Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

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  1. Goossens B, Abdullah ZB, Sinyor JB, Ancrenaz M
    Folia Primatol., 2004 Jan-Feb;75(1):23-6.
    PMID: 14716150
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  2. Shafie IN, Anderson TJ, Penderis J, Eckersall PD, McLaughlin M
    Vet. J., 2013 Sep;197(3):836-41.
    PMID: 23820135 DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.05.039
    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a potential source for disease-specific biomarkers that may assist in the staging and determining the prognosis of neurodegenerative conditions in animals. However, the validity of such putative biomarkers may be influenced by pre-analytical variables, including the procedures adopted to collect and store the CSF. This study assessed the effect of three handling practices on the stability of a panel of CSF proteins: clusterin (also known as apolipoprotein J), haptoglobin, cystatin C, and transthyretin (TTR). The three handling procedures for canine CSF were mimicked in the laboratory as follows: (1) storage in a refrigerator overnight (4 °C for 18 h); (2) carrying a sample in the pocket of a clinician (37 °C for 4h); and (3) mailing a sample to a remote laboratory for analysis (room temp for 48 h). The impact of these three scenarios on the concentrations of the selected proteins was assessed using Western blotting and compared to an aliquot of CSF that had been kept frozen. The level of clusterin was significantly reduced following 48 h at room temperature (P<0.05), while the concentration of the dimeric form of TTR increased following this handling procedure and also when held at 37 °C for 4h. A reducing agent prevented this increase at 37 °C. In conclusion, exposing CSF samples to various environmental conditions can significantly alter their protein content, a factor that must be considered in studies assessing potential biomarkers in canine CSF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  3. Bahyah MK, Murad ZA, Ghazali I, Roszaman R, Noraziana AW, Mokhtar A, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Mar;65(1):23-6.
    PMID: 21265243 MyJurnal
    A one year study was carried out to determine the outcome of the seminal fluid parameters collected via masturbation and coitus interruptus in 151 patients who were undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and patients who came for seminal analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of volume, concentration, progressive motility and normal morphology from specimens collected via coitus interruptus compared to specimens collected via masturbation. Pregnancy outcomes were also comparable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  4. Chua KB
    Microbes Infect., 2003 May;5(6):487-90.
    PMID: 12758277
    During the outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis involving pigs and humans in peninsular Malaysia in 1998/1999, a conventional approach was initially undertaken to collect specimens from fruit bats by mist-netting and shooting, as an integral part of wildlife surveillance of the natural reservoir host of Nipah virus. This study describes a novel method of collecting fruit bats' urine samples using plastic sheets for isolation of Nipah virus. This novel approach resulted in the isolation of several other known and unidentified infectious agents besides Nipah virus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  5. Hayati AR, Khong TY, Zainul R
    Malays J Pathol, 1998 Dec;20(2):99-102.
    PMID: 10879270
    144 placentas were sampled from all cases of stillbirth weighing 500 g and above seen over a period of thirteen months in the UKM Unit of the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Sampling was limited to 1-3 blocks per placenta for histological study. Placental abnormalities were found in 121 (85%) placentas, 78 of which had definite lesions known to contribute to foetal death while the remainder showed lesions suggestive of an underlying disease. This study supports the usefulness of limited sampling of the placenta in the face of unavailability of complete placental examination and autopsy for assessment of the cause of stillbirth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  6. Asplund M, Kjartansdóttir KR, Mollerup S, Vinner L, Fridholm H, Herrera JAR, et al.
    Clin Microbiol Infect, 2019 Oct;25(10):1277-1285.
    PMID: 31059795 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.04.028
    OBJECTIVES: Sample preparation for high-throughput sequencing (HTS) includes treatment with various laboratory components, potentially carrying viral nucleic acids, the extent of which has not been thoroughly investigated. Our aim was to systematically examine a diverse repertoire of laboratory components used to prepare samples for HTS in order to identify contaminating viral sequences.

    METHODS: A total of 322 samples of mainly human origin were analysed using eight protocols, applying a wide variety of laboratory components. Several samples (60% of human specimens) were processed using different protocols. In total, 712 sequencing libraries were investigated for viral sequence contamination.

    RESULTS: Among sequences showing similarity to viruses, 493 were significantly associated with the use of laboratory components. Each of these viral sequences had sporadic appearance, only being identified in a subset of the samples treated with the linked laboratory component, and some were not identified in the non-template control samples. Remarkably, more than 65% of all viral sequences identified were within viral clusters linked to the use of laboratory components.

    CONCLUSIONS: We show that high prevalence of contaminating viral sequences can be expected in HTS-based virome data and provide an extensive list of novel contaminating viral sequences that can be used for evaluation of viral findings in future virome and metagenome studies. Moreover, we show that detection can be problematic due to stochastic appearance and limited non-template controls. Although the exact origin of these viral sequences requires further research, our results support laboratory-component-linked viral sequence contamination of both biological and synthetic origin.

    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  7. Jusman Y, Ng SC, Abu Osman NA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:289817.
    PMID: 25610902 DOI: 10.1155/2014/289817
    This paper investigated the effects of critical-point drying (CPD) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) sample preparation techniques for cervical cells on field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (FE-SEM/EDX). We investigated the visualization of cervical cell image and elemental distribution on the cervical cell for two techniques of sample preparation. Using FE-SEM/EDX, the cervical cell images are captured and the cell element compositions are extracted for both sample preparation techniques. Cervical cell image quality, elemental composition, and processing time are considered for comparison of performances. Qualitatively, FE-SEM image based on HMDS preparation technique has better image quality than CPD technique in terms of degree of spread cell on the specimen and morphologic signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of plate and pellet drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Quantitatively, with mapping and line scanning EDX analysis, carbon and oxygen element compositions in HMDS technique were higher than the CPD technique in terms of weight percentages. The HMDS technique has shorter processing time than the CPD technique. The results indicate that FE-SEM imaging, elemental composition, and processing time for sample preparation with the HMDS technique were better than CPD technique for cervical cell preparation technique for developing computer-aided screening system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  8. Salleh FM, Moktar N, Yasin AM, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Anuar TS
    J Microbiol Methods, 2014 Nov;106:143-145.
    PMID: 25193442 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2014.08.019
    To improve the stool concentration procedure, we modified different steps of the standard formalin-ether concentration technique and evaluated these modifications by examining stool samples collected in the field. Seven samples were found positive by the modified formalin-ether concentration technique (M-FECT). Therefore, the M-FECT procedure provides enhanced detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  9. Srijaya TC, Ramasamy TS, Kasim NH
    J Transl Med, 2014;12:243.
    PMID: 25182194 DOI: 10.1186/s12967-014-0243-9
    The inadequacy of existing therapeutic tools together with the paucity of organ donors have always led medical researchers to innovate the current treatment methods or to discover new ways to cure disease. Emergence of cell-based therapies has provided a new framework through which it has given the human world a new hope. Though relatively a new concept, the pace of advancement clearly reveals the significant role that stem cells will ultimately play in the near future. However, there are numerous uncertainties that are prevailing against the present setting of clinical trials related to stem cells: like the best route of cell administration, appropriate dosage, duration and several other applications. A better knowledge of these factors can substantially improve the effectiveness of disease cure or organ repair using this latest therapeutic tool. From a certain perspective, it could be argued that by considering certain proven clinical concepts and experience from synthetic drug system, we could improve the overall efficacy of cell-based therapies. In the past, studies on synthetic drug therapies and their clinical trials have shown that all the aforementioned factors have critical ascendancy over its therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, based on the knowledge gained from synthetic drug delivery systems, we hypothesize that by employing many of the clinical approaches from synthetic drug therapies to this new regenerative therapeutic tool, the efficacy of stem cell-based therapies can also be improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  10. Looi ML, Zakaria H, Osman J, Jamal R
    Clin. Lab., 2012;58(3-4):307-12.
    PMID: 22582505
    Saliva has been suggested as an attractive resource for evaluating physiological and pathological conditions in humans. This study aims to evaluate saliva sampling as an alternative to blood sampling for molecular testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  11. Chik Z, Johnston A, Tucker AT, Burn RT, Perrett D
    Biomed Chromatogr, 2007 Aug;21(8):775-9.
    PMID: 17497758
    A fast and simple capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed and validated for the determination of lidocaine in skin using tape samples. Separation was performed in a 350 mm (265 mm to window) x 50 microm i.d. fused silica capillary using a background electrolyte of phosphoric acid-Tris pH 2.5. The extraction of lidocaine from tape samples was achieved using methanol, which was diluted to 50% with water before injection. Procaine was the internal standard. The migration times for procaine and lidocaine were 2.9 and 3.2 min, respectively. The limit of quantification for lidocaine was 50 microg, with signal to noise ratio greater than 10. The calibration curve was linear from 50 to 1000 microg with r(2) greater than 0.99. The CV for both within- and between-assay imprecision and the percentage of inaccuracy for the quality control samples including lower and upper limits of quantitation were 97%. The accuracy and selectivity of this method allowed the measurement of lidocaine in tape samples obtained from a skin tape stripping study of local anesthetics in healthy subjects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  12. Rashid Ali MR, Parameswaran U, William T, Bird E, Wilkes CS, Lee WK, et al.
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2015 May;19(5):620-1.
    PMID: 25868033 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.14.0938
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  13. Loh AG, Israf DA
    J. Helminthol., 1998 Mar;72(1):39-42.
    PMID: 9639899
    The influence of soil texture (silt, sand and laterite) and flotation solutions (saturated NaCl, sucrose, NaNO3, and ZnSO4) upon the recovery of Toxocara ova from seeded soil samples with the centrifugal flotation technique was investigated. Soil samples of different texture were artificially seeded with Toxocara spp. ova and subjected to a centrifugal flotation technique which used various flotation solutions. The results showed significant (P < 0.001) interactions between the soil types and the flotation solutions. The highest percentage of ova recovery was obtained with silty soil (34.9-100.8%) with saturated NaCl as the flotation solution (45.3-100.8%). A combination of washing of soil samples with 0.1% Tween 80, and flotation using saturated NaCl and a 30 min coverslip recovery period was used to study the prevalence of contamination of soil samples. Forty-six soil samples were collected from up to 24 public parks/playgrounds in urban areas of Petaling Jaya and suburban areas of Serdang. The prevalence of Toxocara species in the urban and suburban areas was 54.5% and 45.8% respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  14. Ng ML, Sazali BS, Khalid BA
    Ann. Clin. Biochem., 1991 Nov;28 ( Pt 6):613-7.
    PMID: 1776812
    A filter method for collection and storage of capillary blood spots for glycated haemoglobin (gHb) has been developed. Glass fibre filters (GFB) impregnated with 0.8 M boric acid were used to collect and store capillary blood. Haemoglobin from the dried blood spots was eluted into water and determined by Drabkin's method, while gHb in the eluates was determined by the microcolorimetric method. The intraassay coefficients of variation (CVs) were 4.5, 4.5 and 3.1% at 882, 1101 and 1704 pmol HMF/mg Hb, respectively. The corresponding inter-assay CVs were 8.6, 8.6 and 6.3%, respectively. A total of 63 paired capillary and venous blood samples were measured by both the direct and GFB method. The GFB method showed excellent correlation with the direct method (r = 0.948 and r = 0.994) after 7 and 14 days' storage at room temperature. The GFB method will enable prior collection and postage of blood samples by patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  15. Rao M, Rashid FA, Sabri FSAH, Jamil NN, Seradja V, Abdullah NA, et al.
    J Med Virol, 2021 04;93(4):2461-2466.
    PMID: 33393672 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.26773
    An optimal clinical specimen for accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by minimizing the usage of consumables and reduce hazard exposure to healthcare workers is an urgent priority. The diagnostic performance of SARS-CoV-2 detection between healthcare worker-collected nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NP + OP) swabs and patient performed self-collected random saliva was assessed. Paired NP + OP swabs and random saliva were collected and processed within 48 h of specimen collection from two cohort studies which recruited 562 asymptomatic adult candidates. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction targeting Open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) and nucleocapsid (N) genes was performed and the results were compared. Overall, 65 of 562 (28.1%) candidates tested positive for COVID-19 based on random saliva, NP + OP swabs, or both testing techniques. The detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 was higher in random saliva compared to NP + OP testing (92.3%; 60/65 vs. 73.8%; 48/65; p specimens. Our findings demonstrate that random saliva is an alternative diagnostic specimen for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Self-collected random oropharyngeal saliva is a valuable specimen that provides accurate SARS-CoV-2 surveillance testing of a community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  16. Lim KL, Johari NA, Wong ST, Khaw LT, Tan BK, Chan KK, et al.
    PLoS One, 2020;15(8):e0238417.
    PMID: 32857823 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0238417
    The rapid global spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has inflicted significant health and socioeconomic burden on affected countries. As positive cases continued to rise in Malaysia, public health laboratories experienced an overwhelming demand for COVID-19 screening. The confirmation of positive cases of COVID-19 has solely been based on the detection of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In efforts to increase the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of COVID-19 screening, we evaluated the feasibility of pooling clinical Nasopharyngeal/Oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swab specimens during nucleic acid extraction without a reduction in sensitivity of qRT-PCR. Pools of 10 specimens were extracted and subsequently tested by qRT-PCR according to the WHO-Charité protocol. We demonstrated that the sample pooling method showed no loss of sensitivity. The effectiveness of the pooled testing strategy was evaluated on both retrospective and prospective samples, and the results showed a similar detection sensitivity compared to testing individual sample alone. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a pooled testing strategy to increase testing capacity and conserve resources, especially when there is a high demand for disease testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  17. Clauss M, Trümpler J, Ackermans NL, Kitchener AC, Hantke G, Stagegaard J, et al.
    Primates, 2021 Mar;62(2):431-441.
    PMID: 33180215 DOI: 10.1007/s10329-020-00873-8
    Digestive tract measurements are often considered species specific, but little information exists on the degree to which they change during ontogeny within a species. Additionally, access to anatomical material from nondomestic species is often limited, with fixed tissues possibly representing the only available source, though the degree to which this material is representative in terms of dimensions and weight is debatable. In the present study, the macroscopic anatomy of the digestive tract (length of intestinal sections, and tissue weights of stomach and intestines) of 58 Lemur catta [ranging in age from 1 month (neonates) to 25 years], which had been stored frozen (n = 27) or fixed in formalin (n = 31), was quantified. Particular attention was paid to the caecum and the possible presence of an appendix. The intraspecific allometric scaling of body mass (BM)0.46[0.40;0.51] for total intestine length and BM0.48[0.41;0.54] for small intestine length was higher than the expected geometric scaling of BM0.33, and similar to that reported in the literature for interspecific scaling. This difference in scaling is usually explained by the hypothesis that, to maintain optimal absorption, the diameter of the intestinal tube cannot increase geometrically. Therefore, geometric volume gain of increasing body mass is accommodated for by more-than-geometric length scaling. According to the literature, not all L. catta have an appendix. No appendix was found in the specimens in the present study. The proportions of length measurements did not change markedly during ontogeny, indicating that the proportions of the foetus are representative of those of the adult animal. By contrast, width and tissue-mass scaling of the caecum indicated disproportionate growth of this organ during ontogeny that was not reflected in its length. Compared to overall intraspecific variation, the method of storage (frozen vs. formalin) had no relevant impact on length or weight measurements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  18. Nazar Majeed Z, Philip K, Alabsi AM, Pushparajan S, Swaminathan D
    Dis Markers, 2016;2016:1804727.
    PMID: 28074077 DOI: 10.1155/2016/1804727
    Background. Several studies in the last decades have focused on finding a precise method for the diagnosis of periodontal disease in its early stages. Aim. To evaluate from current scientific literature the most common and precise method for gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) sample collection, biomarker analytical methods, and the variability of biomarker quantification, even when using the same analytical technique. Methodology. An electronic search was conducted on in vivo studies that presented clinical data on techniques used for GCF collection and biomarker analysis. Results. The results showed that 71.1%, 24.7%, and 4.1% of the studies used absorption, microcapillary, and washing techniques, respectively, in their gingival crevicular fluid collection. 73.1% of the researchers analyzed their samples by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 22.6%, 19.5%, and 18.5% of the researchers included interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), respectively, in their studies as biomarkers for periodontal disease. Conclusion. IL-1β can be considered among the most common biomarkers that give precise results and can be used as an indicator of periodontal disease progression. Furthermore, paper strips are the most convenient and accurate method for gingival crevicular fluid collection, while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can be considered the most conventional method for the diagnosis of biofluids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  19. Kavitha R, Tan TC, Lee HL, Nazni WA, Sofian AM
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Jun;30(2):211-9.
    PMID: 23959486 MyJurnal
    DNA identification of blow fly species can be a very useful tool in forensic entomology. One of the potential benefits that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has offered in the field of forensic entomology is species determination. Conventional identification methods have limitations for sibling and closely related species of blow fly and stage and quality of the specimen used. This could be overcome by DNA-based identification methods using mitochondrial DNA which does not demand intact or undamaged specimens. Mitochondrial DNA is usually isolated from whole blow fly and legs. Alternate sources for mitochondrial DNA isolation namely, egg, larva, puparium and empty puparium were explored in this study. The sequence of DNA obtained for each sample for every life cycle stage was 100% identical for a particular species, indicating that the egg, 1st instar, 2nd instar, 3rd instar, pupa, empty puparium and adult from the same species and obtained from same generation will exhibit similar DNA sequences. The present study also highlighted the usefulness of collecting all life cycle stages of blow fly during crime scene investigation with proper preservation and subsequent molecular analysis. Molecular identification provides a strong basis for species identification and will prove an invaluable contribution to forensic entomology as an investigative tool in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  20. Mohamed Zahidi J, Bee Yong T, Hashim R, Mohd Noor A, Hamzah SH, Ahmad N
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 2015 Apr;81(4):227-33.
    PMID: 25641125 DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2014.12.012
    Molecular approaches have been investigated to overcome difficulties in identification and differentiation of Brucella spp. using conventional phenotypic methods. In this study, high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis was used for rapid identification and differentiation of members of Brucella genus. A total of 41 Brucella spp. isolates from human brucellosis were subjected to HRM analysis using 4 sets of primers, which identified 40 isolates as Brucella melitensis and 1 as Brucella canis. The technique utilized low DNA concentration and was highly reproducible. The assay is shown to be a useful diagnostic tool, which can rapidly differentiate Brucella up to species level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
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