Infections and mTalignancies are common causes of pleural effusion. Among infectious causes, hyperinfection syndrome of Strongyloides stercoralis may occur in immunosuppressive patient. A 62-year-old man, known case of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was presented with recurrent NHL stage IV and had undergone salvage chemotherapy. Patient subsequently developed pneumonia with bilateral pleural effusion and ascites. We reported rhabditiform larvae of S. stercoralis in pleural fluid of both lungs without infiltration by lymphoma cells. Stool for microscopic examination also revealed rhabditiform larvae of S. stercoralis. This patient was a known case of NHL receiving chemotherapy resulting in immunosuppression state. Although S. stercoralis infection is not very common compared to other parasitic infections, it is common in immunosuppressive patients and may present with hyperinfection. Therefore, awareness of this parasite should be kept in mind in immunosuppressive patients.
Understanding determinants shaping infection risk of endangered wildlife is a major topic in conservation medicine. The proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus, an endemic primate flagship species for conservation in Borneo, is endangered through habitat loss, but can still be found in riparian lowland and mangrove forests, and in some protected areas. To assess socioecological and anthropogenic influence on intestinal helminth infections in N. larvatus, 724 fecal samples of harem and bachelor groups, varying in size and the number of juveniles, were collected between June and October 2012 from two study sites in Malaysian Borneo: 634 samples were obtained from groups inhabiting the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary (LKWS), 90 samples were collected from groups of the Labuk Bay Proboscis Monkey Sanctuary (LBPMS), where monkeys are fed on stationary feeding platforms. Parasite risk was quantified by intestinal helminth prevalence, host parasite species richness (PSR), and eggs per gram feces (epg). Generalized linear mixed effect models were applied to explore whether study site, group type, group size, the number of juveniles per group, and sampling month predict parasite risk. At the LBPMS, prevalence and epg of Trichuris spp., strongylids, and Strongyloides spp. but not Ascaris spp., as well as host PSR were significantly elevated. Only for Strongyloides spp., prevalence showed significant changes between months; at both sites, the beginning rainy season with increased precipitation was linked to higher prevalence, suggesting the external life cycle of Strongyloides spp. to benefit from humidity. Higher prevalence, epgs, and PSR within the LBPMS suggest that anthropogenic factors shape host infection risk more than socioecological factors, most likely via higher re-infection rates and chronic stress. Noninvasive measurement of fecal parasite stages is an important tool for assessing transmission dynamics and infection risks for endangered tropical wildlife. Findings will contribute to healthcare management in nature and in anthropogenically managed environments.
Strongyloides callosciureus n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditoidea), from Asian sciurids, is described based on morphology, morphometry, and the small and large subunit (SSU/LSU) ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences. This new species was collected from Pallas's squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) in the central part of mainland Japan (Honshu), which were originally introduced from Taiwan some decades ago, and plantain squirrels (Callosciurus notatus) imported from Malaysia as personal pets. For comparison, Strongyloides robustus Chandler, 1942 was collected from American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) imported from the United States as personal pets. The parasitic females found in North American and Asian sciurids shared some key morphological features such as the ovary running spirally around the gut, and the shapes of the stoma in the apical view and the tail. However, morphometric features of parasitic females in North American and Asian sciurids differed significantly from each other; the former was larger than the latter, and the relative position of the vulva to the whole body length from the mouth was different. The SSU/LSU rDNA sequences supported the division of sciurid Strongyloides isolates by geographical distribution of the host and morphological features, leading us to propose the erection of new species.
Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Infected healthy individuals are usually asymptomatic, however it is potentially fatal in immunocompromised hosts due to its capacity to cause an overwhelming hyperinfection. Strongyloidiasis could be missed during routine screening because of low and intermittent larval output in stool and variable manifestations of the symptoms. We present two cases of strongyloidiasis occurring in children with solid organ malignancies suspected to have the infection based on their clinical conditions and treatment history for cancer. Both patients were diagnosed by molecular and serological tests and were successfully treated. Thus, strongyloidiasis in patients undergoing intensive treatment for malignancies should be suspected, properly investigated and treated accordingly.