Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Mohamad Noh K, Jaafar S
    Citation: Mohamad Noh K, Jaafar S. Health in all policies: The primary health care approach in Malaysia. 50-years experience in addressing social determinants of health through Intersectoral Action for Health. World Conference on Social Determinants of Health. 19-21 October 2011, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    At Independence in 1957, Malaysia inherited a rural urban divide and racial identification of specific economic functions. Thus, the government’s welfarist policy was on growth with equity. This entailed the formulation of national social policies to reduce poverty and at the same time to restructure society by addressing economic imbalances and eventually eliminating racial identification of specific economic functions. The poverty reduction approaches placed a strong emphasis on rural socio-economic development addressing the social determinants of health. This approach has served Malaysia well over the decades but since the 1990s Malaysia has been caught in a middle income trap. Realising that achieving a high income nation status by 2020 is not possible at the present economic trajectory, Malaysia has now embarked on a national transformation agenda based on the four pillars of inculcating the cultural and societal values under the 1Malaysia Concept and the twin commitments of people first in all policies & projects and performance now; a government transformation programme (GTP); macroeconomic policies under the economic transformation programme (ETP); and the operationalisation of these policies through the 10th Malaysia Plan. The highest political commitment is given to the implementation of these national policies by the various agencies, orchestrated and coordinated by a central planning process which cascades down to the state and district administrative levels of the government machinery. The health policies follow these national policies and the thrust of the Malaysian health care system is primary health care, supported by an inclusive referral system to decentralized secondary care and regionalized tertiary care. This model of comprehensive public primary health care delivers promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative care across the life course. The network of static health facilities is organized into a two-tier system which includes outreach services for remote areas. Community participation is encouraged through village health promoters, health volunteers and advisory panels. The primary health care approach has delivered increased access to health care at a relatively low-cost. This has translated into health gains for the Malaysian population comparable with countries of similar economic development. As Malaysia moves towards a high income nation status, as demographic and epidemiological transitions continue, and as new health technology develops, the demand for health care by the - Draft Background Paper 7 - 2 population will continue to rise with increasing expectations for more care of even higher quality, and at ever increasing cost. This is especially challenging as Malaysia’s open economy is yet to recover fully from the Asian financial crisis of 1997. The government transformation programme, with its focus on a whole-of-government approach, is a natural progression for the primary health care approach to addressing the social determinants of health as a vehicle for social justice to reduce health inequalities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health
  2. Saparamadu AADNS, Sharpe A, Kim S, Barbosa BLFA, Pereira A
    J Public Health Policy, 2021 Sep;42(3):452-464.
    PMID: 34417557 DOI: 10.1057/s41271-021-00303-z
    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has had disproportionate effects on economically and socially marginalized people. We explore the effects on low-wage migrant workers (migrant workers) in three countries: Singapore, South Korea and Brazil, through the lens of the social determinants of health. Our analysis shows that governments missed key opportunities to mitigate pandemic risks for migrant workers. Government measures demonstrate potential for effective and sustainable policy reform, including universal and equitable access to healthcare, social safety nets and labour rights for migrant workers-key concerns of the Global Compact for Migration. A whole-of-society and a whole-of-government approach with Health in All Policies, and migrant worker frameworks developed by the World Health Organization could be instrumental. The current situation indicates a need to frame public health crisis responses and policies in ways that recognize social determinants as fundamental to health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health*
  3. Kaewanuchit C, Muntaner C, Isha N
    Iran J Public Health, 2015 Jul;44(7):931-8.
    PMID: 26576371
    Occupational stress is a psychosocial dimension of occupational health concept on social determinants of health, especially, job & environmental condition. Recently, staff network of different government universities of Thailand have called higher education commission, and Ministry of Education, Thailand to resolve the issue of government education policy (e.g. wage inequity, poor welfare, law, and job & environment condition) that leads to their job insecurity, physical and mental health problems from occupational stress. The aim of this study was to investigate a causal relationship of occupational stress among the academic university employees.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health
  4. Sreeramareddy CT, Aye SN, Venkateswaran SP
    BMC Public Health, 2021 02 03;21(1):277.
    PMID: 33535993 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-10347-1
    BACKGROUND: National-level prevalence of tobacco use and betel quid chewing, and associated socio-demographic factors were estimated using first-ever, Myanmar Demographic Health Survey, 2015-16.

    METHODS: Questions about tobacco smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and betel quid chewing were used to create outcome variables such as tobacco smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and 'dual use' (tobacco use and betel quid chewing). Sex-stratified weighted prevalence rates, distribution by socio-demographic factors were presented. Association of demographic factors with tobacco and/or betel quid chewing was assessed by multinomial logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Among men, prevalence (%) of tobacco use and betel quid chewing was 40.9 (95% CI 38.1, 42.1) and 58.9 (95% CI 56.3, 61.6) respectively. Among women tobacco use was 3.7 (95% CI 2.0, 4.3) and betel quid chewing 18.2 (95% CI 16.4, 20.0). Among men prevalence of either tobacco or betel quid and 'dual use' was 50.4 (95% CI 48.5, 52.3) and 25.0 (95% CI 23.1, 26.8) respectively, whereas among women the corresponding rates were 17.9 (95% CI 16.2, 19.6) and 2.0 (95% CI 1.6, 2.9). Smokeless tobacco use was low (

    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health
  5. Pocock NS, Suphanchaimat R, Chan CK, Faller EM, Harrigan N, Pillai V, et al.
    BMC Proc, 2018;12(Suppl 4):4.
    PMID: 30044886 DOI: 10.1186/s12919-018-0100-6
    Migrants and refugees face challenges accessing both healthcare and good social determinants of health in Malaysia. Participants at the "Migrant and Refugee Health in Malaysia workshop, Kuala Lumpur, 9-10 November 2017" scoped these challenges within the regional ASEAN context, identifying gaps in knowledge and practical steps forward to improve the evidence base in the Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health
  6. Logarajan RD, Nor NM, Ibrahim S, Said R
    Nutrition, 2023 Jul;111:112030.
    PMID: 37172456 DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2023.112030
    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess social determinants of stunting among children aged <5 y within the Malay ethnicity in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This study used data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2016: Maternal and Child Health. It includes a sample of 10 686 children, ages 0 to 59 mo, of Malay ethnicity. Height-for-age z score was determined based on the World Health Organization Anthro software. A binary logistic regression model was used to examine the association between the selected social determinants and the occurrence of stunting.

    RESULTS: About 22.5% of children aged <5 y of Malay ethnicity were stunted. For those ages 0 to 23 mo, stunting is more prevalent in boys, in rural areas, and in those who have screen exposure, whereas a reduction of stunting was observed for those children whose mothers work in the private sector and in those who consume formula milk and meat. As for those ages 24 to 59 mo, there was a higher prevalence of stunting for those with self-employed mothers and reduced prevalence in children with hygienic waste disposal practices as well as those who play with toys.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of stunting among children of Malay ethnicity aged <5 in Malaysia necessitates immediate intervention. It is pertinent to facilitate early identification of those children at risk of stunting for additional care to promote healthy growth.

    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health*
  7. Maharajan MK, Rajiah K, Belotindos JS, Basa MS
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:170.
    PMID: 32582602 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00170
    Objective: To investigate the factors predicting knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) toward Zika virus infection among women population in Cebu City, Philippines. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 2018 to May 2018. Ethical practices were followed. A total of 702 women was approached and finally 516 completed the survey. Methods: Descriptive analysis was undertaken for the participants' characteristics. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to declare the nature of data distribution. To determine the role of socio-demographic characteristics on KAP, differences in socio-demographic status were compared with the KAP scores using the one-way analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test with p < 0.05 as significant. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of each KAP domain (good and poor). Results: There was a significant positive correlation between level of education and KAP scores. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between employment and KAP scores. Knowledge score was a significant predictor of practice score (b = 1.261, p = 0.024), and attitude score was also a significant predictor of practice score (b = 0.183, p = 0.039). However, knowledge score was not a significant predictor of attitude score (b = 0.316, p = 0.247). Conclusions: The present findings provided an overall view of KAP on Zika virus infection among females in Philippines and the socio-demographic factors that affected their KAP. Women with postgraduate education and being in higher profession were the predictors influencing the KAP scores of this female population. Women with postgraduate education was the strongest predictor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health
  8. Christiani Y, Dhippayom T, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Glob Health Action, 2016 Dec;9(1):32505.
    PMID: 28795917 DOI: 10.3402/gha.v9.32505
    Background Inequalities in access to medications among people diagnosed with diabetes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is a public health concern since untreated diabetes can lead to severe complications and premature death. Objective To assess evidence of inequalities in access to medication for diabetes in adult populations of people with diagnosed diabetes in LMICs. Design We conducted a systematic review of the literature using the PRISMA-Equity guidelines. A search of five databases - PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE - was conducted from inception to November 2015. Using deductive content analysis, information extracted from the selected articles was analysed according to the PRISMA-Equity guidelines, based on exposure variables (place of residence, race/ethnicity, occupation, gender, religion, education, socio-economic status, social capital, and others). Results Fifteen articles (seven quantitative and eight qualitative studies) are included in this review. There were inconsistent findings between studies conducted in different countries and regions although financial and geographic barriers generally contributed to inequalities in access to diabetes medications. The poor, those with relatively low education, and people living in remote areas had less access to diabetes medications. Furthermore, we found that the level of government political commitment through primary health care and in the provision of essential medicines was an important factor in promoting access to medications. Conclusions The review indicates that inequalities exist in accessing medication among diabetic populations, although this was not evident in all LMICs. Further research is needed to assess the social determinants of health and medication access for people with diabetes in LMICs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health
  9. Connolly SD, Lloyd-Jones DM, Ning H, Marino BS, Pool LR, Perak AM
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2022 Nov 15;11(22):e026797.
    PMID: 36370007 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.122.026797
    Background Cardiovascular health (CVH) is suboptimal in US adolescents. Social determinants of health (SDOH) may affect CVH. We examined SDOH by race and ethnicity and assessed for associations between SDOH and CVH among US adolescents. Methods and Results We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 3590 participants aged 12 to 19 years from 1999 to 2014. SDOH variables were chosen and an SDOH score assigned (range, 0-7 points; higher=more favorable). CVH was classified according to American Heart Association criteria. We estimated population prevalence and used multivariable linear and polytomous logistic regression for associations between SDOH and CVH. SDOH varied by group, with the non-Hispanic White group (n=1155) having a higher/better mean SDOH score compared with non-Hispanic Black (n=1223) and Mexican American groups (n=1212). Associations between SDOH and CVH differed between racial and ethnic groups (interaction P<0.0001). For the non-Hispanic White group, each additional favorable SDOH variable was associated with a CVH score higher/better by 0.3 points (β, 0.3, P<0.0001), 20% higher odds for moderate (versus low) CVH (odds ratio [OR], 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1-1.4]), and 80% higher odds for high/favorable (versus low) CVH (1.8 [1.5-2.1]). Associations between SDOH and CVH were more modest among the Mexican American group (β, 0.12, P=0.001; OR 1.1 [1.0-1.2] for moderate CVH; OR, 1.3 [1.1-1.6] for high CVH) and were not significant among the non-Hispanic Black group (β, 0.07; P=0.464). Conclusions SDOH and CVH were more favorable for non-Hispanic White adolescents compared with non-Hispanic Black and Mexican American adolescents. SDOH were strongly associated with CVH among the non-Hispanic White group. Racially and culturally sensitive public policy approaches may improve CVH in US adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health
  10. Tee GH, Aris T, Rarick J, Irimie S
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(3):1269-76.
    PMID: 27039759
    BACKGROUND: Tobacco consumption continues to be the leading cause of preventable deaths globally. The objective of this study was to examine the associaton of selected socio-demographic variables with current tobacco use in five countries that participated in the Phase II Global Adult Tobacco Survey in 2011 - 2012.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed internationally comparable representative household survey data from 33,482 respondents aged ≥ 15 years in Indonesia, Malaysia, Romania, Argentina and Nigeria for determinants of tobacco use within each country. Socio-demographic variables analysed included gender, age, residency, education, wealth index and awareness of smoking health consequences. Current tobacco use was defined as smoking or use of smokeless tobacco daily or occasionally.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tobacco use varied from 5.5% in Nigeria to 35.7% in Indonesia and was significantly higher among males than females in all five countries. Odds ratios for current tobacco use were significantly higher among males for all countries [with the greatest odds among Indonesian men (OR=67.4, 95% CI: 51.2-88.7)] and among urban dwellers in Romania. The odds of current tobacco use decreased as age increased for all countries except Nigeria where. The reverse was true for Argentina and Nigeria. Significant trends for decreasing tobacco use with increasing educational levels and wealth index were seen in Indonesia, Malaysia and Romania. Significant negative associations between current tobacco use and awareness of adverse health consequences of smoking were found in all countries except Argentina.

    CONCLUSIONS: Males and the socially and economically disadvantaged populations are at the greatest risk of tobacco use. Tobacco control interventions maybe tailored to this segment of population and incorporate educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse health consequences of smoking.

    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health*
  11. Roja VR, Narayanan P, Sekaran VC, Ajith Kumar MG
    Ghana Med J, 2020 Dec;54(4):238-244.
    PMID: 33883772 DOI: 10.4314/gmj.v54i4.6
    Objective: The primary objective of the study was to determine the association between the living environment and morbidity, nutritional status, immunization status, and personal hygiene of under-five children living in urban slums in southern India.

    Methods: This study included 224 mothers of under-five children living in urban slums of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka. A total of 17 urban slums were selected randomly using random cluster sampling.

    Results: Undernutrition was high among children of illiterate mothers (63.8%), and the children of working mothers were affected by more morbidity (96.6%) as compared with housewives. Morbidity was also found to be high among children belonging to families with low incomes (66.1%) and low socio-economic backgrounds (93.1%). Safe drinking water, water supply, sanitation, hygiene, age of the child, mother's and father's education, mother's occupation and age, number of children in the family, use of mosquito nets, type of household, and family income were significantly associated with child morbidity, nutritional status, immunization status, and personal hygiene of under-five children living in urban slums.

    Conclusion: Overall, in our study, family characteristics including parental education, occupation and income were significantly associated with outcomes among under-five children. The availability of safe drinking water and sanitation, and the use of mosquito nets to prevent vector-borne diseases are basic needs that need to be urgently met to improve child health.

    Funding: Self-funded.

    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health*
  12. Baker SR, Foster Page L, Thomson WM, Broomhead T, Bekes K, Benson PE, et al.
    J. Dent. Res., 2018 09;97(10):1129-1136.
    PMID: 29608864 DOI: 10.1177/0022034518767401
    Much research on children's oral health has focused on proximal determinants at the expense of distal (upstream) factors. Yet, such upstream factors-the so-called structural determinants of health-play a crucial role. Children's lives, and in turn their health, are shaped by politics, economic forces, and social and public policies. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children's clinical (number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth) and self-reported oral health (oral health-related quality of life) and 4 key structural determinants (governance, macroeconomic policy, public policy, and social policy) as outlined in the World Health Organization's Commission for Social Determinants of Health framework. Secondary data analyses were carried out using subnational epidemiological samples of 8- to 15-y-olds in 11 countries ( N = 6,648): Australia (372), New Zealand (three samples; 352, 202, 429), Brunei (423), Cambodia (423), Hong Kong (542), Malaysia (439), Thailand (261, 506), United Kingdom (88, 374), Germany (1498), Mexico (335), and Brazil (404). The results indicated that the type of political regime, amount of governance (e.g., rule of law, accountability), gross domestic product per capita, employment ratio, income inequality, type of welfare regime, human development index, government expenditure on health, and out-of-pocket (private) health expenditure by citizens were all associated with children's oral health. The structural determinants accounted for between 5% and 21% of the variance in children's oral health quality-of-life scores. These findings bring attention to the upstream or structural determinants as an understudied area but one that could reap huge rewards for public health dentistry research and the oral health inequalities policy agenda.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data
  13. Kwan Z, Bong YB, Tan LL, Lim SX, Yong AS, Ch'ng CC, et al.
    Psychol Health Med, 2017 02;22(2):184-195.
    PMID: 27541601 DOI: 10.1080/13548506.2016.1220603
    Patients with psoriasis may have increased risk of psychological comorbidities. This cross-sectional study aimed at determining associations between sociocultural and socioeconomic factors with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) scores and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Adult patients with psoriasis were recruited from a Dermatology outpatient clinic via convenience sampling. Interviews were conducted regarding socio-demographic factors and willing subjects were requested to complete the DASS and DLQI questionnaires. The Pearson χ2 test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis to determine independent predictors of depression, anxiety, stress and severe impairment of quality of life. Unadjusted analysis revealed that depression was associated with Indian ethnicity (p = .041) and severe impairment of quality of life was associated with Indian ethnicity (p = .032), higher education (p = .013), higher income (p = .042), and employment status (p = .014). Multivariate analysis revealed that Indian ethnicity was a predictor of depression (p = .024). For stress, tertiary level of education (p = .020) was an independent risk factor while a higher monthly income was a protective factor (p = .042). The ethnic Indians and Malays were significantly more likely than the ethnic Chinese to suffer reduced quality of life (p = .001 and p = .006 respectively) and subjects with tertiary education were more likely to have severe impairment of quality of life (p = .002). Our study was unique in determining sociocultural influences on psychological complications of psoriasis in a South East Asian population. This has provided invaluable insight into factors predictive of adverse effects of psoriasis on psychological distress and quality of life in our patient population. Future studies should devise interventions to specifically target at risk groups in the development of strategies to reduce morbidity associated with psoriasis.
    Study site: Dermatology clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health*
  14. Santosa A, Rosengren A, Ramasundarahettige C, Rangarajan S, Chifamba J, Lear SA, et al.
    JAMA Netw Open, 2021 12 01;4(12):e2138920.
    PMID: 34910150 DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.38920
    Importance: Stress may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most studies on stress and CVD have been conducted in high-income Western countries, but whether stress is associated with CVD in other settings has been less well studied.

    Objective: To investigate the association of a composite measure of psychosocial stress and the development of CVD events and mortality in a large prospective study involving populations from 21 high-, middle-, and low-income countries across 5 continents.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study, collected between January 2003 and March 2021. Participants included individuals aged 35 to 70 years living in 21 low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Data were analyzed from April 8 to June 15, 2021.

    Exposures: All participants were assessed on a composite measure of psychosocial stress assessed at study entry using brief questionnaires concerning stress at work and home, major life events, and financial stress.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcomes of interest were stroke, major coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD, and all-cause mortality.

    Results: A total of 118 706 participants (mean [SD] age 50.4 [9.6] years; 69 842 [58.8%] women and 48 864 [41.2%] men) without prior CVD and with complete baseline and follow-up data were included. Of these, 8699 participants (7.3%) reported high stress, 21 797 participants (18.4%) reported moderate stress, 34 958 participants (29.4%) reported low stress, and 53 252 participants (44.8%) reported no stress. High stress, compared with no stress, was more likely with younger age (mean [SD] age, 48.9 [8.9] years vs 51.1 [9.8] years), abdominal obesity (2981 participants [34.3%] vs 10 599 participants [19.9%]), current smoking (2319 participants [26.7%] vs 10 477 participants [19.7%]) and former smoking (1571 participants [18.1%] vs 3978 participants [7.5%]), alcohol use (4222 participants [48.5%] vs 13 222 participants [24.8%]), and family history of CVD (5435 participants [62.5%] vs 20 255 participants [38.0%]). During a median (IQR) follow-up of 10.2 (8.6-11.9) years, a total of 7248 deaths occurred. During the course of follow-up, there were 5934 CVD events, 4107 CHD events, and 2880 stroke events. Compared with no stress and after adjustment for age, sex, education, marital status, location, abdominal obesity, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, and family history of CVD, as the level of stress increased, there were increases in risk of death (low stress: hazard ratio [HR], 1.09 [95% CI, 1.03-1.16]; high stress: 1.17 [95% CI, 1.06-1.29]) and CHD (low stress: HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.01-1.18]; high stress: HR, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.08-1.42]). High stress, but not low or moderate stress, was associated with CVD (HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.08-1.37]) and stroke (HR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.09-1.56]) after adjustment.

    Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that higher psychosocial stress, measured as a composite score of self-perceived stress, life events, and financial stress, was significantly associated with mortality as well as with CVD, CHD, and stroke events.

    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health*
  15. Azline Abdilah,, Sri Ganesh Muthiah, Hayati Kadir Shahar
    Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Per-sistent HCV infection is associated with major liver complications such as liver failure, liver cancer and fatality. It is estimated that 5.6 million people who inject drugs (PWID) were chronically infected with HCV globally, meanwhile, 59% of those diagnosed as HCV in Malaysia were PWID. The objective of this study was to determine the social determinants of HCV infection among PWID in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on stratified proportionate to size sampling among registered Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) clients with PWID attending health clinics in Negeri Sembilan from February 2018 to July 2018. All eligi-ble respondents were randomly selected. Data were collected using an interviewer-guided questionnaire and was analysed using Statistical Package of IBM SPSS version 23. Independent T test and Chi-square test (χ2) were used to determine the associations between the variables. Results: Majority of the respondents in this study were between 20 and 63 years of age, Malay (90.1%) and infected with HCV (89%). There was a significant association between the respondent’s age (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health
  16. Backhaus I, Varela AR, Khoo S, Siefken K, Crozier A, Begotaraj E, et al.
    Front Psychol, 2020;11:644.
    PMID: 32411038 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00644
    Introduction: A mental health crisis has hit university campuses across the world. This study sought to determine the prevalence and social determinants of depressive symptoms among university students in twelve countries. Particular focus was placed on the association between social capital and depressive symptoms.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students at their first year at university in Europe, Asia, the Western Pacific, and Latin and North America. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire, including questions on sociodemographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, and social capital. The simplified Beck's Depression Inventory was used to measure the severity of depressive symptoms. Social capital was assessed using items drawn from the World Bank Integrated Questionnaire to Measure Social Capital. Multilevel analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between social capital and depressive symptoms, adjusting for individual covariates (e.g., perceived stress) and country-level characteristics (e.g., economic development).

    Results: Among 4228 students, 48% presented clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Lower levels of cognitive (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.44-2.29) and behavioral social capital (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.29-1.76) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. The likelihood of having depressive symptoms was also significantly higher among those living in regions with lower levels of social capital.

    Conclusion: The study demonstrates that lower levels of individual and macro-level social capital contribute to clinically relevant depressive symptoms among university students. Increasing social capital may mitigate depressive symptoms in college students.

    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health
  17. Tan ST, Lee L
    Psychol Health Med, 2023 Feb;28(2):419-426.
    PMID: 35638111 DOI: 10.1080/13548506.2022.2083643
    Total lockdown caused deleterious mental health to many, resulting from a sudden change in daily routine, working and self-isolation at home, and job and income losses. Therefore, the current study aims to assess the social determinants of self-reported psychological distress in Malaysian adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Snowball and purposive sampling approaches were adopted to enroll potential respondents. Respondents were required to self-report gender, age, ethnicity, educational attainment, marital status, number of dependents, and the presence of clinically diagnosed psychological disorders. Psychological distress during the pandemic was assessed using 21-item of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). The findings revealed that respondents with primary/secondary educational attainment were 1.962 times (95% CI: 1.018-3.781, p= 0.044) more likely to suffer from depression than those with tertiary educational attainment. Conversely, the Malaysian Indians had significantly lower odds for depression compared to Malaysian Malays (AOR = 0.538, 95% CI: 0.302-0.957, p= 0.035). Likewise, females were found to have significantly greater odds for anxiety (AOR = 2.369, 95% CI: 1.317-4.260, p= 0.004) and stress (AOR = 1.976, 95% CI: 1.007-3.879, p = 0.048) than males. Being single was at significantly higher odds for anxiety (AOR = 2.032, 95% CI: 1.133-3.646, p= 0.017) during the pandemic. This study highlights the urgency to address the escalated psychological distress in Malaysian adults during the pandemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health
  18. Rajendran M, Zaki RA, Aghamohammadi N
    Tuberculosis (Edinb), 2020 05;122:101925.
    PMID: 32275233 DOI: 10.1016/j.tube.2020.101925
    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality, among tuberculosis (TB) patients in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to determine the contributing risk factors to the prevalence of (MDR-TB). Based on systematic review of the literatures, the prevalence of (MDR-TB) and associated risk factors in Malaysia were studied. A comprehensive search of Scopus, Science direct, PubMed, DOAJ, CINAHL Plus, MyJournal, BIREME, BMC Public Health, Medline, CAB, and WoS databases were done among the articles published from 31st January 2009 to 31st December 2018, by using medical subject heading (MeSH) key terms. In conducting this study, a total of 121 papers were reviewed and 23 research papers were chosen, because, they met the specific inclusion criteria. In this study, gender, age, marital status, ethnicity, homeless status, living in urban area and history of imprisonment were evaluated as demographic factors, while educational level and employment were evaluated as socioeconomic factors. Smoking, diabetes mellitus, drug abuse and alcohol consumption were evaluated as behavioral and co-morbidities factors. All the studies chosen as eligible to be included in this study were found to be significantly associated with the risk factors for the prevalence of (MDR-TB). It was also discovered that, lack of adequate knowledge among the community and (TB) patients might increase the progression of (MDR-TB) infection in Malaysia. Thus, carried out a systematic review provided a comprehensive assessment of the (MDR-TB) which might be useful for policy makers, health experts and researchers to implement appropriate strategies for (TB) infected population in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health
  19. Araneta MR
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2019;34(2):126-133.
    PMID: 33442147 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.034.02.02
    Type 2 diabetes prevalence is rising rapidly in Southeast Asia (SEA) where urbanization and adoption of 'western' behavioral lifestyles are attributed as predominant risk factors. The Southeast Asian diaspora to the United States has resulted in a sizable portion of migrant and US born SEAs, with approximately 4 million Filipino Americans, 2 million Vietnamese-Americans, Cambodians (330,000), and Thai (300,000) as the most populous. Their longer exposure to a western lifestyle and participation in clinical studies with other racial/ethnic groups, provide opportunities to evaluate etiologic factors which might inform trends and intervention opportunities among residents of Southeast Asia. Epidemiologic studies in the US have identified higher T2D prevalence among Filipinos (16.1%) compared to groups perceived to be at highest risk for T2D, namely Latinos (14.0%), Black (13.7%), and Native Americans (13.4%), while SEAs (including Burmese, Cambodian, Indonesian, Laotian, Malaysian, and Thai, 10.5%) and Vietnamese (9.9%) had higher T2D risk compared to Whites (7.7%), despite their absence of general obesity. Asian-Americans, including SEAs, East and South Asians, collectively have higher rates of undiagnosed T2D compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the US. Almost half (44%) of Filipinos with newly diagnosed T2D have isolated post-challenge hyperglycemia and will remain undiagnosed if current screening practices remain limited to measures of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose. The University of California San Diego Filipino Health Study found excess visceral adipose tissue accumulation, low ratio of muscle to total abdominal mass area, low adiponectin concentration, multiparity (≥ 6 live births), and sleep insufficiency (<7 hours) to be unique T2D risk factors among Filipino-American women, even after adjusting for established T2D risk factors including hypertension and parental history of T2D. Social determinants such as low educational attainment (less than college completion), and sustained social disadvantage during childhood and adulthood were independently associated with T2D risk. Gestational diabetes is a known risk factor for future T2DM among women; Northern California data shows that following Asian Indians, gestational diabetes was highest among Filipina and SEA parturients, who had twice the GDM prevalence as Black, Hispanic, and White women. Identification of novel T2D risk factors among SEAs may guide early diagnosis, inform pathophysiology, and identify unique opportunities for T2D prevention and management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Determinants of Health
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