Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Siang GH, Makahleh A, Saad B, Lim BP
    J Chromatogr A, 2010 Dec 24;1217(52):8073-8.
    PMID: 21081239 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2010.10.052
    The development of a two phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction technique, followed by gas-chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for the profiling of the fatty acids (FAs) (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic) in vegetable oils is described. Heptadecanoic acid methyl ester was used as the internal standard. The FAs were transesterified to their corresponding methyl esters prior to the extraction. Extraction parameters such as type of extracting solvent, temperature, extraction time, stirring speed and salt addition were studied and optimized. Recommended conditions were extraction solvent, n-tridecane; extraction time, 35 min; extraction temperature, ambient; without addition of salt. Enrichment factors varying from 37 to 115 were achieved. Calibration curves for the nine FAs were well correlated (r(2)>0.994) within the range of 10-5000 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (signal:noise, 3) was 4.73-13.21 ng L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the profiling of the FAs in palm oils (crude, olein, kernel, and carotino cooking oil) and other vegetable oils (soybean, olive, coconut, rice bran and pumpkin). The encouraging enrichments achieved offer an interesting option for the profiling of the minor and major FAs in palm and other vegetable oils.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods*
  2. Wan Ibrahim WA, Farhani H, Sanagi MM, Aboul-Enein HY
    J Chromatogr A, 2010 Jul 23;1217(30):4890-7.
    PMID: 20561627 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2010.05.050
    A new sol-gel hybrid coating, polydimethylsiloxane-2-hydroxymethyl-18-crown-6 (PDMS-2OHMe18C6) was prepared in-house for use in solid phase microextraction (SPME). The three compositions produced were assessed for its extraction efficiency towards three selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) based on peak area extracted obtained from gas chromatography with electron capture detection. All three compositions showed superior extraction efficiencies compared to commercial 100 microm PDMS fiber. The composition showing best extraction performance was used to obtain optimized SPME conditions: 75 degrees C extraction temperature, 10 min extraction time, 120 rpm stirring rate, desorption time 5 min, desorption temperature 250 degrees C and 1.5% (w/v) of NaCl salt addition. The method detection limits (S/N=3) of the OPPs with the new sol-gel hybrid material ranged from 4.5 to 4.8 ng g(-1), which is well below the maximum residue limit set by Codex Alimentarius Commission and European Commission. Percentage recovery of OPPs from strawberry, green apple and grape samples with the new hybrid sol-gel SPME material ranged from 65 to 125% with good precision of the method (%RSD) ranging from 0.3 to 7.4%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods
  3. Abdulra'uf LB, Chai MK, Tan GH
    J AOAC Int, 2012 11 28;95(5):1272-90.
    PMID: 23175958
    This paper reviews the application of various modes of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. SPME is a simple extraction technique that eliminates the use of solvent, and it is applied for the analysis of both volatile and nonvolatile pesticides. SPME has been successfully coupled to both GC and LC. The coupling with GC has been straightforward and requires little modification of existing equipment, but interfacing with LC has proved challenging. The external standard calibration technique is widely used for quantification, while standard addition and internal or surrogate standards are mainly used to account for matrix effects. All parameters that affect the extraction of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables, and therefore need to be optimized, are also reviewed. Details of the characteristics of analytical procedures and new trends in fiber production using sol-gel technology and molecularly imprinted polymers are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods*
  4. Badawy MEI, El-Nouby MAM, Kimani PK, Lim LW, Rabea EI
    Anal Sci, 2022 Dec;38(12):1457-1487.
    PMID: 36198988 DOI: 10.1007/s44211-022-00190-8
    Analytical processes involving sample preparation, separation, and quantifying analytes in complex mixtures are indispensable in modern-day analysis. Each step is crucial to enriching correct and informative results. Therefore, sample preparation is the critical factor that determines both the accuracy and the time consumption of a sample analysis process. Recently, several promising sample preparation approaches have been made available with environmentally friendly technologies with high performance. As a result of its many advantages, solid-phase extraction (SPE) is practiced in many different fields in addition to the traditional methods. The SPE is an alternative method to liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which eliminates several disadvantages, including many organic solvents, a lengthy operation time and numerous steps, potential sources of error, and high costs. SPE advanced sorbent technology reorients with various functions depending on the structure of extraction sorbents, including reversed-phase, normal-phase, cation exchange, anion exchange, and mixed-mode. In addition, the commercial SPE systems are disposable. Still, with the continual developments, the restricted access materials (RAM) and molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) are fabricated to be active reusable extraction cartridges. This review will discuss all the theoretical and practical principles of the SPE techniques, focusing on packing materials, different forms, and performing factors in recent and future advances. The information about novel methodological and instrumental solutions in relation to different variants of SPE techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME), and magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) is presented. The integration of SPE with analytical chromatographic techniques such as LC and GC is also indicated. Furthermore, the applications of these techniques are discussed in detail along with their advantages in analyzing pharmaceuticals, biological samples, natural compounds, pesticides, and environmental pollutants, as well as foods and beverages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods
  5. Abdulra'uf LB, Tan GH
    Food Chem, 2015 Jun 15;177:267-73.
    PMID: 25660885 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.031
    An HS-SPME method was developed using multivariate experimental designs, which was conducted in two stages. The significance of each factor was estimated using the Plackett-Burman (P-B) design, for the identification of significant factors, followed by the optimization of the significant factors using central composite design (CCD). The multivariate experiment involved the use of Minitab® statistical software for the generation of a 2(7-4) P-B design and CCD matrices. The method performance evaluated with internal standard calibration method produced good analytical figures of merit with linearity ranging from 1 to 500 μg/kg with correlation coefficient greater than 0.99, LOD and LOQ were found between 0.35 and 8.33 μg/kg and 1.15 and 27.76 μg/kg respectively. The average recovery was between 73% and 118% with relative standard deviation (RSD=1.5-14%) for all the investigated pesticides. The multivariate method helps to reduce optimization time and improve analytical throughput.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods*
  6. Khayoon WS, Saad B, Salleh B, Manaf NH, Latiff AA
    Food Chem, 2014 Mar 15;147:287-94.
    PMID: 24206720 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.049
    A single step extraction-cleanup procedure using porous membrane-protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) in conjunction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the extraction and determination of aflatoxins (AFs) B1, B2, G1 and G2 from food was successfully developed. After the extraction, AFs were desorbed from the μ-SPE device by ultrasonication using acetonitrile. The optimum extraction conditions were: sorbent material, C8; sorbent mass, 20mg; extraction time, 90 min; stirring speed, 1,000 rpm; sample volume, 10 mL; desorption solvent, acetonitrile; solvent volume, 350 μL and ultrasonication period, 25 min without salt addition. Under the optimum conditions, enrichment factor of 11, 9, 9 and 10 for AFG2, AFG1, AFB2 and AFB1, respectively were achieved. Good linearity and correlation coefficient was obtained over the concentration range of 0.4-50 ng g(-1) (r(2) 0.9988-0.9999). Good recoveries for AFs ranging from 86.0-109% were obtained. The method was applied to 40 samples involving malt beverage (19) and canned coffee (21). No AFs were detected in the selected samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods*
  7. Abdulra'uf LB, Tan GH
    Food Chem, 2013 Dec 15;141(4):4344-8.
    PMID: 23993624 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.022
    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a solvent-less sample preparation method which combines sample preparation, isolation, concentration and enrichment into one step. In this study, multivariate strategy was used to determine the significance of the factors affecting the solid phase microextraction of pesticide residues (fenobucarb, diazinon, chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos) using a randomised factorial design. The interactions and effects of temperature, time and salt addition on the efficiency of the extraction of the pesticide residues were evaluated using 2(3) factorial designs. The analytes were extracted with 100 μm PDMS fibres according to the factorial design matrix and desorbed into a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detector. The developed method was applied for the analysis of apple samples and the limits of detection were between 0.01 and 0.2 μg kg(-)(1), which were lower than the MRLs for apples. The relative standard deviations (RSD) were between 0.1% and 13.37% with average recovery of 80-105%. The linearity ranges from 0.5-50 μg kg(-)(1) with correlation coefficient greater than 0.99.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods*
  8. Loh SH, Sanagi MM, Wan Ibrahim WA, Hasan MN
    Talanta, 2013 Mar 15;106:200-5.
    PMID: 23598117 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2012.12.032
    A new microextraction procedure termed multi-walled carbon nanotube-impregnated agarose film microextraction (MWCNT-AFME) has been developed. The method utilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) immobilized in agarose film to serve as adsorbent in solid phase microextraction (SPME). The film was prepared by mixing the MWCNTs in agarose solution and drying the mixture in oven. Extraction of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was performed by inserting a needle through circular MWCNT-impregnated agarose films (5 mm diameter) and the assembly was dipped into an agitated sample solution prior to micro high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis. Back extraction was then performed using ultrasonication of the films in 100 μL of solvent. The film was discarded after single use, thus avoiding any analyte carry-over effect. Due to the mesoporous nature of the agarose film, the MWCNTs were immobilized easily within the film and thus allowing for close contact between adsorbent and analytes. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the technique achieved trace LODs in the range of 0.1 to 50 ng L(-1) for the targeted analytes, namely fluoranthene, phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of spiked green tea beverage samples with good relative recoveries in the range of 91.1 to 107.2%. The results supported the feasibility of agarose to serve as adsorbent holder in SPME which then minimizes the consumption of chemicals and disposal cost of organic wastes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods
  9. Lee TP, Saad B, Khayoon WS, Salleh B
    Talanta, 2012 Jan 15;88:129-35.
    PMID: 22265478 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2011.10.021
    A simple, environmental friendly and selective sample preparation technique employing porous membrane protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) loaded with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) is described. After the extraction, the analyte was desorbed using ultrasonication and was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of OTA for coffee, grape juice and urine were 0.06 ng g(-1), 0.02 and 0.02 ng mL(-1), respectively while the quantification limits were 0.19 ng g(-1), 0.06 and 0.08 ng mL(-1), respectively. The recoveries of OTA from coffee spiked at 1, 25 and 50 ng g(-1), grape juice and urine samples at 1, 25 and 50 ng mL(-1) ranged from 90.6 to 101.5%. The proposed method was applied to thirty-eight samples of coffee, grape juice and urine and the presence of OTA was found in eighteen samples. The levels found, however, were all below the legal limits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods*
  10. Kin CM, Huat TG
    J Chromatogr Sci, 2009 Sep;47(8):694-9.
    PMID: 19772747
    A headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) procedure is optimized for the analysis of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in food matrices, namely cucumbers and strawberries by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The parameters affecting the HS-SDME performance, such as selection of the extraction solvent, solvent drop volume, extraction time, temperature, stirring rate, and ionic strength, were studied and optimized. Extraction was achieved by exposing 1.5 microL toluene drop to the headspace of a 5 mL aqueous solution in a 15-mL vial and stirred at 800 rpm. The analytical parameters, such as linearity, correlation coefficients, precision, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), and recovery, were compared with those obtained from headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and solid-phase extraction. The mean recoveries for all three methods were all above 70% and below 104%. HS-SPME was the best method with the lowest LOD and LOQ values. Overall, the proposed HS-SDME method is acceptable in the analysis of pesticide residues in food matrices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods*
  11. Ying S, Lasekan O, Naidu KR, Lasekan S
    Molecules, 2012 Nov 22;17(12):13795-812.
    PMID: 23174897 DOI: 10.3390/molecules171213795
    Sensorial analysis of pineapple breads (conventionally baked, Cpb; fully baked frozen, Fpb and partially baked, Ppb) showed no significant differences in terms of aroma and taste. On the contrary, the scores for the overall quality between the partially baked and conventionally baked breads showed significant (p < 0.05) differences. At the same time, headspace analysis using a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method identified 59 volatile compounds. The results of the aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed 19 most odour-active compounds with FD factors in the range of 32-128 as the key odourants of the pineapple breads. Further analysis of the similarities and differences between the pineapple breads in terms of the key odourants were carried out by the application of PLS-DA and PLS-regression coefficients. Results showed that Ppb exhibited strong positive correlations with most of the volatile- and non-volatile compounds, while the Cpb showed significant positive correlations with hexanal and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and the Fpb had strong positive correlations with lactic acid, benzoic acid, benzaldehyde and ethyl propanoate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods*
  12. Ng NT, Sanagi MM, Wan Ibrahim WN, Wan Ibrahim WA
    Food Chem, 2017 May 01;222:28-34.
    PMID: 28041555 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.11.147
    Agarose-chitosan-immobilized octadecylsilyl-silica (C18) film micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) was developed and applied for the determination of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) in chrysanthemum tea samples using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The film of blended agarose and chitosan allows good dispersion of C18, prevents the leaching of C18 during application and enhances the film mechanical stability. Important μSPE parameters were optimized including amount of sorbent loading, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time. The matrix match calibration curves showed good linearity (r⩾0.994) over a concentration range of 1-500ppb. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed good limits of detection (0.549-0.673ppb), good analyte recoveries (100.8-105.99%) and good reproducibilities (RSDs⩽13.53%, n=3) with preconcentration factors of 4 and 72 for PHE and PYR, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods*
  13. Lasekan O, Khatib A, Juhari H, Patiram P, Lasekan S
    Food Chem, 2013 Dec 1;141(3):2089-97.
    PMID: 23870932 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.05.081
    The volatile compounds in four selected African star apple fruit (Chrysophyllum albidum) varieties were isolated and identified using the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 59 compounds were identified. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to the aroma distillates from the fruits revealed 45 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-128. Among them, the highest odour activities (FD factors) were determined for methylhexanoate, acetophenone and ethyl dodecanoate. Moreover, aroma lipophilicity appears to reflect molecular conformation. Further analysis of the similarities and differences between the fruit varieties in terms of the key odourants by the application of PLS-DA and PLS-regression coefficient showed strong positive correlation between the very sweet/sweet varieties and 10 key odourants. The odourants included ethyl acetate, acetyl methyl carbinol, methylhexanoate, sabinene, p-cymene, methylbenzoate, ethylbenzoate, geraniol, cis-α-bergomotene, acetophenone, and ethyl dodecanoate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods*
  14. Boon YH, Mohamad Zain NN, Mohamad S, Osman H, Raoov M
    Food Chem, 2019 Apr 25;278:322-332.
    PMID: 30583379 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.10.145
    Poly(β-cyclodextrin functionalized ionic liquid) immobilized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@βCD-Vinyl-TDI) as sorbent in magnetic µ-SPE was developed for the determination of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rice samples coupled with gas chromatographic-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The nanocomposite was characterized by various tools and significant parameters that affected the extraction efficiency of PAHs were investigated. The calibration curves were linear for the concentration ranging between 0.1 and 500 μg kg-1 with correlation determinations (R2) from 0.9970 to 0.9982 for all analytes. Detection limits ranged at 0.01-0.18 μg kg-1 in real matrix. The RSD values ranged at 2.95%-5.34% (intra-day) and 4.37%-7.05% (inter-day) precision for six varied days. The sorbents showed satisfactory reproducibility in 2.9% to 9.9% range and acceptable recovery values at 80.4%-112.4% were obtained for the real sample analysis. The optimized method was successfully applied to access content safety of selected PAHs for 24 kinds of commercial rice available in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods*
  15. Ghaemi F, Amiri A
    J Chromatogr A, 2020 Aug 30;1626:461386.
    PMID: 32797858 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2020.461386
    In this study, the microcrystalline cellulose/metal-organic framework 199 hybrid (MCC/MOF-199) was applied as sorbent for the dispersive micro-solid phase-extraction (D-μSPE) of chlorophenols. The D-μSPE method combined with high-performance liquid chromatography- ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was employed to determine of four chlorophenols including 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,3-dichlorophenol (2,3-DCP), and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) in aqueous. The main parameters of the D-μSPE process that influence the extraction (i.e. the amount of sorbent, elution condition, extraction time, and pH) were investigated and optimized. Based on the outputs, the presence of MCC on the surface of MOF-199 leads to improve the properties of MOF-199 and the MCC/MOF-199 has the highest sorption capacity, durability, and porosity in comparison with MCC and MOF-199. According to the validation study at the optimized conditions, the linearity for the analytes was achieved in the range from 0.1 to 200 ng mL-1 for 2-CP and 4-CP and 0.15 to 200 ng mL-1 for 2,3-DCP and 2,5-DCP with correlation coefficients between 0.9928 and 0.9965. The limits of detection calculated at S/N=3 were in the range of 0.03-0.05 ng mL-1. Besides, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for three spiking levels (0.2, 10,100 ng mL-1) do not exceed 6.8% and extraction recoveries are between 81.0% and 88.3%. Finally, the D-μSPE-HPLC-UV method was successfully applied to the analysis of CPs in real water samples (mineral, river and wastewater samples) with good recoveries (95.8 to 99.5%) and satisfactory precisions (RSD < 6.8%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods*
  16. Yahaya N, Sanagi MM, Abd Aziz N, Wan Ibrahim WA, Nur H, Loh SH, et al.
    Biomed Chromatogr, 2017 Feb;31(2).
    PMID: 27474795 DOI: 10.1002/bmc.3803
    A rapid dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) combined with LC/MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of ketoconazole and voriconazole in human urine and plasma samples. Synthesized mesoporous silica MCM-41 was used as sorbent in d-μ-SPE of the azole compounds from biological fluids. Important D-μ-SPE parameters, namely type desorption solvent, extraction time, sample pH, salt addition, desorption time, amount of sorbent and sample volume were optimized. Liquid chromatographic separations were carried out on a Zorbax SB-C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 3.5 μm), using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.05% formic acid in 5 mm ammonium acetate buffer (70:30, v/v). A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive ionization mode was used for the determination of target analytes. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.1-10,000 μg/L with satisfactory limit of detection (≤0.06 μg/L) and limit of quantitation (≤0.3 μg/L). The proposed method also showed acceptable intra- and inter-day precisions for ketoconazole and voriconazole from urine and human plasma with RSD ≤16.5% and good relative recoveries in the range 84.3-114.8%. The MCM-41-D-μ-SPE method proved to be rapid and simple and requires a small volume of organic solvent (200 μL); thus it is advantageous for routine drug analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Solid Phase Microextraction/methods*
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