Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Ahmad AF, Hadip F, Ngui R, Lim YA, Mahmud R
    Parasitol Res, 2013 Aug;112(8):2811-6.
    PMID: 23666229 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-013-3450-z
    Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection particularly in asymptomatic individuals is often hampered due to the lack of standard diagnostic tools. In this study, the use of serological and molecular approaches were investigated for the detection of S. stercoralis infection among an Orang Asli (indigenous) community following a preliminary detection by microscopic examination of faecal samples. Out of 54 individuals studied, 17/54 (31.5%) were detected to be positive for S. stercoralis infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), compared to 0/54 (0%) by faecal examination. Further confirmation performed by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using DNA extracted from faecal samples of these 17 individuals yielded 3/17 (17.6%) positives for S. stercoralis DNA amplification. No amplification was seen with the other 37 faecal samples, which were negative by microscopy and ELISA. As the high ELISA positive results were suspected to be false-positives, ELISA is not recommended for use as a detection tool but may be beneficial for evaluating the effectiveness of anti-Strongyloides drugs. The present finding indicated that PCR should be considered as an alternative diagnostic tool for the detection of S. stercoralis infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification*
  2. Zeehaida M, Zairi NZ, Rahmah N, Maimunah A, Madihah B
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Apr;28(1):188-93.
    PMID: 21602786
    Transmission of soil-transmitted helminthes infection is by faecal oral route, and is influenced by food preference. Kelantanese love to consume ulam which are raw vegetables and herbs. Some of the herbs grow on grounds with high humidity and are abundant near drainage areas, these are also places with higher likelihood of harbouring viable parasite ova. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of soiltransmitted helminthes in vegetables, herbs and fruits found in our local setting. The results by microscopy showed that there was no helminthes ovum or protozoan parasite in the samples. However, Strongyloides stercoralis rhabdatiform larvae were identified in water samples used to wash pegaga, kesum and water spinach, and the number of larvae observed were 152, 9 and 16 respectively. Analysis by real-time PCR confirmed the microscopic observation of this helminth. This study highlighted that vegetables and herbs are likely sources of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Thus vegetable sellers as well as the food handlers are the two important groups who are at high risk of acquiring the infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification*
  3. Shekhar KC, Pathmanathan R, Loo VS, Chan KS
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Sep;54(3):361-3.
    PMID: 11045064
    Matched MeSH terms: Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification
  4. Arifin N, Hanafiah KM, Ahmad H, Noordin R
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2019 Jun;52(3):371-378.
    PMID: 30482708 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2018.10.001
    Strongyloidiasis is a major neglected tropical disease with the potential of causing lifelong infection and mortality. One of the ways for effective control of this disease is developing improved diagnostics, particularly using serological approaches. A serological test can achieve high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, has the potential for point-of-care translation, and can be used as a screening tool for early detection. More research is needed to find clinically important antibody biomarkers for early disease detection, mapping, and epidemiological surveillance. This article summarizes human strongyloidiasis and the available diagnostic tools for the disease, focusing on describing the current antibody assays for strongyloidiasis. Finally, prospects of developing a more effective serodiagnostic tool for strongyloidiasis are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification*
  5. Al-Mekhlafi HM, Nasr NA, Lim YAL, Elyana FN, Sady H, Atroosh WM, et al.
    Parasitology, 2019 10;146(12):1602-1614.
    PMID: 31303180 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182019000945
    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of S. stercoralis infection among 1142 Orang Asli primary schoolchildren in six different states of Peninsular Malaysia. Fecal samples were examined using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation (FES), agar plate culture (APC) and PCR techniques. Overall, 15.8% of the children were found to be infected with S. stercoralis. The prevalence was 0.2, 1.3, 15.2 and 13.7% by direct smear, FES, APC and PCR, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that an age of >10 years, being male, belonging to a Proto-Malay tribe, belonging to the Senoi tribe, indiscriminate defecation, using an unimproved water source for drinking water and not wearing shoes when outside were the significant risk factors of infection among these children. In conclusion, we provide new evidence on the occurrence of S. stercoralis in Malaysia to show that there is a relatively high prevalence of infection among Orang Asli schoolchildren. Therefore, the use of specific methods for detecting S. stercoralis should be considered when screening these children for intestinal parasites. Moreover, prevention and control measures specific to S. stercoralis should be integrated into the intestinal parasitic infections control programme in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification*
  6. Sagin DD, Mohamed M, Ismail G, Jok JJ, Lim LH, Pui JN
    PMID: 12118449
    Intestinal parasitic infection among five interior communities at Bakun Valley, upper Rejang River, Sarawak, Malaysia, was investigated as part of a public health impact assessment of the proposed US$ 3 billion Bakun Hydroelectric Project. Coproparasitological examination of 355 stool samples from 7 of 16 villages representing 5 of 7 tribes in the area revealed infection rate of 41%. A higher infection rate was found among the settled Kayans (56%) than the seminomadic Penans (29%). Infection rate was high (68%) among children less than 14 years old. Trichuris trichiura accounted for more than 90% of all infections; less common were Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis. Polyparasitism was found in 8% of the individuals surveyed with dual infection due to T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides being more common than dual infection with T. trichiura and hookworm. Women had higher infection rates (57%) than men (33%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification
  7. Ngui R, Halim NA, Rajoo Y, Lim YA, Ambu S, Rajoo K, et al.
    Korean J Parasitol, 2016 Oct;54(5):673-678.
    PMID: 27853126
    Epidemiological study on strongyloidiasis in humans is currently lacking in Malaysia. Thus, a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among the inhabitants of longhouse indigenous communities in Sarawak. A single stool and blood sample were collected from each participant and subjected to microscopy, serological and molecular techniques. Five species of intestinal parasites were identified by stool microscopy. None of the stool samples were positive for S. stercoralis. However, 11% of 236 serum samples were seropositive for strongyloidiasis. Further confirmation using molecular technique on stool samples of the seropositive individuals successfully amplified 5 samples, suggesting current active infections. The prevalence was significantly higher in adult males and tended to increase with age. S. stercoralis should no longer be neglected in any intestinal parasitic survey. Combination of more than 1 diagnostic technique is necessary to increase the likelihood of estimating the 'true' prevalence of S. stercoralis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification*
  8. Win TT, Sitiasma H, Zeehaida M
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Apr;28(1):64-7.
    PMID: 21602770
    Infections and mTalignancies are common causes of pleural effusion. Among infectious causes, hyperinfection syndrome of Strongyloides stercoralis may occur in immunosuppressive patient. A 62-year-old man, known case of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was presented with recurrent NHL stage IV and had undergone salvage chemotherapy. Patient subsequently developed pneumonia with bilateral pleural effusion and ascites. We reported rhabditiform larvae of S. stercoralis in pleural fluid of both lungs without infiltration by lymphoma cells. Stool for microscopic examination also revealed rhabditiform larvae of S. stercoralis. This patient was a known case of NHL receiving chemotherapy resulting in immunosuppression state. Although S. stercoralis infection is not very common compared to other parasitic infections, it is common in immunosuppressive patients and may present with hyperinfection. Therefore, awareness of this parasite should be kept in mind in immunosuppressive patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification*
  9. Angal L, Mahmud R, Samin S, Yap NJ, Ngui R, Amir A, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2015 Oct 29;15:467.
    PMID: 26511347 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-015-1178-3
    BACKGROUND: The prison management in Malaysia is proactively seeking to improve the health status of the prison inmates. Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are widely distributed throughout the world and are still gaining great concern due to their significant morbidity and mortality among infected humans. In Malaysia, there is a paucity of information on IPIs among prison inmates. In order to further enhance the current health strategies employed, the present study aims to establish firm data on the prevalence and diversity of IPIs among HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals in a prison, an area in which informed knowledge is still very limited.

    METHODS: Samples were subjected to microscopy examination and serological test (only for Strongyloides). Speciation for parasites on microscopy-positive samples and seropositive samples for Strongyloides were further determined via polymerase chain reaction. SPSS was used for statistical analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 294 stool and blood samples each were successfully collected, involving 131 HIV positive and 163 HIV negative adult male inmates whose age ranged from 21 to 69-years-old. Overall prevalence showed 26.5% was positive for various IPIs. The IPIs detected included Blastocystis sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and Trichuris trichiura. Comparatively, the rate of IPIs was slightly higher among the HIV positive inmates (27.5%) than HIV negative inmates (25.8%). Interestingly, seropositivity for S. stercoralis was more predominant in HIV negative inmates (10.4%) compared to HIV-infected inmates (6.9%), however these findings were not statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of Blastocystis, Strongyloides, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar.

    CONCLUSIONS: These data will enable the health care providers and prison management staff to understand the trend and epidemiological situations in HIV/parasitic co-infections in a prison. This information will further assist in providing evidence-based guidance to improve prevention, control and management strategies of IPIs co-infections among both HIV positive and HIV negative inmates in a prison environment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification
  10. Norsarwany M, Abdelrahman Z, Rahmah N, Ariffin N, Norsyahida A, Madihah B, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Sep;29(3):479-88.
    PMID: 23018511
    Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Infected healthy individuals are usually asymptomatic, however it is potentially fatal in immunocompromised hosts due to its capacity to cause an overwhelming hyperinfection. Strongyloidiasis could be missed during routine screening because of low and intermittent larval output in stool and variable manifestations of the symptoms. We present two cases of strongyloidiasis occurring in children with solid organ malignancies suspected to have the infection based on their clinical conditions and treatment history for cancer. Both patients were diagnosed by molecular and serological tests and were successfully treated. Thus, strongyloidiasis in patients undergoing intensive treatment for malignancies should be suspected, properly investigated and treated accordingly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification*
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