In this work, a simple sol-gel approach was used for the preparation of cyanopropyl (CNPr) functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiO2-CNPr) that tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (CNPrTEOS) used as precursors. This as-prepared SiO2-CNPr nanoparticle sorbent was first characterized using FESEM, EDX, FTIR, TGA, and BET techniques. Then, the SiO2-CNPr nanoparticle was applied as a new SPE sorbent for determining trace levels of OPPs in environmental water samples. To enhance the simultaneous extraction of non-polar or/and polar OPPs and to obtain the most efficient sorbent, several sol-gel synthesis parameters were studied. In addition, the effect of several effective parameters on SPE performance was investigated toward simultaneous extraction of non-polar or/and polar OPPs. Moreover, the figures of merit such as precision, linearity, LOQ, LOD, and recovery were evaluated for the sorbent. Finally, the designed SiO2-CNPr SPE was used to determine OPPs in real water samples, and its extraction performance was compared to commercial cartridges based on cyanopropyl.
Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are sub-class of perfluoroalkyl substances commonly detected in water matrices. They are persistent in the environment, hence highly toxic to living organisms. Their occurrence at trace amount, complex nature and prone to matrix interference make their extraction and detection a challenge. This study consolidates current advancements in solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques for the trace-level analysis of PFCAs from water matrices. The advantages of the methods in terms of ease of applications, low-cost, robustness, low solvents consumption, high pre-concentration factors, better extraction efficiency, good selectivity and recovery of the analytes have been emphasized. The article also demonstrated effectiveness of some porous materials for the adsorptive removal of the PFCAs from the water matrices. Mechanisms of the SPE/adsorption techniques have been discussed. The success and limitations of the processes have been elucidated.
Recently, a simple, rapid, high-efficiency, selective, and sensitive method for isolation, preconcentration, and enrichment of analytes has been developed. This new method of sample handling is based on ferum oxides as magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and has been used for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of various analytes from various matrices. This review focuses on the applications of modified ferum oxides, especially modified Fe3O4 MNPs, as MSPE adsorbent for pesticide isolation from various matrices. Further perspectives on MSPE based on modified Fe3O4 for inorganic metal ions, organic compounds, and biological species from water samples are also presented. Ferum(III) oxide MNPs (Fe2O3) are also highlighted.
Lower dye concentrations and the presence of several dyes along with other matrices in environmental samples restrict their determination. Herein, a highly sensitive and rapid ultra-performance tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for simultaneous determination of cationic dyes, namely methylene blue (MB), rhodamine B (RB) and crystal violet (CV), in environmental samples. To preconcentrate environmental samples, solid-phase extraction cartridges were developed by using hydrogen peroxide modified pistachio shell biomass (MPSB). The surface morphological and chemical functionalities of MPSB were well characterized. The developed method was validated considering different validation parameters. In terms of accuracy and precision, the %RSD for all three dyes at all four concentration points was found to be between 1.26 and 2.76, while the accuracy reported in terms of the recovery was found to be 98.02%-101.70%. The recovery was found to be in the range of 98.11% to 99.55%. The real sample analysis shows that MB, RB, and CV were found in the ranges of 0.39-5.56, 0.32-1.92 and 0.27-4.36 μg/mL, respectively.
Cyclodextrin-ionic liquid polymer (βCD-BIMOTs-TDI) is a new class of macroporous material and has great potential to be used as an SPE adsorbent material for extraction of phenols in river water samples. Six phenols, as model analytes, were extracted on a βCD-BIMOTs-TDI SPE cartridge, and then, eluted with 2 mL of methanol containing 1% acetic acid. The optimum experimental condition was 15 mL of sample volume (sample at pH 6) and 2 mL of methanol containing 1% acetic acid as an eluent solvent. The eluent concentration was determined by using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). Under optimized condition, high sensitivity (detection limits 0.23-0.35 µg/L) and good recoveries (87-116%) were achieved with satisfactory relative standard deviation (RSD) (0.1-1.7%). The developed βCD-BIMOTs-TDI-SPE was then compared with other adsorbents, and the obtained results showed that the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI exhibited higher extraction recovery due to the unique structure and properties. Finally, the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI was applied as a solid phase extraction sorbent for phenols determination under optimized condition, in river and tap waters, prior to the GC-FID separation.
A sol-gel hybrid sorbent, methyltrimethoxysilane-tetraethoxysilane (MTMOS-TEOS) was successfully used as new dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) sorbent material in the determination of acrylamide in several Sudanese foods and analysis using GC-MS. Several important dSPE parameters were optimised. Under the optimised conditions, excellent linearity (r(2)>0.9998) was achieved using matrix matched standard calibration in the concentration range 50-1000 μg kg(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification ranged from 9.1 to 12.8 μg/kg and 27.8-38.9 μg/kg, respectively. The precision (RSD%) of the method was ⩽6.6% and recoveries of acrylamide obtained were in the range of 88-103%, (n=3). The LOD obtained is comparable with the LODs of primary secondary amine dSPE. The proposed MTMOS-TEOS dSPE method is direct and safe for acrylamide analysis, showed reliable method validation performances and good cleanup effects. It was successfully applied to the analysis of acrylamide in real food samples.
A simple and selective RP-HPLC-UV method with SPE was developed and validated for the quantification of cefotaxime in all-in-one total parenteral nutrition (AIO-TPN) admixtures. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a 5 pm particle size C18 DB column (250 x 4.6 mm id) using the mobile phase ammonium acetate (25 mM, pH 4.0)-50% acetonitrile in methanol (80 + 20, v/v). The flow rate was 0.9 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 254 nm. The analyte was extracted from AIO-TPN admixtures by means of an SPE method. The cefotaxime calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 100-1400 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient of > or = 0.9994. The intraday accuracy and precision for cefotaxime were < or = -3.15 and < or = 3.08%, respectively, whereas the interday accuracy and precision were < or = -2.48 and < or = 2.25%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to stability studies of cefotaxime in the presence of micronutrients together with low and high concentrations of macronutrients in AIO-TPN admixtures. Cefotaxime was degraded by 13.00 and 26.05% at room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) after 72 h in low and high macronutrient concentration formulations of AIO-TPN admixtures, respectively. The values of cefotaxime degradation rates for low and high macronutrient concentration formulations of AIO-TPN admixtures were -0.164 and -0.353, respectively. These results indicated that there was a higher rate of degradation in the AIO-TPN admixture formulations containing high concentrations of macronutrients.
Zeolite Linde Type L (LTL) crystals with different length, diameter and particle size (nanosized LTL, rod LTL, cylinder LTL and needle LTL) were synthesized, characterized and were used as sorbent in the micro-solid phase extraction of ochratoxin A (OTA) before the high performance liquid chromatography detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of OTA for coffee and cereal were 0.09 ng g(-1) and 0.03 ng g(-1), respectively, while the quantification limits were 0.28 ng g(-1) and 0.08 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of OTA of coffee and cereal spiked at 0.5, 10 and 25 ng g(-1) ranged from 91.7 to 101.0%. The proposed method was applied to forty-five samples of coffee and cereal. The presence of OTA was found in twenty-five samples, ranging from 0.28 to 9.33 ng g(-1).
A headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) procedure is optimized for the analysis of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in food matrices, namely cucumbers and strawberries by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The parameters affecting the HS-SDME performance, such as selection of the extraction solvent, solvent drop volume, extraction time, temperature, stirring rate, and ionic strength, were studied and optimized. Extraction was achieved by exposing 1.5 microL toluene drop to the headspace of a 5 mL aqueous solution in a 15-mL vial and stirred at 800 rpm. The analytical parameters, such as linearity, correlation coefficients, precision, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), and recovery, were compared with those obtained from headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and solid-phase extraction. The mean recoveries for all three methods were all above 70% and below 104%. HS-SPME was the best method with the lowest LOD and LOQ values. Overall, the proposed HS-SDME method is acceptable in the analysis of pesticide residues in food matrices.
Solid phase extraction (SPE) and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) were compared and evaluated for the determination of λ-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin in palm oil matrices by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Several SPE sorbents such as graphitised carbon black (GCB), primary secondary amine (PSA), C(18), silica, and florisil were tested in order to minimise fat residues. The results show that mixed sorbents using GCB and PSA obtained cleaner extracts than a single GCB and PSA sorbents. The average recoveries obtained for each pesticide ranged between 81% and 114% at five fortification levels with the relative standard deviation of less than 7% in all cases. The limits of detection for these pesticides were ranged between 0.025 and 0.05 μg/g. The proposed method was applied successfully for the residue determination of both λ-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin in crude palm oil samples obtained from local mills throughout Malaysia.
This review covers a developmental progression on early to modern taxonomy at cellular level following the advent of electron microscopy and the advancement in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction for expatiation of biological classification at DNA level. Here, we discuss the fundamental values of conventional chemical methods of DNA extraction using liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) followed by development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods, as well as recent advances in microfluidics device-based system for DNA extraction on-chip. We also discuss the importance of DNA extraction as well as the advantages over conventional chemical methods, and how Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) system plays a crucial role for the future achievements.
As a widely consumed beverage, coffee tends to be a target for intentional adulteration. This study describes the application of modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) coupled to liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for simultaneous screening, identification, and quantification of undeclared phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in instant coffee premixes (ICPs). The mass spectrometer was operated in auto MS/MS acquisition for simultaneous MS and MS/MS experiments. Qualitative establishments from the suspected-target screening and targeted identification processes led to an unambiguous analyte assignment from the protonated molecule ([M+H]+) precursor ion which is subsequently used for quantification of 23 targeted PDE5 inhibitors. The analytical method validation covered specificity, linearity, range, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precisions, matrix effect (ME), and extraction recovery (RE). The specificity was established using the optimised chromatographic separation as well as the distinguishable [M+H]+ precursor ion. The linearity of each target analyte was demonstrated with a coefficient of determination (r2) of >0.9960 over the expected range of sample concentrations. The accuracy ranged from 88.1%-119.3% with LOD and LOQ of <70 ng/mL and 80 ng/mL, respectively. Excellent precisions were established within 0.4%-9.1% of the relative standard deviation. An insignificant ME within -5.2% to +8.7% was achieved using three different strategies of chromatography, sample extraction, and sample dilution. The RE was good for all target analytes within 84.7%-123.5% except for N-desethylacetildenafil at low (53.8%) and medium (65.1%) quality control levels. The method was successfully applied to 25 samples of ICPs where 17 of them were found to be adulterated with PDE5 inhibitors and their analogues. Further quantification revealed the total amount of these adulterants ranged from 2.77 to 121.64 mg per sachet.
The Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize the extraction of pectin from Averrhoa bilimbi (ABP) using deep eutectic solvents (DES). The four variables of extraction were percentage of DES (X1), extraction time (X2), temperature (X3), and molar ratio of DES components (X4). The quadratic regression equation was established as a predicted model with R2 value of 0.9375. The optimal condition was X1 = 3.74% (w/v), X2 = 2.5 h, X3 = 80 °C, and X4 = 1:1. No significant difference between the predicted (14.70%) and experimental (14.44%) maximum yield of sample was noted. Characterization of physico-chemical properties characterization of ABP was performed. The main components of ABP were galacturonic acids, arabinoses, and xyloses. ABP also showed good functional properties such as water holding capacity (3.70 g/g), oil holding capacity (2.40 g/g), and foaming capacity (133.33%). The results also showed that ABP exhibited free radical scavenging activity (41.46%) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (1.15 mM).
In this research, the Cu-based metal-organic framework (MOF-199) was fabricated and coated on the stainless steel mesh as substrates through sol-gel procedure. Then the coated substrates were placed in a small column known as solid-phase extraction cartridge. The SPE based coated stainless steel mesh coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detector (HPLC-UV) was used for the fast extraction, and quantification of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) from human plasma and water samples. To find optimum extraction conditions, the impacts of effective parameters on analytical performance like sample pH, sample volume, type, and volume of desorption solvent were optimized. At the optimized conditions, calibration graphs of analytes were linear in the concentration range of 0.03-300 ng mL-1 for water samples, and 0.1-200 ng mL-1 for plasma samples. The correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.9938 to 0.9989. Also, the limits of detection (LODs) were from 0.01 to 0.02 ng mL-1 for water samples and 0.03 to 0.1 ng mL-1 for plasma samples. The cartridge repeatability was studied at different values, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs%) were achieved between 3.5 and 5.1%. Consequently, this procedure was successfully used in the extraction and detection of NSAIDs in real water and plasma samples with relative recoveries ranged from 93.6 to 99.6%.
Fruits and vegetables constitute a major type of food consumed daily apart from whole grains. Unfortunately, the residual deposits of pesticides in these products are becoming a major health concern for human consumption. Consequently, the outcome of the long-term accumulation of pesticide residues has posed many health issues to both humans and animals in the environment. However, the residues have previously been determined using conventionally known techniques, which include liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the recently used liquid-phase microextraction techniques. Despite the positive technological effects of these methods, their limitations include; time-consuming, operational difficulty, use of toxic organic solvents, low selective property and expensive extraction setups, with shorter lifespan of instrumental performances. Thus, the potential and maximum use of these methods for pesticides residue determination has resulted in the urgent need for better techniques that will overcome the highlighted drawbacks. Alternatively, attention has been drawn recently towards the use of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe technique (QuEChERS) coupled with dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) to overcome the setback challenges experienced by the previous technologies. Conclusively, the reviewed QuEChERS-dSPE techniques and the recent cleanup modifications justifiably prove to be reliable for routine determination and monitoring the concentration levels of pesticide residues using advanced instruments such as high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
A novel adsorbent, palm fatty acid coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNP-FA) was successfully synthesized with immobilization of the palm fatty acid onto the surface of MNPs. The successful synthesis of MNP-FA was further confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses and water contact angle (WCA) measurement. This newly synthesized MNP-FA was applied as magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent for the enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), namely fluoranthene (FLT), pyrene (Pyr), chrysene (Cry) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from environmental samples prior to High Performance Liquid Chromatography- Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis. The MSPE method was optimized by several parameters such as amount of sorbent, desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent, extraction time, desorption time, pH and sample volume. Under the optimized conditions, MSPE method provided a low detection limit (LOD) for FLT, Pyr, Cry and BaP in the range of 0.01-0.05 ng mL(-1). The PAHs recoveries of the spiked leachate samples ranged from 98.5% to 113.8% with the RSDs (n = 5) ranging from 3.5% to 12.2%, while for the spiked sludge samples, the recoveries ranged from 81.1% to 119.3% with the RSDs (n = 5) ranging from 3.1% to 13.6%. The recyclability study revealed that MNP-FA has excellent reusability up to five times. Chromatrographic analysis demonstrated the suitability of MNP-FA as MSPE adsorbent for the efficient extraction of PAHs from environmental samples.
Magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) employing oil-palm fiber activated carbon (OPAC) modified with magnetite (Fe3O4) and polypyrrole (OPAC-Fe3O4-PPy) was successfully used for the determination of two organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), namely endosulfan and dieldrin in environmental water samples. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection (GC-μECD). The effects of three preparation variables, namely Fe3O4:OPAC ratio, amount of pyrrole monomer, and amount of FeCl3 oxidant were optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) (R2 < 0.99, p-value < 0.001%). The optimum conditions were as follows: Fe3O4:OPAC ratio of 2:1 w/w, 1 g of FeCl3 and 100 μL of pyrrole monomer. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model prediction (> 90% agreement). Optimized OPAC-Fe3O4-PPy composite was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Four numerical parameters of MSPE procedure was optimized using BBD. The significance of the MSPE parameters were salt addition > sample solution pH > extraction time and desorption time. Under the optimized conditions (extraction time: 90 s, desorption time: 10 min, salt: 0%, and pH: 5.8), the method demonstrated good linearity (25-1000 ng L-1) with coefficients of determination, R2 > 0.991, and low detection limits for both endosulfan (7.3 ng L-1) and dieldrin (8.6 ng L-1). The method showed high analyte recoveries in the range of 98.6-103.5% for environmental water samples. The proposed OPAC-Fe3O4-PPy MSPE method offered good features such as sustainability, simplicity, and rapid extraction.
New-generation adsorbent, Fe3O4@SiO2/GO, was developed by modification of graphene oxide (GO) with silica-coated (SiO2) magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4). The synthesized adsorbent was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The developed adsorbent was used for the removal and simultaneous preconcentration of As(III) and As(V) from environmental waters prior to ICP-MS analysis. Fe3O4@SiO2/GO provided high adsorption capacities, i.e., 7.51 and 11.46 mg g(-1) for As(III) and As(V), respectively, at pH 4.0. Adsorption isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic were investigated for As(III) and As(V) adsorption. Preconcentration of As(III) and As(V) were studied using magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method at pH 9.0 as the adsorbent showed selective adsorption for As(III) only in pH range 7-10. MSPE using Fe3O4@SiO2/GO was developed with good linearities (0.05-2.0 ng mL(-1)) and high coefficient of determination (R (2) = 0.9992 and 0.9985) for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) (3× SD/m, n = 3) obtained were 7.9 pg mL(-1) for As(III) and 28.0 pg mL(-1) for As(V). The LOD obtained is 357-1265× lower than the WHO maximum permissible limit of 10.0 ng mL(-1). The developed MSPE method showed good relative recoveries (72.55-109.71 %) and good RSDs (0.1-4.3 %, n = 3) for spring water, lake, river, and tap water samples. The new-generation adsorbent can be used for the removal and simultaneous preconcentration of As(III) and As(V) from water samples successfully. The adsorbent removal for As(III) is better than As(V).
A novel porous coordination polymer adsorbent (BTCA-P-Cu-CP) based on a piperazine(P) as a ligand and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) as a linker was synthesized and magnetized to form magnetic porous coordination polymer (BTCA-P-Cu-MCP). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), field emission scanning electron microscope(FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS), CHN, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller(BET) analysis were used to characterize the synthesized adsorbent. BTCA-P-Cu-MCP was used for removal and preconcentration of Pb(II) ions from environmental water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry(FAAS) analysis. The maximum adsorption capacity of BTCA-P-Cu-MCP was 582 mg g-1. Adsorption isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic parameters were investigated for Pb(II) ions adsorption. Magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) method was used for preconcentration of Pb(II) ions and the parameters influencing the preconcentration process have been examined. The linearity range of proposed method was 0.1-100 μg L-1 with a preconcentration factor of 100. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for lead were 0.03 μg L-1 and 0.11 μg L-1, respectively. The intra-day (n = 7) and inter-day (n = 3) relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.54 and 3.43% respectively. The recoveries from 94.75 ± 4 to 100.93 ± 1.9% were obtained for rapid extraction of trace levels of Pb(II) ions in different water samples. The results showed that the BTCA-P-Cu-MCP was steady and effective adsorbent for the decontamination and preconcentration of lead ions from the aqueous environment.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry.