In today's fast-shifting climate change scenario, crops are exposed to environmental pressures, abiotic and biotic stress. Hence, these will affect the production of agricultural products and give rise to a worldwide economic crisis. The increase in world population has exacerbated the situation with increasing food demand. The use of chemical agents is no longer recommended due to adverse effects towards the environment and health. Biocontrol agents (BCAs) and biostimulants, are feasible options for dealing with yield losses induced by plant stresses, which are becoming more intense due to climate change. BCAs and biostimulants have been recommended due to their dual action in reducing both stresses simultaneously. Although protection against biotic stresses falls outside the generally accepted definition of biostimulant, some microbial and non-microbial biostimulants possess the biocontrol function, which helps reduce biotic pressure on crops. The application of synergisms using BCAs and biostimulants to control crop stresses is rarely explored. Currently, a combined application using both agents offer a great alternative to increase the yield and growth of crops while managing stresses. This article provides an overview of crop stresses and plant stress responses, a general knowledge on synergism, mathematical modelling used for synergy evaluation and type of in vitro and in vivo synergy testing, as well as the application of synergism using BCAs and biostimulants in reducing crop stresses. This review will facilitate an understanding of the combined effect of both agents on improving crop yield and growth and reducing stress while also providing an eco-friendly alternative to agroecosystems.
Lead is among the most common toxic heavy metals and its contamination is of great public concern. Bacillus coagulans is the probiotic which can be considered as the lead absorption sorbent to apply in the lead contaminant water directly or indirectly. A better understanding of the lead resistance and tolerance mechanisms of B. coagulans would help further its development and utilization. Wild-type Bacillus coagulans strain R11 isolated from a lead mine, was acclimated to lead-containing culture media over 85 passages, producing two lead-adapted strains, and the two strains shown higher lead intracellular accumulation ability (38.56-fold and 19.36-fold) and reducing ability (6.94-fold and 7.44-fold) than that of wild type. Whole genome sequencing, genome resequencing, and comparative transcriptomics identified lead resistance and tolerance process significantly involved in these genes which regulated glutathione and sulfur metabolism, flagellar formation and metal ion transport pathways in the lead-adapted strains, elucidating the relationships among the mechanisms regulating lead deposition, deoxidation, and motility and the evolved tolerance to lead. In addition, the B. coagulans mutants tended to form flagellar and chemotaxis systems to avoid lead ions rather than export it, suggesting a new resistance strategy. Based on the present results, the optimum lead concentration in environment should be considered when employed B. coagulans as the lead sorbent, due to the bacteria growth ability decreased in high lead concentration and physiology morphology changed could reduce the lead removal effectiveness. The identified deoxidization and compound secretion genes and pathways in B. coagulans R11 also are potential genetic engineering candidates for synthesizing glutathione, cysteine, methionine, and selenocompounds.
Rice production is decreasing by abiotic stresses like heavy metals. In such circumstances, producing food for growing human population is a challenge for plant breeders. Excess of Al3+ in soil has become threat for high yield of rice. Improvement of crop is one of potential solution for high production. The aim of this study was to develop the new method for optimization of Al3+ toxicity tolerance in indica rice at germination stag using two-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range test (DMRT). Seeds of two indica rice cultivars (Pokkali and Pak Basmati) were exposed in different concentrations (control, 5 mM, 15 mM, and 20 mM) of Al3+ toxicity at pH 4 ±0.2 for two weeks. Germination traits such as final germination percentage (FG%), germination energy (GE), germination speed (GS), germination index (GI), mean time of germination (MGT), germination value (GV), germination velocity (GVe), peak value of germination (GPV), and germination capacity (GC) and growth traits such as root length (RL), shoot length (SL), total dry biomass (TDB), and germination vigour index (GVI) were measured. To obtain the maximum number of significance (≤ 0.01%) parameters in each concentration of Al3+ toxicity with control, two-way ANOVA was established and comparison of mean was done using DMRT. The results showed that 5 mM, 10 mM, and 15 mM have less significant effects on the above-mentioned parameters. However, 20 mM concentration of Al3+ produced significant effects (≤ 0.01%). Therefore, 20 mM of Al3+ is considered optimized limit for indica cultivars (Pokkali and Pak Basmati).
The stress shielding effect is an event in which the replacement implant limits the load transferred to bone and the ineffective stress in the vertebrae causes bony growth to cease. In the present study, a 3D finite element L4-L5 model was developed and subjected to a 1200 N compression preload. Five groups of muscle forces were applied on L4 under flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. Topology optimisation was employed for reducing the stress shielding effect by removing the ineffective material from the design domain. The optimised design was designed with polyaryletheretherketone (PEEK) titanium and cortical materials to encounter the shielding response. The stress responses show that the new design increased the stress magnitude by at least 17.10, 18.11 and 18.43% in 4 Nm of flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation, respectively. In conclusion, the material factor did not significantly alter the stress magnitude, but volume was the key factor in reducing the stress shielding effect.
The main objective was to find association between basal cortisol and neighborhood-level stress. Systematic searches, including electronic and hand searches, were conducted. The most recent date of the search was July 26, 2013. Primary observational studies included if they considered stress related outcomes in the neighborhood context. Using the EndNote X7 advanced search option; the authors examined the abstracts and titles of the 18,092 articles to exclude obviously irrelevant studies, gray literature, discussion papers, reviews and, studies with no complete data. Two authors independently extracted data from the original reports into pre-designed data extraction forms based on the Data Extraction Template of the Cochrane Consumer and Communication Review Group (CCCRG). Ten studies with a total of 2,134 participants were synthesized and analyzed. Two studies out of ten received expanded meta-analysis. The overall effect size (95% CI) for cortisol level for residents in neighborhoods with lower stress compared to inhabitants from higher was 0.12 (0.01, 0.23). This review is demonstrating a link between psychosocial or physical stress and cortisol obtained from saliva. However, living in high disorder neighborhoods results in higher level of cortisol. This represents a biological indicator of psychosocial/physical stress exposure (i.e., neighborhood disorder) that reflects variances in stress exposure levels.
Salinisation of soil is associated with urban pollution, industrial development and rising sea level. Understanding how high salinity is managed at the plant cellular level is vital to increase sustainable farming output. Previous studies focus on plant stress responses under salinity tolerance. Yet, there is limited knowledge about the mechanisms involved from stress state until the recovery state; our research aims to close this gap. By using the most tolerance genotype (SS1-14) and the most susceptible genotype (SS2-18), comparative physiological, metabolome and post-harvest assessments were performed to identify the underlying mechanisms for salinity stress recovery in plant cells. The up-regulation of glutamine, asparagine and malonic acid were found in recovered-tolerant genotype, suggesting a role in the regulation of panicle branching and spikelet formation for survival. Rice could survive up to 150 mM NaCl (∼15 ds/m) with declined of production rate 5-20% ranged from tolerance to susceptible genotype. This show that rice farming may still be viable on the high saline affected area with the right selection of salt-tolerant species, including glycophytes. The salt recovery biomarkers identified in this study and the adaption underlined could be empowered to address salinity problem in rice field.
High temperature tolerance is an important component of adaptation to arid and semiarid cropping environment in chili pepper. Two experiments were carried out to study the genetic variability among chili pepper for heat tolerance and morphophysiological traits and to estimate heritability and genetic advance expected from selection. There was a highly significant variation among the genotypes in response to high temperature (CMT), photosynthesis rate, plant height, disease incidence, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. At 5% selection intensity, high genetic advance as percent of the mean (>20%) was observed for CMT, photosynthesis rate, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. Similarly, high heritability (>60%) was also observed indicating the substantial effect of additive gene more than the environmental effect. Yield per plant showed strong to moderately positive correlations (r = 0.23-0.56) at phenotypic level while at genotypic level correlation coefficient ranged from 0.16 to 0.72 for CMT, plant height, fruit length, and number of fruits. Cluster analysis revealed eight groups and Group VIII recorded the highest CMT and yield. Group IV recorded 13 genotypes while Groups II, VII, and VIII recorded one each. The results showed that the availability of genetic variance could be useful for exploitation through selection for further breeding purposes.
Carotenoids are bioactive compounds with remarkably special properties produced by plants in response to internal and external stresses. In this review paper, we focus on the subject of carotenoid biosynthesis and several factors that have been reported to significantly enhance or reduce carotenoid accumulation in studied plant species. These factors include varietal aspects, location, growing season, and type of stress experienced by a plant. In addition, we propose that there are three stress resistance mechanisms in plants: avoidance, tolerance, and acclimation. Better understanding of the environmental factors affecting carotenoid biosynthesis will help researchers to develop methods for enhancing the production of carotenoids and other pigments to desired concentrations in plant crops.
Submergence or flood is one of the major harmful abiotic stresses in the low-lying countries and crop losses due to waterlogging are considerably high. Plant breeding techniques, conventional or genetic engineering, might be an effective and economic way of developing crops to grow successfully in waterlogged condition. Marker assisted selection (MAS) is a new and more effective approach which can identify genomic regions of crops under stress, which could not be done previously. The discovery of comprehensive molecular linkage maps enables us to do the pyramiding of desirable traits to improve in submergence tolerance through MAS. However, because of genetic and environmental interaction, too many genes encoding a trait, and using undesirable populations the mapping of QTL was hampered to ensure proper growth and yield under waterlogged conditions Steady advances in the field of genomics and proteomics over the years will be helpful to increase the breeding programs which will help to accomplish a significant progress in the field crop variety development and also improvement in near future. Waterlogging response of soybean and major cereal crops, as rice, wheat, barley, and maize and discovery of QTL related with tolerance of waterlogging, development of resistant variety, and, in addition, future prospects have also been discussed.
Feed deprivation in poultry farming imposes some degree of stress to the birds, and adversely affects their well -being. Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) are potential physiological indicators of stress attributed to feed deprivation. However, it has not been determined how long it takes for a measurable APP response to stressors to occur in avian species. An experiment was designed to delineate the APP and circulating levels of corticosterone responses in commercial broiler chickens to feed deprivation for 30 h. It was hypothesized that feed deprivation would elicit both APP and corticosterone (CORT) reactions within 30 h that is probably associated with stress of hunger. Twenty-one day old birds were subjected to one of 5 feed deprivation periods: 0 (ad libitum, AL), 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h. Upon completion of the deprivation period, blood samples were collected to determine serum CORT, ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations. Results showed that feed deprivation for 24 h or more caused a marked elevation in CORT (P=0.002 and P<0.0001, respectively) when compared to AL. However, increases in AGP (P=0.0005), CP (P=0.0002), and OVT (P=0.0003) were only noted following 30 h of feed deprivation. It is concluded that elicitation of AGP, CP, and OVT response may represent a more chronic stressful condition than CORT response in assessing the well-being of broiler chickens.
The transitioning of cells during the systemic demise of an organism is poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that organismal death is accompanied by a common and sequential molecular flood of stress-induced events that propagate the senescence phenotype, and this phenotype is preserved in the proteome after death. We demonstrate activation of "death" pathways involvement in diseases of ageing, with biochemical mechanisms mapping onto neurological damage, embryonic development, the inflammatory response, cardiac disease and ultimately cancer with increased significance. There is sufficient bioavailability of the building blocks required to support the continued translation, energy, and functional catalytic activity of proteins. Significant abundance changes occur in 1258 proteins across 1 to 720 h post-mortem of the 12-week-old mouse mandible. Protein abundance increases concord with enzyme activity, while mitochondrial dysfunction is evident with metabolic reprogramming. This study reveals differences in protein abundances which are akin to states of stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). The control of these pathways is significant for a large number of biological scenarios. Understanding how these pathways function during the process of cellular death holds promise in generating novel solutions capable of overcoming disease complications, maintaining organ transplant viability and could influence the findings of proteomics through "deep-time" of individuals with no historically recorded cause of death.
Climate change-induced abiotic stress results in crop yield and production losses. These stresses result in changes at the physiological and molecular level that affect the development and growth of the plant. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is formed at high levels due to abiotic stress within different organelles, leading to cellular damage. Plants have evolved mechanisms to control the production and scavenging of ROS through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative processes. However, ROS has a dual function in abiotic stresses where, at high levels, they are toxic to cells while the same molecule can function as a signal transducer that activates a local and systemic plant defense response against stress. The effects, perception, signaling, and activation of ROS and their antioxidative responses are elaborated in this review. This review aims to provide a purview of processes involved in ROS homeostasis in plants and to identify genes that are triggered in response to abiotic-induced oxidative stress. This review articulates the importance of these genes and pathways in understanding the mechanism of resistance in plants and the importance of this information in breeding and genetically developing crops for resistance against abiotic stress in plants.
This study provides insights in patterns of distribution of abiotic and biotic stress resilience across Vigna gene pools to enhance the use and conservation of these genetic resources for legume breeding. Vigna is a pantropical genus with more than 88 taxa including important crops such as V. radiata (mung bean) and V. unguiculata (cowpea). Our results show that sources of pest and disease resistance occur in at least 75 percent of the Vigna taxa, which were part of screening assessments, while sources of abiotic stress resilience occur in less than 30 percent of screened taxa. This difference in levels of resilience suggests that Vigna taxa co-evolve with pests and diseases while taxa are more conservative to adapt to climatic changes and salinization. Twenty-two Vigna taxa are poorly conserved in genebanks or not at all. This germplasm is not available for legume breeding and requires urgent germplasm collecting before these taxa extirpate on farm and in the wild. Vigna taxa, which tolerate heat and drought stress are rare compared with taxa, which escape these stresses because of short growing seasons or with taxa, which tolerate salinity. We recommend prioritizing these rare Vigna taxa for conservation and screening for combined abiotic and biotic stress resilience resulting from stacked or multifunctional traits. The high presence of salinity tolerance compared with drought stress tolerance, suggests that Vigna taxa are good at developing salt-tolerant traits. Vigna taxa are therefore of high value for legume production in areas that will suffer from salinization under global climate change.
Rhizospheric organisms have a unique manner of existence since many factors can influence the shape of the microbiome. As we all know, harnessing the interaction between soil microbes and plants is critical for sustainable agriculture and ecosystems. We can achieve sustainable agricultural practice by incorporating plant-microbiome interaction as a positive technology. The contribution of this interaction has piqued the interest of experts, who plan to do more research using beneficial microorganism in order to accomplish this vision. Plants engage in a wide range of interrelationship with soil microorganism, spanning the entire spectrum of ecological potential which can be mutualistic, commensal, neutral, exploitative, or competitive. Mutualistic microorganism found in plant-associated microbial communities assist their host in a number of ways. Many studies have demonstrated that the soil microbiome may provide significant advantages to the host plant. However, various soil conditions (pH, temperature, oxygen, physics-chemistry and moisture), soil environments (drought, submergence, metal toxicity and salinity), plant types/genotype, and agricultural practices may result in distinct microbial composition and characteristics, as well as its mechanism to promote plant development and defence against all these stressors. In this paper, we provide an in-depth overview of how the above factors are able to affect the soil microbial structure and communities and change above and below ground interactions. Future prospects will also be discussed.
Salinity exerts a severe detrimental effect on crop yields globally. Growth of plants in saline soils results in physiological stress, which disrupts the essential biochemical processes of respiration, photosynthesis, and transpiration. Understanding the molecular responses of plants exposed to salinity stress can inform future strategies to reduce agricultural losses due to salinity; however, it is imperative that signalling and functional response processes are connected to tailor these strategies. Previous research has revealed the important role that plant mitochondria play in the salinity response of plants. Review of this literature shows that 2 biochemical processes required for respiratory function are affected under salinity stress: the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the transport of metabolites across the inner mitochondrial membrane. However, the mechanisms by which components of these processes are affected or react to salinity stress are still far from understood. Here, we examine recent findings on the signal transduction pathways that lead to adaptive responses of plants to salinity and discuss how they can be involved in and be affected by modulation of the machinery of energy metabolism with attention to the role of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and mitochondrial membrane transporters in this process.
This preliminary trial investigated the effect of transportation and lairage periods on physiological parameters of goats subjected to slaughter. Nine male Boer cross goats aged 8-12 months were transported for 6 h and kept at lairage for 3, 6, or 16 h (n = 3). Blood samples were collected at pre- (pre-T) and post-transportation (post-T), and post-slaughter (post-S) for determination of hematological parameters, serum enzyme, protein, and cortisol concentrations. Electroencephalogram readings were taken at pre-T, post-T, pre-slaughter (pre-S), and post-S to determine the median frequency (F50 ) and total power (Ptot) values. At post-T, there were manifestations of stress leukogram; increase in hematocrit, total protein, and muscle enzyme concentrations; and decrease in Ptot (p stress before transportation. Stress leukogram became less evident after lairage, indicating that the goats had recovered from the stress of transportation. Although the Ptot increased at post-S especially following 3 h of lairage, F50 values at post-S did not differ from pre-L, suggesting that the pre-slaughter stress may have affected the pain threshold. It is suggested that after 6 h of transportation, goats should ideally be placed in lairage for a minimum period of 3 h before slaughter.
Drought is the leading threat to agricultural food production, especially in the cultivation of rice, a semi-aquatic plant. Drought tolerance is a complex quantitative trait with a complicated phenotype that affects different developmental stages in plants. The level of susceptibility or tolerance of rice to several drought conditions is coordinated by the action of different drought-responsive genes in relation with other stress components which stimulate signal transduction pathways. Interdisciplinary researchers have broken the complex mechanism of plant tolerance using various methods such as genetic engineering or marker-assisted selection to develop a new cultivar with improved drought resistance. The main objectives of this review were to highlight the current method of developing a durable drought-resistant rice variety through conventional breeding and the use of biotechnological tools and to comprehensively review the available information on drought-resistant genes, QTL analysis, gene transformation and marker-assisted selection. The response, indicators, causes, and adaptation processes to the drought stress were discussed in the review. Overall, this review provides a systemic glimpse of breeding methods from conventional to the latest innovation in molecular development of drought-tolerant rice variety. This information could serve as guidance for researchers and rice breeders.
This study's primary purpose was to investigate the possible amelioration of limited irrigation conditions by mycorrhiza (AMF), vermicompost, and green manure for lingrain plants. This experiment was accomplished as a factorial based on the completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was green manure (without green manure and with Trifolium pratense as green manure); the second factor consisted of Rhizophagus irregularis mycorrhiza, vermicompost, a combination of mycorrhiza and vermicompost and none of them, and also the third factor was irrigation regime (full irrigation and late-season water limitation). Green manure, vermicompost, and mycorrhiza single-use enhanced the plant's underwater limitation conditions compared to the control. However, vermicompost and green manure or mycorrhiza developed a positive synergistic effect on most traits. Combining green manure with the dual fertilizer (mycorrhiza + vermicompost) resulted in the vermicompost and mycorrhiza synergistic effects, especially under limited irrigation. Consequently, the combination of green manure, mycorrhiza, and vermicompost experienced the highest amount of leaf relative water content, root colonization, leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, antioxidant enzymes activity, grain yield, and oil yield, which would lead to more resistance of plants to limited irrigation conditions.
High ambient temperature is a major problem in commercial broiler production in the humid tropics because high producing broiler birds consume more feed, have higher metabolic activity, and thus higher body heat production. To evaluate the effects of two previously isolated potential probiotic strains (Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ITA44) on broilers growing under heat stress condition, a total of 192 chicks were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 48 chickens each as follows: CL, birds fed with basal diet raised in 24 °C; PL, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 24 °C; CH, birds fed with basal diet raised in 35 °C; and PH, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 35 °C. The effects of probiotic mixture on the performance, expression of nutrient absorption genes of the small intestine, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial population of cecal contents, antioxidant capacity of liver, and fatty acid composition of breast muscle were investigated. Results showed that probiotic positively affected the final body weight under both temperature conditions (PL and PH groups) compared to their respective control groups (CL and CH). Probiotic supplementation numerically improved the average daily gain (ADG) under lower temperature, but significantly improved ADG under the higher temperature (P stress condition. The two Lactobacillus strains also improved the fatty acid profile of meat, including at heat stress. Generally, the two Lactobacillus strains can be considered as good potential probiotics for chickens due to their good probiotic properties and remarkable efficacy on broiler chickens.
Osmotic stress is one of the most significant natural abiotic stresses that occur in the intertidal zones. Seaweeds may physiologically acclimate to changing osmolarity by altering their transcriptome. Here, we investigated the transcriptomic changes of Gracilaria changii (B. M. Xia et I. A. Abbott) I. A. Abbott, J. Zhang et B. M. Xia in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic stresses using a cDNA microarray approach. Microarray analysis revealed that 199 and 200 genes from ∼3,300 genes examined were up- and down-regulated by >2-fold in seaweed samples treated at 50 parts per thousand (ppt) artificial seawater (ASW) compared with those at 30 ppt ASW, respectively. The number of genes that were up- and down-regulated by >2-fold in seaweed samples treated at 10 ppt ASW compared with those at 30 ppt ASW were 154 and 187, respectively. A majority of these genes were only differentially expressed under hyper- or hypoosmotic conditions, whereas 67 transcripts were affected by both stresses. The findings of this study have shed light on the expression profiles of many transcripts during the acclimation of G. changii to hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic conditions. This information may assist in the prioritization of genes to be examined in future studies.