Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 31 in total

  1. Naing C, Wai VN, Durham J, Whittaker MA, Win NN, Aung K, et al.
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2015 Jul;94(28):e1089.
    PMID: 26181541 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000001089
    Engaging students in active learning lies at the center of effective higher education. In medical schools, students' engagement in learning and research has come under increasing attention. The objective of this study was to synthesize evidence on medical students' perspectives on the engagement in research. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Relevant studies were searched in electronic databases. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed. Overall, 14 observational studies (with 17 data sets) were included. In general, many studies did not use the same questionnaires and the outcome measurements were not consistently reported; these presented some difficulties in pooling the results. Whenever data permitted, we performed pooled analysis for the 4 education outcomes. A Bayesian meta-analytical approach was supplemented as a measure of uncertainty. A pooled analysis showed that 74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57%-11.07%; I2: 95.2%) of those students who engaged in research (while at the medical school) had positive attitudes toward their research experiences, whereas 49.5% (95% CI: 36.4%-62.7%; I2: 93.4%) had positive attitudes toward the study of medical sciences, 62.3% (95% CI: 46.7%-77.9%; I2: 96.3%) had self-reported changes in their practices, and 64% (95% CI: 30.8%-96.6%; I2: 98.5%) could have published their work. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies. We acknowledged the caveats and the merit of the current review. Findings showed that engagement in research resulted in favorable reactions toward research and academic learning. Future well-designed studies using standardized research tools on how to engage students in research are recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
  2. Azad MC, Fraser K, Rumana N, Abdullah AF, Shahana N, Hanly PJ, et al.
    J Clin Sleep Med, 2015 Jan 15;11(1):69-74.
    PMID: 25515274 DOI: 10.5664/jcsm.4370
    Medical students carry a large academic load which could potentially contribute to poor sleep quality above and beyond that already experienced by modern society. In this global literature review of the medical students' sleep experience, we find that poor sleep is not only common among medical students, but its prevalence is also higher than in non-medical students and the general population. Several factors including medical students' attitudes, knowledge of sleep, and academic demands have been identified as causative factors, but other potential mechanisms are incompletely understood. A better understanding about the etiology of sleep problems in medical trainees is essential if we hope to improve the overall quality of medical students' lives, including their academic performance. Sleep self-awareness and general knowledge appear insufficient in many studied cohorts, so increasing education for students might be one beneficial intervention. We conclude that there is ample evidence for a high prevalence of the problem, and research in this area should now expand towards initiatives to improve general sleep education for medical students, identify students at risk, and target them with programs to improve sleep.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data*
  3. Al-Dubai SA, Ganasegeran K, Al-Shagga MA, Yadav H, Arokiasamy JT
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:465161.
    PMID: 24453859 DOI: 10.1155/2013/465161
    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
  4. Tullo ES, Young TJ
    Int Psychogeriatr, 2014 Jan;26(1):165-71.
    PMID: 24135153 DOI: 10.1017/S1041610213001737
    BACKGROUND: The changing demographics of societies mean that medical students worldwide must be sufficiently prepared to care competently for patients with dementia through development of appropriate knowledge, skills, and attitudes. No previous research had explored undergraduate medical students' attitudes toward people with dementia.
    METHODS: An adapted version of the Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire (ADQ) was completed by 501 medical undergraduates in years 1, 3, and 5 of their degree programs in the UK and Malaysia. Non-parametric statistical analysis focused on any differences between year groups and geographical locations.
    RESULTS: The mean ADQ response indicated a generally positive attitude across the sample, comparable with other healthcare professionals previously surveyed. Year 3 and year 5 students expressed significantly more positive attitudes than year 1 students. Year 1 students based in the UK expressed significantly more positive attitudes than year 1 student based in Malaysia, but there were no significant differences between year 3 students based in different locations.
    CONCLUSION: The more positive attitudes found amongst year 3 and year 5 students compared to year 1 may be a result of teaching emphasizing a person-centered approach. The differences between entry-level students from Malaysia and the UK may reflect variance in cultural norms and expectations, or the ADQ's "Western" origin. Medical schools aiming to equip students with dementia-specific skills and knowledge can draw on the generally positive attitudes found in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
  5. Arzuman H, Ja'afar R, Fakri NM
    Educ Health (Abingdon), 2012 Nov;25(2):124-7.
    PMID: 23823596 DOI: 10.4103/1357-6283.103460
    An aim of medical schools is to select the most suitable candidates who are more likely to become good doctors, fulfilling societal expectations. It is imperative to better understand the influence of 'selection' variables on students' academic performance. We conducted a retrospective record review (3R) to examine the predictive power of pre-admission tracks on academic performance in the medical programme at the Universiti Sains Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data*
  6. Boyle E, Healy D, Hill AD, O'Connell PR, Kerin M, McHugh S, et al.
    Ir J Med Sci, 2013 Sep;182(3):337-43.
    PMID: 23242574 DOI: 10.1007/s11845-012-0882-x
    INTRODUCTION: The national junior doctor recruitment crisis prompts an appraisal of medical student attitudes to different career pathways. The purpose of this study was to perform a national review of surgical career intentions of Irish final year medical students.

    METHODS: Ethical and institutional approval was obtained at each study location. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to final year students. Domains assessed included demographics, career plans and reasons associated. Anonymised responses were collated and evaluated. Categorical data were compared with Fisher's exact test.

    RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 342 students in four medical schools of whom 78.6% were undergraduates. Over half (53%) were Irish, with Malaysia, Canada and the USA the next most common countries of origin. Only 18% of students intended to pursue surgery, with 60% stating they did not plan to, and 22% undecided. Of those who plan not to pursue surgery, 28% were unsure about a speciality but the most common choices were medicine (39%), general practice (16%) and paediatrics (8%). Reasons for not picking a career in surgery included long hours and the unstructured career path. Suggestions to improve uptake included earlier and more practical exposure to surgery, improved teaching/training and reduction in working hours.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this study 18% of final year medical students identified surgery as their chosen career pathway. Although lifestyle factors are significant in many students' decision, perceived quality and duration of surgical training were also relevant and are modifiable factors which, if improved could increase interest in surgery as a career.

    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data*
  7. Tey NP, Yew SY, Low WY, Su'ut L, Renjhen P, Huang MS, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(12):e52116.
    PMID: 23300600 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052116
    Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
  8. Gopalakrishnan S, Ganeshkumar P, Prakash MVS, Christopher, Amalraj V
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Aug;67(4):442-4.
    PMID: 23082463
    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Body mass index is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations and individuals.
    OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to screen the medical students of AIMST University for overweight/obesity using Body Mass Index(BMI) and to determine the prevalence among them.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 290 medical students using a pre-tested questionnaire and measured their Body Mass Index (BMI). Data obtained was analyzed statistically by calculating proportions.
    RESULTS: Out of 290 students who participated in the study, 45.2% were males. In the study, 14.8% were found to be overweight (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m2); 13.7% of males and 15.7% of females. Pre-obese students (BMI 25-29kg/m2) accounted for 15.9% of the total (males 18.3% and females 13.8%). 5.2% were found to be obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2): males 9.2% and females 1.9%. Also 14.8% were found to be underweight (males 12.2% and females 17.0%). The study group consisted of 63.8% Indian, 32.4% Chinese and 3.8% Malay students.
    CONCLUSIONS: The study reveals that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the medical students of AIMST University is on the high, which is comparable to the findings of earlier studies conducted in Malaysia, reinforcing the need to encourage healthy lifestyle, healthy food habits and a physically active daily routine, among the adolescents and youth of this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data*
  9. Guan NC, Isa SM, Hashim AH, Pillai SK, Harbajan Singh MK
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP2210-9.
    PMID: 22652253 DOI: 10.1177/1010539512447808
    The use of the Internet has been increasing dramatically over the decade in Malaysia. Excessive usage of the Internet has lead to a phenomenon called Internet addiction. There is a need for a reliable, valid, and simple-to-use scale to measure Internet addiction in the Malaysian population for clinical practice and research purposes. The aim of this study was to validate the Malay version of the Internet Addiction Test, using a sample of 162 medical students. The instrument displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .91), parallel reliability (intraclass coefficient = .88, P < .001), and concurrent validity with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (Pearson's correlation = .84, P < .001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that 43 was the optimal cutoff score to discriminate students with and without Internet dependence. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation identified a 5-factor model. The Malay version of the Internet Addiction Test appeared to be a valid instrument for assessing Internet addiction in Malaysian university students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data*
  10. Yusoff MS
    Med Teach, 2012;34(7):595-6.
    PMID: 22489970 DOI: 10.3109/0142159X.2012.675104
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data*
  11. Ilic D, Nordin RB, Glasziou P, Tilson JK, Villanueva E
    BMC Med Educ, 2015;15:39.
    PMID: 25884717 DOI: 10.1186/s12909-015-0321-6
    BACKGROUND: Few studies have been performed to inform how best to teach evidence-based medicine (EBM) to medical trainees. Current evidence can only conclude that any form of teaching increases EBM competency, but cannot distinguish which form of teaching is most effective at increasing student competency in EBM. This study compared the effectiveness of a blended learning (BL) versus didactic learning (DL) approach of teaching EBM to medical students with respect to competency, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviour toward EBM.
    METHODS: A mixed methods study consisting of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and qualitative case study was performed with medical students undertaking their first clinical year of training in EBM. Students were randomly assigned to receive EBM teaching via either a BL approach or the incumbent DL approach. Competency in EBM was assessed using the Berlin questionnaire and the 'Assessing Competency in EBM' (ACE) tool. Students' self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviour was also assessed. A series of focus groups was also performed to contextualise the quantitative results.
    RESULTS: A total of 147 students completed the RCT, and a further 29 students participated in six focus group discussions. Students who received the BL approach to teaching EBM had significantly higher scores in 5 out of 6 behaviour domains, 3 out of 4 attitude domains and 10 out of 14 self-efficacy domains. Competency in EBM did not differ significantly between students receiving the BL approach versus those receiving the DL approach [Mean Difference (MD)=-0.68, (95% CI-1.71, 0.34), p=0.19]. No significant difference was observed between sites (p=0.89) or by student type (p=0.58). Focus group discussions suggested a strong student preference for teaching using a BL approach, which integrates lectures, online learning and small group activities.
    CONCLUSIONS: BL is no more effective than DL at increasing medical students' knowledge and skills in EBM, but was significantly more effective at increasing student attitudes toward EBM and self-reported use of EBM in clinical practice. Given the various learning styles preferred by students, a multifaceted approach (incorporating BL) may be best suited when teaching EBM to medical students. Further research on the cost-effectiveness of EBM teaching modalities is required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
  12. Anil S, Zawahir MS, Al-Naggar RA
    Front Med, 2016 Mar;10(1):91-100.
    PMID: 26715159 DOI: 10.1007/s11684-016-0428-0
    Preventive medicine has been incorporated in the medical school curriculum, but its effectiveness and the factors that affect it are yet to be widely looked into in the context of Malaysia. We aimed to measure the familiarity with, perception about the importance to learn, and the ability to practice preventive medicine as well as its determinants among the medical students in Malaysia. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted through an anonymous online survey among 387 randomly selected final year medical students of four large public medical schools in Malaysia from March to September 2014. Of the total sample, 340 (response rate 87.8%) gave a written informed consent and took part in the survey. The familiarity of the sample with preventive medicine was measured in 19 preventive medicine areas, and their perception about the importance of preventive medicine and their ability to practice it were gauged on a Likert scale (low score indicates disagreement and high indicates agreement). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, followed by logistic regression. The mean age of the respondents was 23.7 (SD 0.77) years, and 61.2% (n = 208) of them were females. Results showed that 22.9% of the sample (n = 78) had a low familiarity with preventive medicine, whereas 76.8% (n = 261) had a high familiarity. The study sample specified that among all the preventive medicine subjects, screening and control as well as smoking cessation and immunization are "extremely important to learn." In univariable analysis, being a female, medical school, family size, and perception about the importance to learn preventive medicine were associated with the ability to practice it. In multivariable analysis, the perception towards the importance to learn preventive medicine was the only significant determinant: aOR (adjusted odds ratio) for those who "agreed" 17.28 (95% CI aOR 4.44-67.26, P < 0.001) and for "strongly agreed" 35.87 (95% CI aOR 8.04-159.87, P < 0.001). Considering these findings, the familiarity of medical students with preventive medicine should be increased. The perception about the importance to learn preventive medicine is a strong determinant for the ability to practice it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data*
  13. Boo NY, Chia GJ, Wong LC, Chew RM, Chong W, Loo RC
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Feb;51(2):126-32.
    PMID: 20358151
    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity among medical students and its relationship with their dietary intake and physical activities.
    METHODS:This observational study was carried out on 240 medical students during the clinical phase of their medical course in a private medical school. Their body weight and height were measured, and a standardised questionnaire was used to collect information on their physical activities and dietary intake.
    RESULTS: The median body weight of the participants was 59.0 kg (interquartile range: 51.3-66.8), the mean body height was 166.1 cm (standard deviation [SD] 8.5 cm), and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 21.8 kg/m2 (SD 3.4 kg/m2). Based on the World Health Organization BMI cut-offs for the Asian population, 30.1 percent (n is equal to 72) of the students were overweight or obese, with a BMI that was equal to or greater than 23.0 kg/m2. Logistic regression analysis showed that, after controlling for various potential confounders, the only significant risk factors associated with overweight/obesity among these students were: male gender (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.1; 95 percent confidence intervals [CI] of 1.1 and 4.1; p is equal to 0.03), Malay ethnic group (adjusted OR 2.4; 95 percent CI 1.0 and 5.7; p is equal to 0.04), Indian ethnic group (adjusted OR 3.6; 95 percent CI 1.5 and 8.9; p is equal to 0.005), and the number of soft drinks consumed per week (adjusted OR 1.3; 95 percent CI 1.0 and 1.5; p is equal to 0.02). Skipping breakfast, the frequency of physical exercise per week, the number of hours of sleep per day, and eating noodles or roti canai (a type of Malaysian pancake) for breakfast were not significant risk factors.
    CONCLUSION: Obesity remains a common problem among medical students in their clinical years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data*
  14. Zaid ZA, Chan SC, Ho JJ
    Singapore Med J, 2007 Oct;48(10):895-9.
    PMID: 17909672
    A study was done between December 2005 and January 2006 to determine the prevalence of emotional disorders among medical students in a private medical school in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia and to determine the demographical characteristics, contributing factors and the key person consulted for emotional problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
  15. Sharif Nia H, Pahlevan Sharif S, Goudarzian AH, Allen KA, Jamali S, Heydari Gorji MA
    J Relig Health, 2017 Dec;56(6):2109-2117.
    PMID: 28229351 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-017-0376-2
    In recent years, researchers have identified that coping strategies are an important contributor to an individual's life satisfaction and ability to manage stress. The positive relationship between religious copings, specifically, with physical and mental health has also been identified in some studies. Spirituality and religion have been discussed rigorously in research, but very few studies exist on religious coping. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between religious coping methods (i.e., positive and negative religious coping) and self-care behaviors in Iranian medical students. This study used a cross-sectional design of 335 randomly selected students from Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A data collection tool comprised of the standard questionnaire of religious coping methods and questionnaire of self-care behaviors assessment was utilized. Data were analyzed using a two-sample t test assuming equal variances. Adjusted linear regression was used to evaluate the independent association of religious copings with self-care. Adjusted linear regression model indicated an independent significant association between positive (b = 4.616, 95% CI 4.234-4.999) and negative (b = -3.726, 95% CI -4.311 to -3.141) religious coping with self-care behaviors. Findings showed a linear relationship between religious coping and self-care behaviors. Further research with larger sample sizes in diverse populations is recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
  16. Wong LP, Mohamad Shakir SM, Tong WT, Alias H, Aghamohammadi N, Arumugam K
    Inform Health Soc Care, 2018 Dec;43(4):335-347.
    PMID: 29035606 DOI: 10.1080/17538157.2017.1364248
    Medical students' use of online medical journals as a source of information is crucial in the learning pathway to become medical doctors. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study among University medical students between December 2012 and March 2013 to assess their awareness, perceived usefulness, practices, and barriers to seeking information from online academic databases and medical journals. The response rate was 67.53%. The majority of the students knew of the availability of online academic databases and medical journals. The mean score for awareness (4.25 of possible 11.0), perceived usefulness (13.95 of possible 33.0), and practice (10.67 of possible 33.0) were low. The mean barrier score toward using online academic databases and medical journals was 25.41 (of possible 45.0). Multivariate findings showed that significant barriers associated with overall usage of online databases and medical journals were 1) not knowing where or how to locate databases and 2) unsureness of using the Boolean operators. Availability of full text subscriptions was found to be an important factor in using online databases. Study findings highlighted the need to increase awareness of academic databases' availability and increase training on ways to search online academic databases and medical journals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data*
  17. Nagandla K, Gupta ED, Motilal T, Teng CL, Gangadaran S
    Natl Med J India, 2019 7 4;31(5):293-295.
    PMID: 31267998 DOI: 10.4103/0970-258X.261197
    Background: Assessment drives students' learning. It measures the level of students' understanding. We aimed to determine whether performance in continuous assessment can predict failure in the final professional examination results.

    Methods: We retrieved the in-course continuous assessment (ICA) and final professional examination results of 3 cohorts of medical students (n = 245) from the examination unit of the International Medical University, Seremban, Malaysia. The ICA was 3 sets of composite marks derived from course works, which includes summative theory paper with short answer questions and 1 of the best answers. The clinical examination includes end-of-posting practical examination. These examinations are conducted every 6 months in semesters 6, 7 and 8; they are graded as pass/fail for each student. The final professional examination including modified essay questions (MEQs), 1 8-question objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and a 16-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), were graded as pass/fail. Failure in the continuous assessment that can predict failure in each component of the final professional examination was tested using chi-square test and presented as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).

    Results: Failure in ICA in semesters 6-8 strongly predicts failure in MEQs, OSPE and OSCE of the final professional examination with OR of 3.8-14.3 (all analyses p< 0.001) and OR of 2.4-6.9 (p<0.05). However, the correlation was stronger with MEQs and OSPE compared to OSCE.

    Conclusion: ICA with theory and clinical examination had a direct relationship with students' performance in the final examination and is a useful assessment tool.

    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data*
  18. Wong JHD, Ng KH, Sarasanandarajah S
    Phys Med, 2019 Oct;66:21-28.
    PMID: 31546154 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmp.2019.09.079
    The increased use of medical imaging and radiation therapies has resulted in a high demand for medical physicists. Although medical physics programmes are well established in advanced countries, the same cannot be said for many low- and medium-income countries. In some countries, there may be huge variations in the graduates' skill and quality, which pose a problem in ensuring patient safety, providing quality assurance in treatments, optimisation of protocols and standardisation of quality. It also makes any yet-to-be-established regional peer recognition efforts problematic. In order to understand the depth of this problem, a survey was carried out as part of the home-based assignment under the RAS 6088 IAEA programme. A large diversity in terms of course content, duration, clinical training and student profile could be observed across the Asia-Oceania universities surveyed. Out of 25 programmes, only six received recognition from professional bodies, and they were mostly in Australia and New Zealand. Hence, to ensure quality education, a regional curriculum model needs to be developed to harmonise standards. And there is still a long way to go towards standardizing medical physics education and clinical training in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
  19. Liew SC, Dutta S, Sidhu JK, De-Alwis R, Chen N, Sow CF, et al.
    Med Teach, 2014 Jul;36(7):626-31.
    PMID: 24787534 DOI: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.899689
    The complexity of modern medicine creates more challenges for teaching and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate medical programme. This research was conducted to study the level of communication skills among undergraduate medical students and to determine the difference between simulated patients and clinical instructors' assessment of communication skills.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
  20. Sidi H, Loh SF, Mahadevan R, Puteh SE, Musa R, Wong CY, et al.
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:103-9.
    PMID: 23857845 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12053
    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between clinical/socio-demographic factors with knowledge and attitude on sex among medical students of the National University of Malaysia (UKM).
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study assessing 452 students using a self-administered questionnaire of knowledge and attitude was performed and had a response rate of 80%.
    RESULTS: The majority of respondents were Malays (56%), females (57.5%), lived in urban areas (66.4%), had a median family income of RM3000 and perceived themselves as moderately religious (60%). The overall score on knowledge about sex was 21.7 of 35 (a higher score indicates better knowledge about sex). It was noted that 73.2% of students felt that they did not receive adequate training in medical school to deal with patients' sexuality and sexual problems, while 51.5% felt uncomfortable talking to patients about these issues. Students in the clinical year were more knowledgeable than those in pre-clinical years (22.67 versus 20.71, P 22 marks [median score]).
    DISCUSSION: The students' attitude on sex was considered conservative as the majority of them disagreed on premarital sex, masturbation, abortion, homosexuality and oral sex. Gender and religiosity have a large influence on attitudes on controversial sexual issues, whereas clinical status plays a small role. Knowledge on sex among UKM medical students is inadequate and their attitudes on sex are considered conservative. Integration of sexual medicine and health modules in the medical curriculum is crucial for students to more effectively address patients' sexual problems and promote non-judgmental attitudes towards patients.
    KEYWORDS: attitude; knowledge; medical student; sex
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
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