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  1. Foo, Sze-yeng, Raja Maznah Raja Hussain
    MyJurnal
    To help adults learners stay competitive in the changing work environments of the 21st century, the teaching and learning of adult learners ought to transition from the traditional didactic school of education to embrace self-directed and social forms of learning. This study proposes a conceptual framework of a mediated activity system in developing the e-socioconstructivist learning environment (eSCLE); which is a learner-centred environment incorporating the design of a physical and virtual learning space conducive for constructing knowledge and building upon existing knowledge in collaboration with others. The design of the eSCLE is a preliminary research attempt to develop instructional learning environments that reflect the unstructured seamless nature of lifelong self-directed learning. It was conducted among a cohort of Master of Instructional Technology (MIT) students enrolled in the Instructional Design and Development (IDD) Course in a local Higher Institution of Learning. Findings from survey questionnaires, content analysis, observation and interview reveal systemic tensions faced by learners in self-directing their learning in the eSCLE where it is suggested that appropriate balance and discretion in managing conflicting situations is needed. The integration of web-based technology is found to be able to scaffold self-directed learning as collaborative mediating tools where functional roles of both instructor and learner-determined web tools enable self-directed actions. Finally, the designed eSCLE is able to facilitate the development of self-directed learning as learners transition through various self-directed learning phases in a steep learning curve, towards continuous lifelong learning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Spatial Learning
  2. Zakaria NS, Saripan MI, Subarimaniam N, Ismail A
    JMIR Serious Games, 2020 Aug 10;8(3):e18247.
    PMID: 32663153 DOI: 10.2196/18247
    BACKGROUND: Gamification has remarkable potential in the learning space. The process of creating a gamified system and its influence on human behavior reflect the interaction between educators and machines.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to present Ethoshunt as a gamification-based mobile app that can be used in teaching and learning ethics.

    METHODS: This study involved a mixed-methods research design. The researchers surveyed 39 undergraduate students who were introduced to Ethoshunt in order to examine the relationships between mobile app usability and positive emotions, ethical competency, and user experience. Affinity diagramming was used as a tool to organize the opinions and experiences of participants using featured gamification elements.

    RESULTS: Game dynamics and game mechanics explained the functionality of Ethoshunt. In addition, the learning flow through Ethoshunt was discussed. Overall, the findings were positive, and mobile app usability had the strongest relationship with positive emotions (r=0.744, P

    Matched MeSH terms: Spatial Learning
  3. Yusoff NHM, Mansor SM, Müller CP, Hassan Z
    Behav. Brain Res., 2018 06 01;345:65-71.
    PMID: 29499286 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2018.02.039
    Mitragynine is the major alkaloid found in the leaves of M. speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), a plant that is native to Southeast Asia. This compound has been used, either traditionally or recreationally, due to its psychostimulant and opioid-like effects. Recently, mitragynine has been shown to exert conditioned place preference (CPP), indicating the rewarding and motivational properties of M. speciosa. Here, the involvement of GABAB receptors in mediating mitragynine reward is studied using a CPP paradigm in rats. First, we examined the effects of GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg) on the acquisition of mitragynine (10 mg/kg)-induced CPP. Second, the involvement of GABAB receptors in the expression of mitragynine-induced CPP was tested. We found that the acquisition of mitragynine-induced CPP could be blocked by higher doses (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) of baclofen. Baclofen at a high dose inhibited locomotor activity and caused a CPP. Furthermore, we found that baclofen (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) also blocked the expression of mitragynine-induced CPP. These findings suggest that both, the acquisition and expression of mitragynine's reinforcing properties is controlled by the GABAB receptor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Spatial Learning/drug effects*; Spatial Learning/physiology
  4. Zain MA, Pandy V, Majeed ABA, Wong WF, Mohamed Z
    Exp. Anim., 2019 Feb 26;68(1):113-124.
    PMID: 30393276 DOI: 10.1538/expanim.18-0078
    Chronic stress has been associated with impairment of memory, learning, and social cognition. In animal studies, chronic stress has been shown to impair rodent sociability behaviour which mimics social withdrawal as observed in depression patients. The effect of chronic stress on social recognition, however, is uncertain. Moreover, with reference to spatial learning and memory, the effect of chronic stress is dependent on the type of behavioural task: an appetitively or aversively motivated tasks. The effect of chronic stress was consistent in impairing spatial learning and memory in the appetitive task; however, the effect was inconsistent in an aversive task like the Morris water maze. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of chronic restraint stress on sociability and social recognition by using a modified protocol of the three-chamber paradigm and the effect of chronic restraint stress on spatial learning and memory by using the Morris water maze test in young adult C57BL/6J male mice. The present report also describes a modified protocol of the three-chamber paradigm. Our modification is based on measurement of sniffing behaviour, which is a direct social interaction that represents sociability. We used the chronic restraint stress paradigm for 6 h/day for 21 days to induce depression-like symptoms in male C57BL/6J mice which were validated by forced-swim test. We observed that the stressed group had impairments in their sociability behaviour but that social recognition was not affected. Furthermore, we confirmed that chronic stress produced no significant impairment in spatial learning and memory of the mice in the water maze.
    Matched MeSH terms: Spatial Learning
  5. Jawed S, Amin HU, Malik AS, Faye I
    PMID: 31133829 DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00086
    This study analyzes the learning styles of subjects based on their electroencephalo-graphy (EEG) signals. The goal is to identify how the EEG features of a visual learner differ from those of a non-visual learner. The idea is to measure the students' EEGs during the resting states (eyes open and eyes closed conditions) and when performing learning tasks. For this purpose, 34 healthy subjects are recruited. The subjects have no background knowledge of the animated learning content. The subjects are shown the animated learning content in a video format. The experiment consists of two sessions and each session comprises two parts: (1) Learning task: the subjects are shown the animated learning content for an 8-10 min duration. (2) Memory retrieval task The EEG signals are measured during the leaning task and memory retrieval task in two sessions. The retention time for the first session was 30 min, and 2 months for the second session. The analysis is performed for the EEG measured during the memory retrieval tasks. The study characterizes and differentiates the visual learners from the non-visual learners considering the extracted EEG features, such as the power spectral density (PSD), power spectral entropy (PSE), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The PSD and DWT features are analyzed. The EEG PSD and DWT features are computed for the recorded EEG in the alpha and gamma frequency bands over 128 scalp sites. The alpha and gamma frequency band for frontal, occipital, and parietal regions are analyzed as these regions are activated during learning. The extracted PSD and DWT features are then reduced to 8 and 15 optimum features using principal component analysis (PCA). The optimum features are then used as an input to the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier using the Mahalanobis distance metric, with 10-fold cross validation and support vector machine (SVM) classifier using linear kernel, with 10-fold cross validation. The classification results showed 97% and 94% accuracies rate for the first session and 96% and 93% accuracies for the second session in the alpha and gamma bands for the visual learners and non-visual learners, respectively, for k-NN classifier for PSD features and 68% and 100% accuracies rate for first session and 100% accuracies rate for second session for DWT features using k-NN classifier for the second session in the alpha and gamma band. For PSD features 97% and 96% accuracies rate for the first session, 100% and 95% accuracies rate for second session using SVM classifier and 79% and 82% accuracy for first session and 56% and 74% accuracy for second session for DWT features using SVM classifier. The results showed that the PSDs in the alpha and gamma bands represent distinct and stable EEG signatures for visual learners and non-visual learners during the retrieval of the learned contents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Spatial Learning
  6. Hassan Z, Suhaimi FW, Ramanathan S, Ling KH, Effendy MA, Müller CP, et al.
    J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford), 2019 07;33(7):908-918.
    PMID: 31081443 DOI: 10.1177/0269881119844186
    BACKGROUND: Mitragynine is the major alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) or Kratom, a psychoactive plant widely abused in Southeast Asia. While addictive effects of the substance are emerging, adverse cognitive effects of this drug and neuropharmacological actions are insufficiently understood.

    AIMS: In the present study, we investigated the effects of mitragynine on spatial learning and synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of the hippocampus.

    METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats received daily (for 12 days) training sessions in the Morris water maze, with each session followed by treatment either with mitragynine (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg; intraperitoneally), morphine (5 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) or a vehicle. In the second experiment, we recorded field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the hippocampal CA1 area in anesthetized rats and assessed the effects of mitragynine on baseline synaptic transmission, paired-pulse facilitation, and long-term potentiation. Gene expression of major memory- and addiction-related genes was investigated and the effects of mitragynine on Ca2+ influx was also examined in cultured primary neurons from E16-E18 rats.

    RESULTS/OUTCOMES: Escape latency results indicate that animals treated with mitragynine displayed a slower rate of acquisition as compared to their control counterparts. Further, mitragynine treatment significantly reduced the amplitude of baseline (i.e. non-potentiated) field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and resulted in a minor suppression of long-term potentiation in CA1. Bdnf and αCaMKII mRNA expressions in the brain were not affected and Ca2+ influx elicited by glutamate application was inhibited in neurons pre-treated with mitragynine.

    CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These data suggest that high doses of mitragynine (5 and 10 mg/kg) cause memory deficits, possibly via inhibition of Ca2+ influx and disruption of hippocampal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation induction.

    Matched MeSH terms: Spatial Learning/drug effects*
  7. Zain MA, Rouhollahi E, Pandy V, Mani V, Majeed ABA, Wong WF, et al.
    Exp. Anim., 2018 Nov 01;67(4):421-429.
    PMID: 29731492 DOI: 10.1538/expanim.18-0006
    Phencyclidine (PCP) has been used to model cognitive deficits related to schizophrenia in rats and mice. However, the model in mice is not consistent in terms of the PCP effective dose reported. Furthermore, most of the previous studies in mice excluded the presence of drug washout period in the regime. Thus, we aimed to optimize the dose of PCP in producing robust cognitive deficits by implementing it in a PCP regime which incorporates a drug washout period. The regimen used was 7 days' daily injection of PCP or saline for treatment and vehicle groups, respectively; followed by 24 h drug washout period. After the washout period, the test mice were tested in water maze (5 days of acquisition + 1 day of probe trial) for assessment of spatial learning and memory. Initially, we investigated the effect of PCP at 2mg/kg, however, no apparent impairment in spatial learning and memory was observed. Subsequently, we examined the effect of higher doses of PCP at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg. We found that the PCP at 10 mg/kg produced a significant increase in "latency to reach the platform" during the acquisition days and a significant increase in "latency of first entry to previous platform" during the probe day. There was no significant change observed in "swim speed" during the test days. Thus, we concluded that PCP at 10 mg/kg produced robust deficits in spatial learning and memory without being confounded by motor disturbances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Spatial Learning/drug effects*
  8. Mani MS, Joshi MB, Shetty RR, DSouza VL, Swathi M, Kabekkodu SP, et al.
    Toxicol. Lett., 2020 Sep 16.
    PMID: 32949623 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.09.010
    Lead is a toxin of great public health concern affecting the young and aging population. Several factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, dose, and genetic makeup result in interindividual variations to lead toxicity mainly due to variations in metabolic consequences. Hence, the present study aimed to examine dose-dependent lead-induced systemic changes in metabolism using rat model by administering specific doses of lead such as 10 (low lead; L-Pb), 50 (moderate lead; M-Pb), and 100 mg/kg (high lead; H-Pb) body weight for a period of one month. Biochemical and haematological analysis revealed that H-Pb was associated with low body weight and feed efficiency, low total protein levels (p ≤ 0.05), high blood lead (Pb-B) levels (p ≤  0.001), low ALAD (δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase) activity (p ≤  0.0001), high creatinine (p ≤ 0.0001) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (p ≤  0.01) levels, elevated RBC and WBC counts, reduced haemoglobin and blood cell indices compared to control. Spatial learning and memory test revealed that H-Pb exposed animals presented high latency to the target quadrant and escape platform compared to other groups indicating H-Pb alters cognition function in rats. Histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney as they are the main target organs of lead toxicity. LC-MS analysis further revealed that Butyryl-L-carnitine (p ≤  0.01) and Ganglioside GD2 (d18:0/20:0) (p ≤  0.05) levels were significantly reduced in H-Pb group compared to all groups. Further, pathway enrichment analysis revealed abundance and significantly modulated metabolites associated with oxidative stress pathways. The present study is the first in vivo model of dose-dependent lead exposure for serum metabolite profiling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Spatial Learning
  9. Tiang N, Ahad MA, Murugaiyah V, Hassan Z
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2020 Aug 02.
    PMID: 32743849 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.13345
    OBJECTIVES: Xanthones isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana has been reported to exhibit neuroprotective effect.

    METHODS: In this study, the effect of xanthone-enriched fraction of Garcinia mangostana (XEFGM) and α-mangostin (α-MG) were investigated on cognitive functions of the chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) rats.

    KEY FINDINGS: HPLC analysis revealed that XEFGM contained 55.84% of α-MG. Acute oral administration of XEFGM (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and α-MG (25 and 50 mg/kg) before locomotor activity and Morris water maze (MWM) tests showed no significant difference between the groups for locomotor activity.

    CONCLUSIONS: However, α-MG (50 mg/kg) and XEFGM (100 mg/kg) reversed the cognitive impairment induced by CCH in MWM test. α-MG (50 mg/kg) was further tested upon sub-acute 14-day treatment in CCH rats. Cognitive improvement was shown in MWM test but not in long-term potentiation (LTP). BDNF but not CaMKII was found to be down-regulated in CCH rats; however, both parameters were not affected by α-MG. In conclusion, α-MG ameliorated learning and memory deficits in both acute and sub-acute treatments in CCH rats by improving the spatial learning but not hippocampal LTP. Hence, α-MG may be a promising lead compound for CCH-associated neurodegenerative diseases, including vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Spatial Learning
  10. Jayasingh Chellammal HS, Veerachamy A, Ramachandran D, Gummadi SB, Manan MM, Yellu NR
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Jan;109:1454-1461.
    PMID: 30551397 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.189
    The progressive accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide is neurotoxic and leads to Alzheimer's type dementia. Accumulation of Aβ has been associated with dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the effect of 1`δ-1`-acetoxyeugenol acetate (DAEA), isolated from Alpinia galanga (L.), on Aβ(25-35) induced neurodegeneration in mice. Mice were treated with three different doses of DAEA (12.5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) for 28 days. Aβ(25-35) was injected by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection on the 15th day of 28 days. Open field, water maze and step-down inhibitory tests were performed on the 27th day to determine the habituation memory, spatial learning, and short- and long-term memory, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Corticosterone, biogenic amines (serotonin and dopamine), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and vitamin C were evaluated in brain homogenates after behavioural tests to ascertain the cognitive improvement through neuro-immune-endocrine modulation. The DAEA treatment with 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg resulted in significant (p < 0.001) improvement of habituation memory and step-down inhibitory avoidance task. In spatial learning, the cognitive improvement was significantly improved (p < 0.001) by reduction in escape latency. In the biochemical study, the significant (p < 0.001) reduction of AChE indicates the preeminent neuroprotection. Corticosterone and TNF-α were significantly (p < 0.01) reduced and biogenic amines were increased with antioxidant markers, which signify the potential influence of DAEA on neuroprotection. Our investigation revealed that the drug DAEA attenuates stress mediated through the HPA axis and regulates the neuroendocrine and neuroimmune function to improve the cognition. DAEA could be a potential lead candidate for the treatment of neurodegeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Spatial Learning/drug effects
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