OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to assess the psychometric properties of the Suffering Pictogram, a new suffering assessment instrument on a population of palliative care patients.
DESIGN AND SETTING: This is a validation study conducted at University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ninety one palliative care patients were recruited. Patients were interviewed with the Suffering Pictogram and FACIT-Sp.
RESULTS: The median completion time for the Suffering Pictogram was five minutes. The Suffering Pictogram showed good internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.836. The total scores of the Suffering Pictogram correlated strongly and negatively with FACIT-Sp total score (Spearman's Rho = -0.625, p
OBJECTIVE: To validate the Malay version of the DASS-21 (Malay-DASS-21) among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor.
METHODS: A validation study with a random sample of 402 male respondents attending the outpatient clinic of a major public outpatient clinic in Johor Bahru and Segamat was carried out from January to March 2016. Construct validity of the Malay-DASS-21 was examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis (KMO = 0.947; Bartlett's test of sphericity is significant, p<0.001) through Principal Component Analysis and orthogonal (varimax) rotation with Kaiser Normalization to confirm the psychometric properties of the Malay-DASS- 21 and the internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha.
RESULTS: Construct validity of the Malay-DASS-21 based on eigenvalues and factor loadings to confirm the three factor structure (depression, anxiety, and stress) was acceptable. The internal consistency reliability of the factor construct was very impressive with Cronbach's alpha values in the range of 0.837 to 0.863.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that the Malay- DASS-21 has acceptable psychometric construct and high internal consistency reliability to measure self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress over the past week in male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Further studies are necessary to revalidate the Malay-DASS-21 across different populations and cultures, and using confirmatory factor analyses.