Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

  1. Rampal L
    Med J Malaysia, 1983 Sep;38(3):203-5.
    PMID: 6672563
    Anti-smoking measures, adopted by local authorities before the guideline on the ban of cigarette advertisement and anti-smoking campaign launched by the Government, are limited in scope and area. The activity is limited mainly to a ban on cigarette advertisements in theatres. Legislative measures are instituted only in the City Council, Municipal Councils and 2 ofthe 20 district councils surveyed. There is an awareness among several local authorities on the need for an increase in anti-smoking activities but action. is lacking. A population of 7.4 million. people lioe in areas controlled by the local authorities. The local authorities are expected to play a more active role along with other Government departments following a directive in August 1982 from the Chief Secretary to the Government.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*
  2. Nordin AS, Bullen C
    Tob Control, 2014 Jan;23(1):4-5.
    PMID: 24479154
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*
  3. Binns C, Low WY
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 May;27(4):372-4.
    PMID: 25972457 DOI: 10.1177/1010539515586940
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*
  4. Ashraf H
    Lancet, 2002 Aug 24;360(9333):627.
    PMID: 12241947
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*
  5. Assunta M
    Tob Control, 2002 Sep;11(3):277-8.
    PMID: 12198283
    In Malaysia, British American Tobacco flouted the World Cup of football's no-tobacco ruling
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control
  6. Simpson D
    Tob Control, 1997;6(3):171-2.
    PMID: 9396099
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*
  7. Krishnan R, Kueh ST, Lin YM, Samsuri MF, Seng OC, Mahadavan M, et al.
    World Health Forum, 1990;11(3):310-1.
    PMID: 2291796
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control
  8. Abidin NZ, Zulkifli A, Abidin EZ, Rasdi I, Ismail SN, Rahman AA, et al.
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2014 Jul;18(7):856-61.
    PMID: 24902566 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.13.0906
    OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationship between knowledge, attitude and perception regarding environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and smoking among Malaysian adolescents living in states with complete or partial smoke-free legislation (SFL).
    METHODS: A total of 898 respondents aged 13-14 years were randomly selected from 21 secondary schools. The Malay version of the modified Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used. Hierarchical logistic regression was performed in examining predictors of smoking attempt among adolescents.
    RESULTS: Participants exposed to ETS >5 h/day were more likely to have smoked compared to those exposed to ETS <1 h/day (OR 4.1, 95%CI 1.03-16.0). Living in a state with partial SFL was associated with a two-fold increase in self-reported smoking attempts (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.10-3.43) compared to living in a state with complete SFL. Negative attitudes and perceptions towards smoking and ETS exposure were linked to lower smoking attempts in states with complete SFL.
    CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with limited ETS exposure who lived in a state with complete SFL were less likely to attempt smoking compared to those exposed more regularly to ETS and living in a state with partial SFL. Preventing adolescents from becoming smokers is the key to reducing national prevalence rates in smoking. There is a need to implement comprehensive smoke-free legislation nationally across Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control
  9. Guindon GE, Driezen P, Chaloupka FJ, Fong GT
    Tob Control, 2014 Mar;23 Suppl 1:i13-22.
    PMID: 24227541 DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051074
    Decades of research have produced overwhelming evidence that tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use and increase government tax revenue. The magnitude and effectiveness of taxes in reducing tobacco use provide an incentive for tobacco users, manufacturers and others, most notably criminal networks, to devise ways to avoid or evade tobacco taxes. Consequently, tobacco tax avoidance and tax evasion can reduce the public health and fiscal benefit of tobacco taxes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control
  10. Yong HH, Savvas S, Borland R, Thrasher J, Sirirassamee B, Omar M
    Int J Behav Med, 2013 Jun;20(2):252-8.
    PMID: 22302214
    BACKGROUND: This paper prospectively examined two kinds of social normative beliefs about smoking, secular versus religious norms.
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to determine the relative importance of these beliefs in influencing quitting behaviour among Muslim Malaysian and Buddhist Thai smokers.
    METHODS: Data come from 2,166 Muslim Malaysian and 2,463 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who participated in the first three waves of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia project. Respondents were followed up about 18 months later with replenishment. Respondents were asked at baseline about whether their society disapproved of smoking and whether their religion discouraged smoking, and those recontacted at follow-up were asked about their quitting activity.
    RESULTS: Majority of both religious groups perceived that their religion discouraged smoking (78% Muslim Malaysians and 86% Buddhist Thais) but considerably more Buddhist Thais than Muslim Malaysians perceived that their society disapproved of smoking (80% versus 25%). Among Muslim Malaysians, religious, but not societal, norms had an independent effect on quit attempts. By contrast, among the Buddhist Thais, while both normative beliefs had an independent positive effect on quit attempts, the effect was greater for societal norms. The two kinds of normative beliefs, however, were unrelated to quit success among those who tried.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that religious norms about smoking may play a greater role than secular norms in driving behaviour change in an environment, like Malaysia where tobacco control has been relatively weak until more recently, but, in the context of a strong tobacco control environment like Thailand, secular norms about smoking become the dominant force.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control
  11. Yasin SM, Retneswari M, Moy FM, Darus A, Koh D
    Occup Med (Lond), 2012 Apr;62(3):174-81.
    PMID: 22362839 DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqs005
    Job stressors may reduce the likelihood of quitting smoking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control
  12. Yasin SM, Taib KM, Zaki RA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(6):1439-43.
    PMID: 22126478
    The transtheoretical model (TTM) has been used as one of the major constructs in developing effective cognitive behavioural interventions for smoking cessation and relapse prevention, in Western societies. This study aimed to examine the reliability and construct validity of the translated Bahasa Malaysia version of TTM questionnaire among adult smokers in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The sample consisted of 40 smokers from four different worksites in Klang Valley. A 26-item TTM questionnaire was administered, and a similar set one week later. The questionnaire consisted of three measures; decisional balance, temptations and impact of smoking. Construct validity was measured by factor analysis and the reliability by Cronbach' s alpha (internal consistency) and test-retest correlation. Results revealed that Cronbach' s alpha coefficients for the items were: decisional balance (0.84; 0.74) and temptations (0.89; 0.54; 0.85). The values for test retest correlation were all above 0.4. In addition, factor analysis suggested two meaningful common factors for decisional balance and three for temptations. This is consistent with the original construct of the TTM questionnaire. Overall results demonstrated that construct validity and reliability were acceptable for all items. In conclusion, the Bahasa Malaysia version of TTM questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool in ass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control
  13. Sreeramareddy CT, Ramakrishnareddy N, Harsha Kumar H, Sathian B, Arokiasamy JT
    PMID: 22185233 DOI: 10.1186/1747-597X-6-33
    BACKGROUND: Nearly four-fifths of estimated 1.1 million smokers live in low or middle-income countries. We aimed to provide national estimates for Nepal on tobacco use prevalence, its distribution across demographic, socio-economic and spatial variables and correlates of tobacco use.
    METHODS: A secondary data analysis of 2006 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was done. A representative sample of 9,036 households was selected by two-stage stratified, probability proportional to size (PPS) technique. We constructed three outcome variables 'tobacco smoke', 'tobacco chewer' and 'any tobacco use' based on four questions about tobacco use that were asked in DHS questionnaires. Socio-economic, demographic and spatial predictor variables were used. We computed overall prevalence for 'tobacco smoking', 'tobacco chewing' and 'any tobacco use' i.e. point estimates of prevalence rates, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for strata and clustering at primary sampling unit (PSU) level. For correlates of tobacco use, we used multivariate analysis to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and their 95% CIs. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as significant.
    RESULTS: Total number of households, eligible women and men interviewed was 8707, 10793 and 4397 respectively. The overall prevalence for 'any tobacco use', 'tobacco smoking' and 'tobacco chewing' were 30.3% (95% CI 28.9, 31.7), 20.7% (95% CI 19.5, 22.0) and 14.6% (95% CI 13.5, 15.7) respectively. Prevalence among men was significantly higher than women for 'any tobacco use' (56.5% versus 19.6%), 'tobacco smoking' (32.8% versus 15.8%) and 'tobacco chewing' (38.0% versus 5.0%). By multivariate analysis, older adults, men, lesser educated and those with lower wealth quintiles were more likely to be using all forms of tobacco. Divorced, separated, and widowed were more likely to smoke (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.14, 1.94) and chew tobacco (OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.97, 1.93) as compared to those who were currently married. Prevalence of 'tobacco chewing' was higher in eastern region (19.7%) and terai/plains (16.2%). 'Tobacco smoking' and 'any tobacco use' were higher in rural areas, mid-western and far western and mountainous areas.
    CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of tobacco use is considerably high among Nepalese people. Demographic and socioeconomic determinants and spatial distribution should be considered while planning tobacco control interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control
  14. Yasin SM, Masilamani R, Ming MF, Koh D
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(3):811-6.
    PMID: 21627389
    Smoking cessation studies are often performed in clinic based settings. The present example aimed to find predictors of success among staff in worksite smoking cessation programmes in two major public universities in Klang Valley, Malaysia. All staff from both universities received an open invitation via staff e-mail and letters to participate. At the start of treatment, participants were administered the Rhode Island Stress and Coping Questionnaire and Family Support Redding's Questionnaire. Behaviour therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were given as treatment. After two months, they were contacted to determine their smoking status. 185 staff from University A (n=138) and University B (n=47), responded and voluntarily showed interest to quit. There was no significant difference in respondents with respect to socio demographic characteristics and smoking history. After two months of treatment, quit rates were 24% in University A vs. 38 % in University B (p>0.05). Univariate predictors of cessation were adherence to NRT (p<0.001), smoking fewer cigarettes per day (p<0.05) and the number of behaviour therapy sessions attended (p<0.001). Logistic regression identified 3 significant predictors of smoking cessation. Participants attending more than one session (OR= 27.00; 95% CI : 6.50; 111.6), and having higher pre-treatment general stress (OR= 2.15; 95% CI: 1.14; 4.05) were more likely to quit, while a higher number of cigarettes smoked (OR= 0.19: 95% CI: 0.06; 0.59) reduced the likelihood of quitting. Increasing age, ability to cope with stress and family support were not significant predictors. We conclude that factors such as the number of counseling sessions, the amount of cigarettes smoked at baseline, adherence to NRT and pretreatment stress are important considerations for success in a worksite smoking cessation programme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*
  15. Yong HH, Hamann SL, Borland R, Fong GT, Omar M, ITC-SEA project team
    Soc Sci Med, 2009 Oct;69(7):1025-31.
    PMID: 19695758 DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.07.042
    In recent years, attempts have been made to incorporate religion into tobacco control efforts, especially in countries like Malaysia and Thailand where religion is central to the lives of people. This paper is a prospective examination of the perceived relevance and role of religion and religious authorities in influencing smoking behaviour among Muslims in Malaysia and Buddhists in Thailand. Data were collected from 1482 Muslim Malaysian and 1971 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who completed wave 1 (early 2005) of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA). Respondents were asked about the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking at Wave 1 and among those recontacted, quitting activity at Wave 2. Results revealed that over 90% of both religious groups reported that their religion guides their day-to-day behaviour at least sometimes, but Malaysian Muslims were more likely to report that this was always the case. The majority (79% Muslims and 88% Buddhists) of both groups believed that their religion discourages smoking. About 61% of the Muslims and 58% of the Buddhists reported that their religious leaders had encouraged them to quit before and a minority (30% and 26%, respectively) said they would be an influential source to motivate them to quit. Logistic regression models suggest that these religious factors had a clear independent association with making quitting attempts in both countries and this translated to success for Malaysian Muslims but not for the Thai Buddhists. Taken together, results from this study indicate that religion and religious authorities are both relevant and important drivers of quitting, but whether this is always enough to guarantee success is less clear. Religion can be a culturally relevant vehicle to complement other tobacco control efforts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*
  16. Hammond D, Kin F, Prohmmo A, Kungskulniti N, Lian TY, Sharma SK, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2008;20(3):193-203.
    PMID: 19124313 DOI: 10.1177/1010539508317572
    At present, 70% of the world's 1.1 billion smokers are in developing countries, with over 50% in Asia alone. The current study examined patterns of youth smoking in Thailand and Malaysia. Respondents were 2002 youths between the ages of 13 and 17 from Thailand (n = 1000) and Malaysia (n = 1002). Respondents were selected using a multistage cluster sampling design and surveyed between January 2005 and March 2005. Approximately 3% of youth between the ages of 13 and 17 were current smokers, with an additional 10% to 12% reporting experimental smoking. Males were between 7 and 15 times more likely to report smoking behavior than females. Less than 1% of females respondents in either country met the criteria for current smoking, and less than 5% met the criteria for experimental smoking. In contrast, more than 50% Thai males and approximately one-third of Malaysian males aged 17 met the criteria for either experimental or current smoking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*
  17. Assunta M, Chapman S
    Tob Control, 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 2:ii37-42.
    PMID: 15564218
    OBJECTIVE: To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them.
    METHODS: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Search terms included Malay, cmtm, jaycees, YAS, and direct marketing; 195 relevant documents were identified for this paper.
    RESULTS: Industry internal documents reveal that youth anti-smoking programmes were launched to offset the government's tobacco control legislation. The programme was seen as a strategy to lobby key politicians and bureaucrats for support in preventing the passage of legislation. However, the industry continued to conduct research on youth, targeted them in marketing, and considered the teenage market vital for its survival. Promotional activities targeting youth were also carried out such as sports, notably football and motor racing, and entertainment events and cash prizes. Small, affordable packs of cigarettes were crucial to reach new smokers.
    CONCLUSION: The tobacco industry in Malaysia engaged in duplicitous conduct in regard to youth. By buying into the youth smoking issue it sought to move higher on the moral playing field and strengthen its relationship with government, while at the same time continuing to market to youth. There is no evidence that industry youth smoking prevention programmes were effective in reducing smoking; however, they were effective in diluting the government's tobacco control legislation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*
  18. Assunta M, Chapman S
    Tob Control, 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 2:ii51-7.
    PMID: 15564221
    To review how tobacco transnational companies conducted their business in the hostile environment of Singapore, attempting to counter some of the government's tobacco control measures; to compare the Malaysian and the Singaporean governments' stance on tobacco control and the direct bearing of this on the way the tobacco companies conduct their business.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control
  19. Assunta M, Chapman S
    Tob Control, 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 2:ii43-50.
    PMID: 15564220 DOI: 10.1136/tc.2004.008094
    OBJECTIVE: To describe tobacco industry efforts in Malaysia to thwart government efforts to regulate tobacco promotion and health warnings.
    METHODS: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement and secondary websites; relevant information from news articles and financial reports.
    RESULTS: Commencing in the 1970s, the industry began to systematically thwart government tobacco control. Guidelines were successfully promoted in the place of legislation for over two decades. Even when the government succeeded in implementing regulations such as health warnings and advertising bans they were compromised and acted effectively to retard further progress for years to come.
    CONCLUSION: Counter-measures to delay or thwart government efforts to regulate tobacco were initiated by the industry. Though not unique to Malaysia, the main difference lies in the degree to which strategies were used to successfully counter stringent tobacco control measures between 1970 and 1995.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*
  20. De Silva WD, Sinha DN, Kahandawaliyanag A
    Indian J Cancer, 2012 Oct-Dec;49(4):438-42.
    PMID: 23442410 DOI: 10.4103/0019-509X.107753
    Sri Lanka became a signatory to the WHO Frame Work Convention on Tobacco Control in September 2003, and this was ratified in November 2003. With a view to reduce the use of tobacco in Sri Lanka, the National Authority on Tobacco and Alcohol Act (NATA) No. 27 of 2006 was implemented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*
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