Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Rosnawati MR, Moe H, Masilamani R, Darus A
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2010 Oct;22(4):501-6.
    PMID: 20930177 DOI: 10.1177/1010539510380560
    The Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess occupational stressors among nurses. The NSS, which was previously used in the English version, was translated and back-translated into Bahasa Melayu. This study was conducted to assess the reliability of the Bahasa Melayu version of the NSS among nurses for future studies in this country. The reliability of the NSS was assessed after its readministration to 30 nurses with a 2-week interval. The Spearman coefficient was calculated to assess its stability. The internal consistency was measured through 4 measures: Cronbach's α, Spearman-Brown, Guttman split-half, and standardized item α coefficients. The total response rate was 70%. Test-retest reliability showed remarkable stability (Spearman's ρ exceeded .70). All 4 measures of internal consistency among items indicated a satisfactory level (coefficients in the range of .68 to .87). In conclusion, the Bahasa Melayu version of the NSS is a reliable and useful instrument for measuring the possible stressors at the workplace among nurses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  2. Lee YK, Za'aba A, Madzhi NK, Ahmad A
    PMID: 19964239 DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2009.5333674
    Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the critical stress state which disable rational decision making could be ascertained in a standardized procedure. This technique would serve to aid human resource management in times of critical events such as rescue, firefighting or even military, that would potentially prevent unnecessary sacrifice of human lives. In this pilot study with five healthy volunteers performing the Ellestad protocol treadmill, a measurement profile with physiologic and salivary based biomarker is obtained. It is found that the alpha amylase levels or the changes in it as workload changes from resting-walking-running at ease-exhaustive running, is relatively more significant in reflecting the stress state than heart rate and blood pressure. Moreover, it is strongly associated with mood state with correlation coefficient of 0.8 and significance of 0.01.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  3. Maizura H, Masilamani R, Aris T
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2009 Apr;21(2):216-22.
    PMID: 19189999 DOI: 10.1177/1010539509331981
    This small, cross-sectional study assessed the reliability of 3 scales from the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ)-decision latitude, psychological job demand, and social support-in a group of office workers in a multinational company in Kuala Lumpur. A universal sample of 30 white-collar workers from a department of the company self-administered the English version of the JCQ comprising 21 core items selected from the full recommended version of 49 items on-site. Reliability (internal consistency) was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients for each scale. Corrected item-total correlation was presented for each and every item. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were acceptable for decision latitude (.76) and social support (.79) but slightly lower for psychological job demand (.64). Values for all item-total correlations for all 3 scales were greater than .3. In conclusion, this study suggests that the JCQ is a reliable scale for assessing job stress in this group of workers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  4. Osman ZJ, Mukhtar F, Hashim HA, Abdul Latiff L, Mohd Sidik S, Awang H, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Oct;55(7):1720-5.
    PMID: 24952938 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.04.011
    OBJECTIVE: The 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) is frequently used in non-clinical research to measure mental health factors among adults. However, previous studies have concluded that the 21 items are not stable for utilization among the adolescent population. Thus, the aims of this study are to examine the structure of the factors and to report on the reliability of the refined version of the DASS that consists of 12 items.
    METHOD: A total of 2850 students (aged 13 to 17 years old) from three major ethnic in Malaysia completed the DASS-21. The study was conducted at 10 randomly selected secondary schools in the northern state of Peninsular Malaysia. The study population comprised secondary school students (Forms 1, 2 and 4) from the selected schools.
    RESULTS: Based on the results of the EFA stage, 12 items were included in a final CFA to test the fit of the model. Using maximum likelihood procedures to estimate the model, the selected fit indices indicated a close model fit (χ(2)=132.94, df=57, p=.000; CFI=.96; RMR=.02; RMSEA=.04). Moreover, significant loadings of all the unstandardized regression weights implied an acceptable convergent validity. Besides the convergent validity of the item, a discriminant validity of the subscales was also evident from the moderate latent factor inter-correlations, which ranged from .62 to .75. The subscale reliability was further estimated using Cronbach's alpha and the adequate reliability of the subscales was obtained (Total=76; Depression=.68; Anxiety=.53; Stress=.52).
    CONCLUSION: The new version of the 12-item DASS for adolescents in Malaysia (DASS-12) is reliable and has a stable factor structure, and thus it is a useful instrument for distinguishing between depression, anxiety and stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  5. Nehzat F, Huda BZ, Tajuddin SH
    PMID: 24968690
    Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) has been proven a reliable and valid instrument to assess job stress in many countries and among various occupations. In Malaysia, both English and Malay versions of the JCQ have been administered to automotive workers, schoolteachers, and office workers. This study assessed the reliability and validity of the instrument with research laboratory staff in a university. A cross sectional study was conducted among 258 research laboratory staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Malaysian laboratory staff who have worked for at least one year were randomly selected from nine faculties and institutes in the university that have research laboratory. A self-administered English and Malay version of Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) was used. Three major scales of JCQ: decision latitude, psychological job demands, and social support were assessed. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of two scales were acceptable, decision latitude and psychological job demands (0.70 and 0.72, respectively), while Cronbach's alpha coefficient for social support (0.86) was good. Exploratory factor analysis showed five factors that correspond closely to the theoretical construct of the questionnaire. The results of this research suggest that the JCQ is reliable and valid for examining psychosocial work situations and job strain among research laboratory staff. Further studies should be done for confirmative results, and further evaluation is needed on the decision authority subscale for this occupation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  6. Aziah BD, Rusli BN, Winn T, Naing L, Tengku MA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 Jun;59(2):268-78.
    PMID: 15559179
    Karasek's job strain model postulates that workers chronically exposed to adverse psychosocial work environment (high strain job)--high psychological job demands and low job control, including poor social support, increased physical demand and hazardous work condition--will eventually develop both physical illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases and psychological disorders such as depression. In order to determine the prevalence and associated factors of job-related depression, a cross-sectional study was conducted among laboratory technicians in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) and Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM) Hospitals in Kelantan between September 2001 and February 2002. One hundred and two laboratory technicians in HUSM and 79 laboratory technicians in 7 KKM Hospitals were selected; 84/102 (82.4%) in HUSM and 71/79 (89.9%) in KKM Hospitals responded. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires of the validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) originally developed by Robert Karasek. Results indicated that the prevalence of high job strain in laboratory technicians in HUSM and KKM hospitals was 33.3% (28/84) and 26.8% (19/71), respectively (p>0.05). Significantly higher proportion (59.5%) (50/84) of laboratory technicians in HUSM compared to those in KKM Hospitals (39.4%) (28/71) (p = 0.016) experienced job-related depression. Significant associated factors of job-related depression were low social support (HUSM: adjusted OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.2-18.8; KKM: adjusted OR 14.8, 95%CI 2.4-89.3), high psychological demand (HUSM: adjusted OR 3.0, 95%CI 1.0-8.8), and low decision authority (KKM: adjusted OR 9.7, 95%CI 1.0-91.1). We conclude that strengthening the social support network (supervisors' and coworkers' support), reducing psychological job demand, and increasing decision-making authority of laboratory technicians may go a long way towards reducing job-related depression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis
  7. Loh SY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 Jun;59(2):199-206.
    PMID: 15559170 MyJurnal
    There is a general lack of valid tools to measure work stress of Malaysian. This study examines the validity and reliability of the Pressure Management Inventory (PMI). Reliability was evaluated using test retest method, and its correlation coefficient was calculated using Pearson's r. Internal consistencies were examined using Cronbach's Alpha. For precision, the Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were calculated for all the scales. Face Validity and Content Validity were assessed using an open-ended questionnaire on 6 content experts (psychiatrists in HKL). The results show good internal consistencies (alpha < or = 0.7) for most subscales, with the best results in the 'Pressure Scale'. The weak scales are 'Individual-Differences' scale and 'Social Support' scale. The test-retest correlation coefficients were significant at the level of p<0.001 for all, except one scale. The ICC coefficients were high (>0.7) for most scales, particularly for Pressure, Health and Coping Scales. The PMI is a suitable, reliable and valid tool to measure stress of Malaysians. More in-depth study with a wider sampling needs to be carried out to add confidence of its usage on Malaysians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  8. Tan S, Rey J
    Australas Psychiatry, 2005 Mar;13(1):76-9.
    PMID: 15777418
    To examine the relationship between depression in children and adolescents, parental depression and parenting stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis
  9. Nizam M, Norzila MZ
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2001 Dec;56(4):428-34.
    PMID: 12014761
    Objectives: A child's admission into intensive care is a major cause of stress for parents. However among Malaysian parents, data concerning the perception of stress are virtually absent. Therefore we conducted a study to measure the reliability of the Malay version of Parental Stressor Scale: Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PSS: PICU) in identifying sources of stress and to study factors that might influence their stress response.
    Methods: Over a six-month period, one hundred and twelve parents were requested to answer the questionnaires twice either in Malay or English, a week apart. Spearman's correlation and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to assess the repeatability and internal consistency of the questionnaires.
    Results: Ninety-four (83.9%) and seventy-one (75.3%) parents responded to the first and second administration of questionnaire respectively. All answered in the Malay language except for three. The correlation ranged from 0.50 to 0.71 with a total score of 0.76. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged from 0.75 to 0.93, with total a score of 0.95.
    Alteration in parental roles was the most stressful source of stress. Fathers, parents of children with higher PRISM score and parents with no previous admission into intensive care unit scored significantly higher in staff’s communication.
    Conclusion: The Malay version of PSS: PICU is reliable in identifying sources of stress. Alteration in parental roles was the most stressful source of stress. Parents' gender, previous experience and severity of the child illness may influence their stress responses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  10. Al-Shargie F, Tang TB, Badruddin N, Kiguchi M
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2018 Jan;56(1):125-136.
    PMID: 29043535 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-017-1733-8
    Mental stress has been identified as one of the major contributing factors that leads to various diseases such as heart attack, depression, and stroke. To avoid this, stress quantification is important for clinical intervention and disease prevention. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of exploiting electroencephalography (EEG) signals to discriminate between different stress levels. We propose a new assessment protocol whereby the stress level is represented by the complexity of mental arithmetic (MA) task for example, at three levels of difficulty, and the stressors are time pressure and negative feedback. Using 18-male subjects, the experimental results showed that there were significant differences in EEG response between the control and stress conditions at different levels of MA task with p values stress level to another level, p values stress levels. In addition, we developed a discriminant analysis method based on multiclass support vector machine (SVM) with error-correcting output code (ECOC). Different stress levels were detected with an average classification accuracy of 94.79%. The lateral index (LI) results further showed dominant right prefrontal cortex (PFC) to mental stress (reduced alpha rhythm). The study demonstrated the feasibility of using EEG in classifying multilevel mental stress and reported alpha rhythm power at right prefrontal cortex as a suitable index.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  11. Chin YW, Lai PS, Chia YC
    BMC Fam Pract, 2017 02 20;18(1):25.
    PMID: 28219325 DOI: 10.1186/s12875-017-0601-9
    BACKGROUND: Several disease specific instruments have been developed to identify and assess diabetes distress. In Malaysia, the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale has been validated in Malay, but it does not have specific domains to assess the different areas of diabetes-related distress. Hence, we decided to use the Diabetes Distress Scale instead. To date, only the Malay version of the Diabetes Distress Scale has been validated in Malaysia. However, English is widely spoken by Malaysians, and is an important second language in Malaysia. Therefore, our aim was to determine the validity and reliability of the English version of the Diabetes Distress Scale among patients with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia.

    METHODS: The Diabetes Distress Scale was administered to 114 patients with type 2 diabetes, who could understand English, at baseline and 4 weeks later, at a primary care clinic in Malaysia. To assess for convergent validity, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale was administered at baseline. Discriminative validity was assessed by analysing the total diabetes distress scores of participants with poor (HbA1c > 7.0%) and good glycaemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7.0%).

    RESULTS: The majority of our participants were male 65(57.0%), with a median duration of diabetes of 9.5 years. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the Diabetes Distress Scale had 4 subscales, as per the original Diabetes Distress Scale. The overall Cronbach's α was 0.920 (range = 0.784-0.859 for each subscale). The intraclass correlation ranged from 0.436 to 0.643 for test-retest. The Diabetes Distress Scale subscales were significantly correlated with the different subscales of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (spearman's rho range = 0.427-0.509, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  12. Beng TS, Ann YH, Guan NC, Chin LE, Loong LC, Ying NT, et al.
    J Palliat Med, 2017 08;20(8):869-874.
    PMID: 28410449 DOI: 10.1089/jpm.2016.0448
    BACKGROUND: Measuring suffering objectively presents a challenge because suffering is a unique and subjective experience. However, objective tools are of profound importance in the detection and management of suffering in clinical practice for optimal patient care.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to assess the psychometric properties of the Suffering Pictogram, a new suffering assessment instrument on a population of palliative care patients.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: This is a validation study conducted at University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ninety one palliative care patients were recruited. Patients were interviewed with the Suffering Pictogram and FACIT-Sp.

    RESULTS: The median completion time for the Suffering Pictogram was five minutes. The Suffering Pictogram showed good internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.836. The total scores of the Suffering Pictogram correlated strongly and negatively with FACIT-Sp total score (Spearman's Rho = -0.625, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  13. Yusoff MS, Yaacob MJ, Naing NN, Esa AR
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2013 Feb;6(1):60-5.
    PMID: 23380320 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2012.09.001
    This study evaluated the convergent, discriminant, construct, concurrent and discriminative validity of the Medical Student Wellbeing Index (MSWBI) as well as to evaluate its internal consistency and optimal cut-off total scores to detect at least moderate levels of general psychological distress, stress, anxiety and depression symptoms. A cross sectional study was done on 171 medical students. The MSWBI and DASS-21 were administered and returned immediately upon completion. Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis, ROC analysis and Pearson correlation test were applied to assess psychometric properties of the MSWBI. A total of 168 (98.2%) medical students responded. The goodness of fit indices showed the MSWBI had a good construct (χ(2)=6.14, p=0.803, RMSEA<0.001, RMR=0.004, GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.97, CFI=1.00, IFI=1.02, TLI=1.04). The Cronbach's alpha value was 0.69 indicating an acceptable level of internal consistency. Pearson correlation coefficients and ROC analysis suggested each MSWBI's item showed adequate convergent and discriminant validity. Its optimal cut-off scores to detect at least moderate levels of general psychological distress, stress, anxiety, and depression were 1.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 2.5 respectively with sensitivity and specificity ranged from 62 to 80% and the areas under ROC curve ranged from 0.71 to 0.83. This study showed that the MSWBI had good level of psychometric properties. The MSWBI score more than 2 can be considered as having significant psychological distress. The MSWBI is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess psychological distress of medical students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  14. Masilamani R, Darus A, Ting AS, Ali R, Awang Mahmud AB, Koh D
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2012 Mar;24(2):278-87.
    PMID: 21385771 DOI: 10.1177/1010539510393725
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of job stress among secondary school teachers using Karasek Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the association between salivary cortisol, salivary IgA, and sociodemographic characteristics, and the association between log cortisol, IgA levels, and job strain categories. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using JCQ and salivary cortisol and IgA samples. Cluster sampling was done yielding 302 respondents. The prevalence of stress among all teachers was 20.2%. Being a Malay, teaching experience of 5 to 10 years, and those without a supervisor's support had higher prevalence of high job strain. Teachers in the 31 to 40 years age bracket, educating handicapped children with the absence of supervisor support exhibited higher stress levels with lower log salivary IgA levels. Further studies must be conducted using salivary biomarkers to study the in-depth relationship of stress, extending into other occupational groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis
  15. Shamsuddin K, Fadzil F, Ismail WS, Shah SA, Omar K, Muhammad NA, et al.
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2013 Aug;6(4):318-23.
    PMID: 23810140 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2013.01.014
    University students face not only challenges related with independent living, but also academic challenges. This predisposes them to depression, anxiety and stress, which are fairly common.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  16. Arloth J, Bogdan R, Weber P, Frishman G, Menke A, Wagner KV, et al.
    Neuron, 2015 Jun 03;86(5):1189-202.
    PMID: 26050039 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.05.034
    Depression risk is exacerbated by genetic factors and stress exposure; however, the biological mechanisms through which these factors interact to confer depression risk are poorly understood. One putative biological mechanism implicates variability in the ability of cortisol, released in response to stress, to trigger a cascade of adaptive genomic and non-genomic processes through glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Here, we demonstrate that common genetic variants in long-range enhancer elements modulate the immediate transcriptional response to GR activation in human blood cells. These functional genetic variants increase risk for depression and co-heritable psychiatric disorders. Moreover, these risk variants are associated with inappropriate amygdala reactivity, a transdiagnostic psychiatric endophenotype and an important stress hormone response trigger. Network modeling and animal experiments suggest that these genetic differences in GR-induced transcriptional activation may mediate the risk for depression and other psychiatric disorders by altering a network of functionally related stress-sensitive genes in blood and brain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis
  17. Rusli BN, Amrina K, Trived S, Loh KP, Shashi M
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2017 10;72(5):264-270.
    PMID: 29197880 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: The 21-item English version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) has been proposed as a method for assessing self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress over the past week in various clinical and nonclinical populations. Several Malay versions of the DASS-21 have been validated in various populations with varying success. One particular Malay version has been validated in various occupational groups (such as nurses and automotive workers) but not among male clinic outpatient attendees in Malaysia.

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the Malay version of the DASS-21 (Malay-DASS-21) among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor.

    METHODS: A validation study with a random sample of 402 male respondents attending the outpatient clinic of a major public outpatient clinic in Johor Bahru and Segamat was carried out from January to March 2016. Construct validity of the Malay-DASS-21 was examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis (KMO = 0.947; Bartlett's test of sphericity is significant, p<0.001) through Principal Component Analysis and orthogonal (varimax) rotation with Kaiser Normalization to confirm the psychometric properties of the Malay-DASS- 21 and the internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha.

    RESULTS: Construct validity of the Malay-DASS-21 based on eigenvalues and factor loadings to confirm the three factor structure (depression, anxiety, and stress) was acceptable. The internal consistency reliability of the factor construct was very impressive with Cronbach's alpha values in the range of 0.837 to 0.863.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that the Malay- DASS-21 has acceptable psychometric construct and high internal consistency reliability to measure self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress over the past week in male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Further studies are necessary to revalidate the Malay-DASS-21 across different populations and cultures, and using confirmatory factor analyses.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  18. Rajiah K, Saravanan C
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2014 Nov 15;78(9):163.
    PMID: 25525278 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe789163
    To analyze the effect of psychological intervention on reducing performance anxiety and the consequences of the intervention on first-year pharmacy students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis
  19. Norizan A, Shamsuddin K
    J Intellect Disabil Res, 2010 Nov;54(11):992-1003.
    PMID: 20868445 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2010.01324.x
    Having children with intellectual disability can be stressful for most parents. Currently there are very few studies focusing on parenting stress among mothers of children with Down syndrome (DS) in Asia. The present study examined the level of parenting stress experienced by Malaysian mothers of children with DS and evaluated the child and maternal factors that contributed to parenting stress based on Hill's ABC-X Model (Hill 1949).
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
  20. Saravanan C, Heidhy I
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(18):7629-34.
    PMID: 25292039
    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 780 undergraduate students participated from a private university in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state in Malaysia. The Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale, Modified Reason for Smoking Scale and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test were used to measure psychological problems, predictors of smoking behavior and nicotine dependency among current smokers.

    RESULTS: The results showed that 14.7%(n=106) of the students were smokers. Current smokers exhibited more psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) compared to former and non-smokers. Addiction, tension reduction, pleasure and automatism were predictors of smoking behavior among the current smoking students. Step wise regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was highly predicted by nicotine dependency or addiction. Smoking students were motivated to smoke cigarettes as they believed that it reduced their tension and enhance pleasure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Hence, there is a need for health promotion and anti-tobacco prevention as cigarette smokers experience more psychological problems. Nicotine dependency or addition was one of the major causes for smoking behavior among the student population in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Psychological/diagnosis*
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