Spinal cord, sciatic nerve, olfactory ensheathing cell and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated as an alternative source for tissue engineering of nerve conduit. All cell sources were cultured in alpha-MEM medium. Olfactory Ensheathing Cell (OEC) showed the best result with higher growth kinetic compared to the others. Spinal cord and sciatic nerve were positive for GFAP, OEC were positive for GFAP, S100b and anti-cytokeratin 18 but negative for anti-Human Fibroblast.
The motoneurones with axons in the common peroneal nerve (CPN) of the rat and monkey were examined using retrograde labelling with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In both species, the CPN motoneurone pool was localized in the dorsolateral part of the ventral horn of the spinal cord. In the rat, the labelled motoneurones were located between the L3 and L6 spinal segments whereas in the monkey, they extended from the caudal end of L4 to the L6 spinal segments. In both species the majority of the labelled neurones were located within the L5 segment. The mean number of the CPN motoneurones in the rat and monkey was 458 and 1148, respectively. A bimodal size distribution of motoneurones was found in both species.
The spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve (SNA) comprises the group of somata (perikarya) of motor neurons that supply the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. There are many conflicting views regarding the longitudinal extent and topography of the SNA, even in the same species, and these disagreements prompted the present investigation. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats (15 males, 15 females) were used. The SNA was localized by retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase. Longitudinally, the SNA was found to be located in the caudal part (caudal 0.9-1.2 mm) of the medulla oblongata, the whole lengths of cervical spinal cord segments C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 and rostral fourth of C6. In the caudal part of the medulla oblongata, the SNA was represented by a group of perikarya of motor neurons lying immediately ventrolateral to the pyramidal fibres that were passing dorsolaterally after their decussation. In the spinal cord, the motor neuronal somata of the SNA were located in the dorsomedial and central columns at C1, in the dorsomedial, central and ventrolateral columns at C2 and in the ventrolateral column only at C3, C4, C5 and rostral quarter of C6. The perikarya of motor neurons supplying the sternocleidomastoid were located in the caudal part (caudal 0.9-1.2 mm) of the medulla oblongata ventrolateral to the pyramidal fibres that were passing dorsolaterally after their decussation. They were also located in the dorsomedial and central columns at C1, in the dorsomedial, central and ventrolateral columns at C2 and only in the ventrolateral column at the rostral three-quarters of C3. The perikarya of motor neurons supplying the trapezius muscle were located in the ventrolateral column only in the caudal three-quarters of C2, the whole lengths of C3, C4 and C5, and in the rostral quarter of C6.
Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator (DREAM) protein modulates pain by regulating prodynorphin gene transcription. Therefore, we investigate the changes of mRNA and DREAM protein in relation to the mRNA and prodynorphin protein expression on the ipsilateral side of the rat spinal cord after formalin injection (acute pain model). DREAM like immunoreactivity (DLI) was not significantly different between C and F groups. However, we detected the upregulation of mean relative DREAM protein level in the nuclear but not in the cytoplasmic extract in the F group. These effects were consistent with the upregulation of the relative DREAM mRNA level. Prodynorphin like immunoreactivity (PLI) expression increased but the relative prodynorphin mRNA level remained unchanged. In conclusion, we suggest that upregulation of DREAM mRNA and protein expression in the nuclear compartment probably has functional consequences other than just the repression of prodynorphin gene. It is likely that these mechanisms are important in the modulation of pain.
Nerve stem cells have a unique characteristic in that they form spherical aggregates, also termed neurospheres, in vitro. The study demonstrated the successful derivation of these neurospheres from bone marrow culture. Their plasticity as nerve stem cells was confirmed. The findings further strengthens the pluripotency of cell populations within the bone marrow.
Neurodegenerative disease is defined as a deterioration of the nervous system in the intellectual and cognitive capabilities. Statistics show that more than 80-90 million individuals age 65 and above in 2050 may be affected by neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Studies have shown that out of 2000 different types of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms, only a few countable mushrooms have been selected until now for neurohealth activity. Hericium erinaceus is one of the well-established medicinal mushrooms for neuronal health. It has been documented for its regenerative capability in peripheral nerve. Another mushroom used as traditional medicine is Lignosus rhinocerotis, which has been used for various illnesses. It has been documented for its neurite outgrowth potential in PC12 cells. Based on the regenerative capabilities of both the mushrooms, priority was given to select them for our study. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of H. erinaceus and L. rhinocerotis to stimulate neurite outgrowth in dissociated cells of brain, spinal cord, and retina from chick embryo when compared to brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Neurite outgrowth activity was confirmed by the immu-nofluorescence method in all tissue samples. Treatment with different concentrations of extracts resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation. H. erinaceus extract at 50 µg/mL triggered neurite outgrowth at 20.47%, 22.47%, and 21.70% in brain, spinal cord, and retinal cells. L. rhinocerotis sclerotium extract at 50 µg/mL induced maximum neurite outgrowth of 20.77% and 24.73% in brain and spinal cord, whereas 20.77% of neurite outgrowth was observed in retinal cells at 25 µg/mL, respectively.
Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a vertebrate homologue of the secreted Drosophila protein hedgehog and is expressed by the notochord and floor plate in the developing spinal cord. Sonic hedgehog provides signals relevant for positional information, cell proliferation and possibly cell survival, depending on the time and location of expression. Although the role of SHH in providing positional information in the neural tube has been experimentally proven, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, in ovo electroporation was employed in the chicken spinal cord during chicken embryo development. Electroporation was conducted at stage 17 (E2.5), after electroporation the embryos were continued incubating to stage 28 (E6) for sampling, tissue fixation with 4% paraformaldehyde and frozen sectioning. Sonic hedgehog and related protein expressions were detected by in situ hybridization and fluorescence immunohistochemistry and the results were analysed after microphotography. Our results indicate that the ectopic expression of SHH leads to ventralization in the spinal cord during chicken embryonic development by inducing abnormalities in the structure of the motor column and motor neuron integration. In addition, ectopic SHH expression inhibits the expression of dorsal transcription factors and commissural axon projections. The correct location of SHH expression is vital to the formation of the motor column. Ectopic expression of SHH in the spinal cord not only affects the positioning of motor neurons, but also induces abnormalities in the structure of the motor column. It leads to ventralization in the spinal cord, resulting in the formation of more ventral neurons forming during neuronal formation.
The aim of the present study was to determine if paraventricular-spinal vasopressin neurones participate in the sympatho-inhibitory effects of systemically administered atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Experiments were carried out on male Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized with 1.3 g/kg urethane. Changes in mean arterial pressure (mm Hg), heart rate (beats per minute) and RSNA (%) were measured following intravenous bolus administration of ANP (250 ng, 500 ng and 5 microg). Intrathecal application of selective V 1a receptor antagonist was performed to test for the involvement of supraspinal vasopressin pathways in mediating the effect on sympathetic outflow evoked by intravenous ANP administration. The results obtained demonstrated that both low and high doses of ANP caused renal sympathoinhibition (250 ng; - 7.5 +/- 1%, 500 ng; - 14.2 +/- 1%, 5 microg; - 16.4 +/- 2%), concomitant with vasodilation and bradycardia. After spinal vasopressin receptor blockade, the inhibitory effects of ANP were prevented and there was a small renal sympatho-excitation (250 ng; + 1.7 +/- 0.2%, 500 ng; + 6.1 +/- 0.03%, 5 microg; + 8.0 +/- 0.03%, P < 0.05). Therefore, the renal sympathetic nerve inhibition elicited by circulating ANP is dependent on the efficacy of a well established supraspinal vasopressin pathway. Since supraspinal vasopressin neurones without exception excite renal sympathetic neurones, it is suggested that ANP elicits this effect by activating cardiac vagal afferents that inhibit the spinally projecting vasopressin neurones at their origin in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Over 30 nuclei have been identified in the reticular formation of rats, but only a small number of distinct reticular nuclei have been recognized in frogs. We used immunohistochemistry, retrograde tracing, and cell morphology to identify nuclei within the brainstem of Rana pipiens. FluoroGold was injected into the spinal cord, and, in the same frogs, antibodies to enkephalin, substance P, somatostatin, and serotonin were localized in adjacent sections. We identified many previously unrecognized reticular nuclei. The rhombencephalic reticular formation contained reticularis (r.) dorsalis; r. ventralis, pars alpha and pars beta; r. magnocellularis; r. parvocellularis; r. gigantocellularis; r. paragigantocellularis lateralis and dorsalis; r. pontis caudalis, pars alpha and pars beta; nucleus visceralis secundarius; r. pontis oralis, pars medialis and pars lateralis; raphe obscurus; raphe pallidus; raphe magnus; and raphe pontis. The mesencephalic reticular formation contained locus coeruleus-subcoeruleus, r. cuneiformis, r. subcuneiformis, raphe dorsalis-raphe centralis superior, and raphe linearis. Thus, the reticular formation of frog, which is an anamniote, is organized complexly and is similar to the reticular formation in amniotes. Because many of these nuclei may be homologous to reticular nuclei in mammals, we used mammalian terminology for frog reticular nuclei.