Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a potential source for disease-specific biomarkers that may assist in the staging and determining the prognosis of neurodegenerative conditions in animals. However, the validity of such putative biomarkers may be influenced by pre-analytical variables, including the procedures adopted to collect and store the CSF. This study assessed the effect of three handling practices on the stability of a panel of CSF proteins: clusterin (also known as apolipoprotein J), haptoglobin, cystatin C, and transthyretin (TTR). The three handling procedures for canine CSF were mimicked in the laboratory as follows: (1) storage in a refrigerator overnight (4 °C for 18 h); (2) carrying a sample in the pocket of a clinician (37 °C for 4h); and (3) mailing a sample to a remote laboratory for analysis (room temp for 48 h). The impact of these three scenarios on the concentrations of the selected proteins was assessed using Western blotting and compared to an aliquot of CSF that had been kept frozen. The level of clusterin was significantly reduced following 48 h at room temperature (P<0.05), while the concentration of the dimeric form of TTR increased following this handling procedure and also when held at 37 °C for 4h. A reducing agent prevented this increase at 37 °C. In conclusion, exposing CSF samples to various environmental conditions can significantly alter their protein content, a factor that must be considered in studies assessing potential biomarkers in canine CSF.
A total of 101 entomological specimens recovered from human cadavers were processed and studied. Analysis of the data indicated that about 95% of these specimens were maggots of flies. Maggots of the blowfly Chrysomya (Family: Calliphoridae) especially Ch. rufifacis and Ch. megacephala were predominantly found in 77 cases (76.2%) while larvae of several other flies of the genera Sarcophaga, Calliphora, Lucilia and hermetia were also recovered. It was notable that Musca domestica or other related flies were not found in all these specimens. The age of these larvae was useful in the determination of the minimum time lapsed after death. However, more biological studies on animal carcases should be conducted for more accurate determinations. Methods of collection, preservation and despatching of specimens were also discussed.
Genital discharge from patients unth. smear positive gonorrhoea was transported from the clinic to the laboratory in. Stuart's transport medium (Oxoid CM 111). Within. six hours of transit time the recovery rate of gonococci was 94%. When compared with "bedside" inoculation onto Modified Thayer Martin medium, there was no significant difference in recovery rates up to 6 hours of transportation in Stuart's transport medium, However, the rate of isolation of gonococci was significantly reduced after 20 to 30 hours of transportation. It is concluded that Stuart's transport medium is an acceptable transport medium for specimens containing gonococci when specimens reach the laboratory within 6 hours of collection.
Saliva collection is non-invasive and less stressful when compared with blood collection. Extensive studies on saliva has been carried out and the use of saliva as a biological sample in clinical diagnosis and for monitoring hormones, drugs and pollutants and viruses has been recommended. The complexities associated with saliva such as proper collection device and strict standardisation of a number of factors which include time of collection, types of saliva and storage made it less favourable to blood.
This paper assessed the effect of time overruns on apartment building among
Kuantan Malaysian construction industries. A survey was conducted among 10
construction industries in Kuantan Pahang. Using proportionate stratified random
sampling, out of which 10 questionnaires were distributed for data analysis. Using
five point Likert scale categories from previous studies, statistical analysis affirmed a
significant positive relationship between time overruns and apartment building
among Kuantan Malaysian construction industries.
Lightning is among the most deadly natural phenomena to mankind. This phenomenon
is seen to increase globally as well as in Malaysia. Lightning does strike open areas
such as playing fields and playgrounds and these areas are places people gather.
Sensors that can detect the early occurrence of lightning have been developed for
detecting approaching lightning activity in this project. The main objective is to provide
early lightning warning system to the public and hence to reduce the number of
fatalities due to lightning strike. The warning circuit was designed and simulated using
Multism11. Basic operational method of the circuit is based on the comparative
voltage method using LM339N integrated circuit comparator (IC). Light Emitting Diodes
(LEDs) were used as indicators to indicate if the incoming voltage level is higher or
lower than that of the safety level.
A study was conducted at five selected rivers around Bukit Merah Reservoir,
Perak, Malaysia for eight weeks in order to determine the fish diversity and distribution. A
total of 28 species comprised of 9 families were identified. The study depicted that there
were significant changes to the fish composition when compared to previous study which
had captured 36 species due to different areas covered and different types of sampling
gear used between both studies.
We report the formation of macropores in n-Si (100) substrates for different etching times of 20, 40 and 60 min at a constant current density of 25 mA/cm2 under front-side illumination in HF:ethanol (1:4) solution. After etching for 20 min, four-branch-shaped pores of various sizes were observed at discrete locations. Etching time of 40 min led to the formation of highly connected four-branch-shaped pores as the branches of adjacent pores appeared to connect to each other. As the etching time was increased further to 60 min, the density of interconnected branches increased remarkably. The macropore formation process occurred in three consecutive phases. The current burst model was used to discuss this process. Formation of four-branch-shaped pores at random locations were observed because current bursts are more likely to nucleate where other current bursts took place initially.
A total of 230 individuals of Strombus were sampled at various locations along the Johor Straits, Malaysia. There were four species of Strombus present in the study areas i.e. Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758; Strombus urceus Linnaeus, 1758; Strombus marginatus subspecies succinctus Linnaeus, 1767; Strombus marginatus subspecies robustus Sowerby, 1874; and Strombus vittatus subspecies vittatus Linnaeus, 1758. Strombus canarium was the most common, widely distributed and most abundant, followed by S. urceus, while the others were only rarely found. Among the species Strombus marginatus and Strombus vittatus were two new distribution records for the Johor Straits. Since all Strombus were traditionally harvested and consumed by the locals since long ago, further studies are needed particularly regarding the population dynamics and fishery of the harvested species.
The concentration of homocysteine (Hcy) rises rapidly after the collection of blood. This feature requires blood to be collected into the anticoagulants EDTA or heparin and the plasma to then be immediately separated; alternatively, the blood may be kept on ice and centrifuged within 1 hour. The use of chemical preservatives has been proposed as a means of stabilising Hcy levels in whole blood after collection. The objective of this study was to determine whether the commonly available fluoride-oxalate (Fl-Ox) and sodium citrate (Na-Cit) containers could stabilise Hcy levels in blood. Our results showed that when blood was collected into potassium EDTA (K-EDTA) tubes, Hcy levels rose from initial levels, on standing at room temperature (approximately 25 degrees C), by an average of 21% after 3 hours and 32% after 5 hours. The initial Hcy levels of blood collected into Fl-Ox and Na-Cit containers, however, were lower, at averages of 89% and 91%, respectively, compared to that of the same samples when collected into K-EDTA tubes. Hcy in these samples subsequently rose on standing, and after 5 hours was, on the average, 10 and 13% higher, respectively, compared with the initial levels in K-EDTA tubes. We conclude that Fl-Ox and Na-Cit do not stabilise Hcy in blood after collection and should not be used as preservatives.
During the outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis involving pigs and humans in peninsular Malaysia in 1998/1999, a conventional approach was initially undertaken to collect specimens from fruit bats by mist-netting and shooting, as an integral part of wildlife surveillance of the natural reservoir host of Nipah virus. This study describes a novel method of collecting fruit bats' urine samples using plastic sheets for isolation of Nipah virus. This novel approach resulted in the isolation of several other known and unidentified infectious agents besides Nipah virus.
144 placentas were sampled from all cases of stillbirth weighing 500 g and above seen over a period of thirteen months in the UKM Unit of the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Sampling was limited to 1-3 blocks per placenta for histological study. Placental abnormalities were found in 121 (85%) placentas, 78 of which had definite lesions known to contribute to foetal death while the remainder showed lesions suggestive of an underlying disease. This study supports the usefulness of limited sampling of the placenta in the face of unavailability of complete placental examination and autopsy for assessment of the cause of stillbirth.
A one year study was carried out to determine the outcome of the seminal fluid parameters collected via masturbation and coitus interruptus in 151 patients who were undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and patients who came for seminal analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of volume, concentration, progressive motility and normal morphology from specimens collected via coitus interruptus compared to specimens collected via masturbation. Pregnancy outcomes were also comparable.
Even though EDXRF analysis has major advantages in the analysis of stainless steel samples such as simultaneous determination of the minor elements, analysis can be done without sample preparation and non-destructive analysis, the matrix issue arised from the inter element interaction can make the the final quantitative result to be in accurate. The paper relates a comparative quantitative analysis using standard and standardless methods in the determination of these elements. Standard method was done by plotting regression calibration graphs of the interested elements using BCS certified stainless steel standards. Different calibration plots were developed based on the available certified standards and these stainless steel grades include low alloy steel, austentic, ferritic and high speed. The standardless method on the other hand uses a mathematical modelling with matrix effect correction derived from Lucas-Tooth and Price model. Further
improvement on the accuracy of the standardless method was done by inclusion of pure elements into the development of the model. Discrepancy tests were then carried out for these quantitative methods on different certified samples and the results show that the high speed method is most reliable for determining of Ni and the standardless method for Mn.
A study on the prevalence of a common endoparasite in the wild population of the American cockroach was conducted in Penang Island using a trapping method at several sampling sites on the island. Gregarine blattarum was found in the digestive tract in 5 out of 115, or 4.35%, of the wild American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, that were sampled. This is the first report in Malaysia of Gregarine blattarum in local American cockroaches.
This study provides the first marine gastropod checklist from the Sarawak Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Gastropod samples were collected from selected stations in the Sarawak EEZ using an otter trawl net with a stretched mesh size of 38 mm at the cod end. The trawling operations were conducted more than 12 nautical miles from the coast, and the area was divided into three depth strata: I) 20-50 m, II) 50-100 m and III) 100-200 m. A total of 23 gastropod species were identified during the two-month sampling period from 16 August until 6 October 2015, representing 8 superfamilies, 15 families and 20 genera. Superfamily Tonnoidea was represented by 7 species, followed by Muricoidea (5 species), Cypraeoidea (4 species), and Buccinoidea and Conoidea (both with 2 species). Other superfamilies were represented by a single species. Only 3 species were obtained in 2 depth strata, namely Melo melo, Murex aduncospinosus and Tonna galea. In addition, 9, 13 and 4 species of gastropods were found in strata I, II and III, respectively. The information on gastropod distributions at different depth strata in the Sarawak EEZ could be useful in updating the Malaysian species diversity database.
Natural radionuclides, such as (210)Po and (210)Pb were measured in the water samples collected from six stations at Kuala Selangor, Malaysia. Results for (210)Po and (210)Pb in dissolved and particulate phases have showed the difference in distribution and chemical behavior. The fluctuation activities of (210)Po and (210)Pb depend on wave action, geology and degree of fresh water input occurring at study areas and probably due to different sampling dates. The distribution coefficient, K(d), values of (210)Po and (210)Pb ranged from 2.0 x 10(3)lg(-1) to 265.15 x 10(5)lg(-1), and from 3.0 x 10(3)lg(-1) to 558.16 x 10(5)lg(-1), respectively. High K(d) values of (210)Po and (210)Pb indicated that a strong adsorption of (210)Po and (210)Pb onto suspended particles, and the sinking of both nuclides on the seabed at study locations were controlled by the characteristics of suspended particles.