METHODS: Eight male subjects shaved their heads prior to expose to dry (30%RH; H30%) and humid (85%RH; H85%) conditions at an air temperature of 32 °C. Total sweat rate, local sweat rates (frontal, vertex, temporal, and occipital regions), active sweat glands on the scalp (2 frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, 1 occipital, and 1 vertex), and rectal and skin temperatures were measured during leg immersion in 42 °C water for 60 min.
RESULTS: (1) Total sweat rates were greater for H30% (179.4 ± 35.6 g h-1) than for H85% (148.1 ± 27.2 g h-1) (P
OBJECTIVES: To determine the commonly reported menopausal symptoms among Sarawakian women using a modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS).
METHODS: By using modified MRS questionnaire, 356 Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years were interview to document of 11 symptoms (divided into somatic, psychological and urogenital domain) commonly associated with menopause.
RESULTS: The mean age of menopause was 51.3 years (range 47 - 56 years). The most prevalent symptoms reported were joint and muscular discomfort (80.1%); physical and mental exhaustion (67.1%); and sleeping problems (52.2%). Followed by symptoms of hot flushes and sweating (41.6%); irritability (37.9%); dryness of vagina (37.9%); anxiety (36.5%); depressive mood (32.6%). Other complaints noted were sexual problem (30.9%); bladder problem (13.8%) and heart discomfort (18.3%). Perimenopausal women (n = 141) experienced higher prevalence of somatic and psychological symptoms compared to premenopausal (n = 82) and postmenopausal (n = 133) women. However urogenital symptoms mostly occur in the postmenopausal group of women.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of menopausal symptoms using modified MRS in this study correspond to other studies on Asian women however the prevalence of classical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, sweating was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women.
Methods: The participants consisted of 304 Chinese secondary school students (males = 165, females = 139) with a mean age of 13.55 years old (SD = 0.57) who volunteered to complete three measures, consisting of a demographic information form, the physical activity and leisure motivation scale for youth-Chinese version (PALMS-Y-C) and the Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire-Chinese version (GLTEQ-C).
Results: There were significant positive correlations between all the seven PA participation motives with amount of exercise (Enjoyment: r = 0.16, P = 0.010; Mastery: r = 0.23, P < 0.001; Competition: r = 0.21, P = 0.001; Affiliation: r = 0.22, P < 0.001; Psychological condition: r = 0.26, P < 0.001; Appearance: r = 0.20, P = 0.001; Physical condition: r = 0.20, P = 0.001). There were also significant mean differences among sweating exercise frequency categories in all the seven areas of PA participation motives (Enjoyment: P = 0.003, Mastery: P < 0.001, Competition: P = 0.001, Affiliation: P = 0.001, Psychological condition: P = 0.038, Appearance = 0.002, Physical condition: P = 0.004).
Conclusion: The present study provided insight into how to promote PA in Kelantan Chinese school-aged children by specifically targeting their motives. Interventions targeting these motives could increase the amount of PA among Kelantan Chinese youths.