more than 50% are young people. The Southeast Asian countries have about 600 million tobacco smokers within the global burden of tobacco users. Most smokers begin at early stage of life and persist through adulthood. Malaysia alone has about 5 million smokers, 20% of whom are younger than 18 years old. Many factors are implicated in the continuous rising trend of tobacco use among adolescents in Southeast Asia. A triad of family, environmental, and individual factors synergistically acts to motivate adolescents toward smoking. This article discusses the current trends of tobacco use and implications of increasing rise in adolescent smoking in the Southeast Asia region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects
  13. Al-Bayaty FH, Wahid NA, Bulgiba AM
    J. Periodont. Res., 2008 Feb;43(1):9-13.
    PMID: 18230101 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2007.00988.x
    Tobacco smoking has been shown to be a major risk factor for tooth loss. The present study was designed to examine tooth mortality and the patterns of tooth loss in smokers and nonsmokers over a wide age range in a selected population from Sana'a, Yemen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects*
  14. Razali M, Palmer RM, Coward P, Wilson RF
    Br Dent J, 2005 Apr 23;198(8):495-8; discussion 485.
    PMID: 15849588
    Smoking has been associated with increased risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to compare the periodontal disease severity of adult heavy smokers and never-smokers referred for assessment and treatment of chronic periodontitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects*
  15. Müezzinler A, Mons U, Gellert C, Schöttker B, Jansen E, Kee F, et al.
    Am J Prev Med, 2015 Nov;49(5):e53-e63.
    PMID: 26188685 DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.04.004
    INTRODUCTION: Smoking is known to be a major cause of death among middle-aged adults, but evidence on its impact and the benefits of smoking cessation among older adults has remained limited. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the influence of smoking and smoking cessation on all-cause mortality in people aged ≥60 years.

    METHODS: Relative mortality and mortality rate advancement periods (RAPs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models for the population-based prospective cohort studies from Europe and the U.S. (CHANCES [Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the U.S.]), and subsequently pooled by individual participant meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were performed from June 2013 to March 2014.

    RESULTS: A total of 489,056 participants aged ≥60 years at baseline from 22 population-based cohort studies were included. Overall, 99,298 deaths were recorded. Current smokers had 2-fold and former smokers had 1.3-fold increased mortality compared with never smokers. These increases in mortality translated to RAPs of 6.4 (95% CI=4.8, 7.9) and 2.4 (95% CI=1.5, 3.4) years, respectively. A clear positive dose-response relationship was observed between number of currently smoked cigarettes and mortality. For former smokers, excess mortality and RAPs decreased with time since cessation, with RAPs of 3.9 (95% CI=3.0, 4.7), 2.7 (95% CI=1.8, 3.6), and 0.7 (95% CI=0.2, 1.1) for those who had quit <10, 10 to 19, and ≥20 years ago, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Smoking remains as a strong risk factor for premature mortality in older individuals and cessation remains beneficial even at advanced ages. Efforts to support smoking abstinence at all ages should be a public health priority.

    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects*
  16. Al-Adsani A, Dahniya MH, Al-Adsani N
    Postgrad Med J, 2001 Feb;77(904):127, 137-8.
    PMID: 11161092
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects*
  17. Khor GL, Hsu-Hage BH, Sundram K, Wahlqvist ML
    Med J Malaysia, 1997 Dec;52(4):367-76.
    PMID: 10968113
    Several risk factors for cardiovascular disease amongst a sample of urban Chinese women were investigated. These factors included body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio, total blood cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol and Lp(a) levels, blood pressure, cigarette smoking, family history of chronic disease, dietary habits and frequency of selected food intake. The subjects were found to have coronary risks with respect to BMI and TC level, both of which increased with age of the women. Hypertension, HDL-cholesterol and Lp(a) levels appeared not to pose as risk factors amongst these subjects. Dietary habits and intake showed significant correlations with subjects' BMI status. Health promotion is called for towards reducing the modifiable coronary risk factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects
  18. Academy of Medicine of Malaysia
    Med J Malaysia, 1997 Dec;52(4):416-28.
    PMID: 10968121
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects
  19. Neo KS, Goh KT, Sam CT
    PMID: 11127329
    A survey was conducted between 1995 and 1997 to assess the impact of introduction of unleaded petrol and other public health measures on the blood lead level of the population. The geometric mean blood lead level of 269 government employees as determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, was 66.0 microg/l, much lower than that recorded before introduction of lead-free petrol. Using multiple regression analysis, factors significantly associated with blood lead levels were: exposure to traffic, age (>50 years) and active smoking. Passive smoking, exposure to recent paint work, consumption of alcohol and traditional medicine were found not to be significantly associated with the blood lead level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects*
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