The disposition kinetics and cumulative urinary excretion of sulfamethazine were compared in goats fed normally (control) and following a 72-hour period of starvation (fasting). The only pharmacokinetic parameter which showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups was the body (systemic) clearance. This decreased from 2.26 +/- 0.28 ml/min.kg (means +/- SD, n = 6) in the control group to 1.16 +/- 0.54 ml/min.kg in the fasting group (p less than 0.01). Since the apparent volume of distribution was not affected by starvation, the decreased clearance was attributed to slower metabolism of the drug. Because of the analytical method used to measure sulfamethazine concentrations in plasma and urine, no conclusion could be drawn as to whether the rates of hydroxylation or of acetylation, or both metabolic pathways were decreased in the starved condition.
Bioprospecting for biodiesel potential in microalgae primarily involves a few model species of microalgae and rarely on non-model microalgae species. Therefore, the present study determined changes in physiology, oil accumulation, fatty acid composition and biodiesel properties of a non-model microalga Messastrum gracile SE-MC4 in response to 12 continuous days of nitrate-starve (NS) and nitrate-replete (NR) conditions respectively. Under NS, the highest oil content (57.9%) was achieved despite reductions in chlorophyll content, biomass productivity and lipid productivity. However, under both NS and NR, palmitic acid and oleic acid remained as dominant fatty acids thus suggesting high potential of M. gracile for biodiesel feedstock consideration. Biodiesel properties analysis returned high values of cetane number (CN 61.9-64.4) and degree of unsaturation (DU 45.3-57.4) in both treatments. The current findings show the possibility of a non-model microalga to inherit superior ability over model species in oil accumulation for biodiesel development.