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  1. INGHAM FJ, REED TA
    J R Army Med Corps, 1959 Oct;105:182-6.
    PMID: 13852827
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating*
  2. Lee JB, Bae JS, Matsumoto T, Yang HM, Min YK
    Int J Biometeorol, 2009 Mar;53(2):149-57.
    PMID: 19048305 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-008-0197-9
    Natives of the tropics are able to tolerate high ambient temperatures. This results from their long-term residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. This study was designed to compare the peripheral mechanisms of thermal sweating in tropical natives with that of their temperate counterparts. Fifty-five healthy male subjects including 20 native Koreans who live in the temperate Korean climate (Temperate-N) and 35 native tropical Malaysian men that have lived all of their lives in Malaysia (Tropical-N) were enrolled in this study after providing written informed consent to participate. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with 10% acetylcholine (ACh) was used to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, and oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The sweat onset time of AXR (nicotinic-receptor-mediated) was 56 s shorter in the Temperate-N than in the Tropical-N subjects (P < 0.0001). The nicotinic-receptor-mediated sweating activity AXR (1), and the muscarinic-receptor-mediated sweating activity DIR, in terms of sweat volume, were 103% and 59% higher in the Temperate-N compared to the Tropical-N subjects (P < 0.0001). The Temperate-N group also had a 17.8% (P < 0.0001) higher active sweat gland density, 35.4% higher sweat output per gland, 0.24 degrees C higher resting oral temperature, and 0.62 degrees C higher resting forearm skin temperature compared to the Tropical-N subjects (P < 0.01). ACh iontophoresis did not influence oral temperature, but increased skin temperature near where the ACh was administered, in both groups. These results suggest that suppressed thermal sweating in the Tropical-N subjects was, at least in part, due to suppressed sweat gland sensitivity to ACh through both recruitment of active sweat glands and the sweat gland output per each gland. This physiological trait guarantees a more economical use of body fluids, thus ensuring more efficient protection against heat stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating/drug effects*; Sweating/physiology
  3. Willmott AGB, Hayes M, Waldock KAM, Relf RL, Watkins ER, James CA, et al.
    J Sports Sci, 2017 Nov;35(22):2249-2256.
    PMID: 27935427 DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1265142
    Multistage, ultra-endurance events in hot, humid conditions necessitate thermal adaptation, often achieved through short term heat acclimation (STHA), to improve performance by reducing thermoregulatory strain and perceptions of heat stress. This study investigated the physiological, perceptual and immunological responses to STHA prior to the Marathon des Sables. Eight athletes (age 42 ± 4 years and body mass 81.9 ± 15.0 kg) completed 4 days of controlled hyperthermia STHA (60 min·day‒1, 45°C and 30% relative humidity). Pre, during and post sessions, physiological and perceptual measures were recorded. Immunological measures were recorded pre-post sessions 1 and 4. STHA improved thermal comfort (P = 0.02), sensation (P = 0.03) and perceived exertion (P = 0.04). A dissociated relationship between perceptual fatigue and Tre was evident after STHA, with reductions in perceived Physical (P = 0.04) and General (P = 0.04) fatigue. Exercising Tre and HR did not change (P > 0.05) however, sweat rate increased 14% (P = 0.02). No changes were found in white blood cell counts or content (P > 0.05). Four days of STHA facilitates effective perceptual adaptations, without compromising immune status prior to an ultra-endurance race in heat stress. A greater physiological strain is required to confer optimal physiological adaptations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating
  4. Saat M, Sirisinghe RG, Singh R, Tochihara Y
    J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci, 2005 Sep;24(5):541-9.
    PMID: 16237263
    This study investigates the effects of a short-term aerobic training program in a hot environment on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and composition in tropic-dwellers who have been exposed to passive heat. Sixteen healthy Malaysian-Malay male volunteers underwent heat acclimation (HA) by exercising on a bicycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max for 60 min each day in a hot environment (Ta: 31.1+/-0.1 degrees C, rh: 70.0+/-4.4%) for 14 days. All parameters mentioned above were recorded on Day 1 and at the end of HA (Day 16). On these two days, subjects rested for 10 min, then cycled at 60% of VO2max for 60 min and rested again for 20 min (recovery) in an improvised heat chamber. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk) heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS), local sweat rate and percent dehydration were recorded during the test. Sweat concentration was analysed for sodium [Na+]sweat and potassium. Blood samples were analysed for biochemical changes, electrolytes and hematologic indices. Urine samples were collected before and after each test and analysed for electrolytes.After the period of acclimation the percent dehydration during exercise significantly increased from 1.77+/-0.09% (Day 1) to 2.14+/-0.07% (Day 16). Resting levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells decreased significantly while [Na+]sweat increased significantly. For Tre and Tsk there were no differences at rest. Tre, HR, RPE, TS, plasma lactate concentration, hemoglobin and hematocrit at the 40th min of exercise were significantly lower after the period of acclimation but mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum osmolality were significantly higher while no difference was seen in [Na+]sweat and Tsk. It can be concluded that tropic-dwelling subjects, although exposed to prolonged passive heat exposure, were not fully heat acclimatized. To achieve further HA, they should gradually expose themselves to exercise-heat stress in a hot environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating/physiology*
  5. Jung D, Kim YB, Lee JB, Muhamed AMC, Lee JY
    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 2018 Dec;118(12):2655-2667.
    PMID: 30209544 DOI: 10.1007/s00421-018-3988-7
    PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of humidity on regional sweating secretion and active sweat gland density on the scalp during passive heating in hot environments.

    METHODS: Eight male subjects shaved their heads prior to expose to dry (30%RH; H30%) and humid (85%RH; H85%) conditions at an air temperature of 32 °C. Total sweat rate, local sweat rates (frontal, vertex, temporal, and occipital regions), active sweat glands on the scalp (2 frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, 1 occipital, and 1 vertex), and rectal and skin temperatures were measured during leg immersion in 42 °C water for 60 min.

    RESULTS: (1) Total sweat rates were greater for H30% (179.4 ± 35.6 g h-1) than for H85% (148.1 ± 27.2 g h-1) (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating*
  6. Rahman SA, Zainudin SR, Mun VL
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2010 Feb 22;9(1):5.
    PMID: 20175928 DOI: 10.1186/1447-056X-9-5
    BACKGROUND: Menopausal symptoms can be assessed by several tools, and can be influenced by various socio-demographic factors.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the commonly reported menopausal symptoms among Sarawakian women using a modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS).

    METHODS: By using modified MRS questionnaire, 356 Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years were interview to document of 11 symptoms (divided into somatic, psychological and urogenital domain) commonly associated with menopause.

    RESULTS: The mean age of menopause was 51.3 years (range 47 - 56 years). The most prevalent symptoms reported were joint and muscular discomfort (80.1%); physical and mental exhaustion (67.1%); and sleeping problems (52.2%). Followed by symptoms of hot flushes and sweating (41.6%); irritability (37.9%); dryness of vagina (37.9%); anxiety (36.5%); depressive mood (32.6%). Other complaints noted were sexual problem (30.9%); bladder problem (13.8%) and heart discomfort (18.3%). Perimenopausal women (n = 141) experienced higher prevalence of somatic and psychological symptoms compared to premenopausal (n = 82) and postmenopausal (n = 133) women. However urogenital symptoms mostly occur in the postmenopausal group of women.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of menopausal symptoms using modified MRS in this study correspond to other studies on Asian women however the prevalence of classical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, sweating was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating
  7. Ponnusamy, S., Shazli Ezzat Ghazali
    MyJurnal
    This paper reports a clinical case study on the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment (CBT) in treating panic attack with agoraphobia in a local health psychology clinic. M.N., a 24 year old male, complained of nightmares, heart palpitations, sweating, tremors and fearful feelings for the past one and a half years. He felt anxious about going to crowded places such as bus stations, night markets, supermarkets, and mosques and being left alone in any place which he was not familiar with. This case study adopted an ABC design whereby the subject was assessed at three different phases: pre-treatment, mid-treatment and post-treatment. Four standard assessment measures were administered: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Anxiety Scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The subject responded well to 12 sessions of intervention employed in the study based on CBT model and this could be noticed by minimal score on the entire psychological test administered. The application of behavioral and cognitive strategies became more effective due to patient’s ability to understand and also due to his cooperative behavior. He responded well to imagery exposure and in-vivo gradual exposure and successfully went to shopping malls, used lifts at Kuala Lumpur Tower, went to night markets and used public transport.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating
  8. Nurhanisah MH, Jawaid M, Ahmad Azmeer R, Paridah MT
    Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol, 2019 07;14(5):513-520.
    PMID: 29933703 DOI: 10.1080/17483107.2018.1479782
    This study describes a newly developed prosthetic leg socket design for a below-knee amputation. Excessive heat and the resulted perspiration within a prosthetic socket were the most common causes for reporting a reduced quality of life for prosthetic users. The product namely AirCirc means air circulation and it has been designed by approach of medical device design process in providing the amputees to maintain the skin temperature inside the socket. This device has been designed to provide the amputees with comfort and ultimate breathable. In order to design the device, the small hole was made in prosthetic socket surface since it has a function as air circulation. Four types of proposed sockets namely P1, P2, P3 and P4 and one control socket were compared on a single patient to determine the best design of prosthetic socket. The result successfully reveals that by using holes can be maintain the temperature inside prosthetic socket. In addition to the eco-friendly material, the woven kenaf was used as material that provides good strength as compared to glass fibre and offer sustainable and biodegradable product yet provides unique and aesthetic surface as came from woven kenaf itself. The objective of this paper is to provide the airflow prosthetic socket design and optimize the use of natural fibre in prostheses field. Thus, with the use of the environmental friendly material, functionality device and heat removal capability make the device suitable for maintaining a comfortable and healthy environment for prosthesis. Implications of Rehabilitation Newly developed prosthetic leg socket design for a below-knee amputation Device has been designed to provide the amputees with comfort and ultimate breathable Woven kenaf was used as material that provides good strength as compared to glass fibre for sustainable and biodegradable product Results show that by using holes can be maintain the temperature inside prosthetic socket.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating
  9. Aina Razlin Mohammad Roose
    MyJurnal
    This paper presents a case study of a 22-year-old female client who came for counselling sessions for the purpose of overcoming her pedaphobia. Symptoms, such as, dizziness, nausea, arousal, sweating palm and body shaking were noticed to be visible not only by the presence of a real child, but also by pictures, stories and imaginations of infants. Systematic desensitization technique, a form of Exposure Therapy, was applied to treat the client. It involved relaxation and breathing techniques, and supported by the application of live modelling guided participation. Along with the interventions, Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy techniques were also applied, such as, thought recording, irrational thoughts identification and disputation, Rational Emotive Imagery (REI), coping self-statement, and forceful self-statement. By the end of the therapy, the client reported to have experienced a decline in the occurrences of symptoms and demonstrated the ability to overcome her phobia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating
  10. Kong Fei Chai, Noranizan Mohd Adzahan, Roselina Karim, Yaya Rukayadi, Hasanah Mohd Ghazali
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2311-2318.
    Sweatings, the exudates that leach out from fermenting fruits during rambutan fruit fermentation are considered as
    a waste by-product and are allowed to be drained off. This could lead to a pollution problem. Besides, it is a waste if
    the sweatings are possible to be transformed into food products and ingredients. However, prior transformation, the
    fundamental knowledge of the sweatings should be understood. Hence, the main aim of this study was to investigate
    the physicochemical properties of sweatings as affected by fermentation time and turning intervals during natural
    fermentation of rambutan fruits. In this study, peeled rambutan fruit was fermented for 8 days and turned. Different
    batches of the fruits were turned every 24, 48 or 72 h and sweatings from the process were collected and analyzed.
    The results showed that fermentation time significantly reduced (p<0.05) the yield, pH and sucrose content of the
    sweatings by 79-84%, 32-33%, 76.5-80.8%, respectively. Fermentation time also significantly increased (p<0.05) the
    titratable acidity, total soluble solids, fructose, glucose, total sugar, citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid and ascorbic
    acid contents of the sweatings by 5.6-6.0, 1.5-1.6, 2.4-2.6, 2.1-2.5, 1.0-1.1, 5.7-6.5, 2.4-2.6, 2.1-2.5 and 2.6-2.8 folds,
    respectively. However, turning intervals did not significantly affect (p>0.05) the physicochemical properties of the
    sweatings. High concentrations of sugars and organic acids allow the sweatings to have a balance of sweet and sour
    taste and they are suitable to be used in the production of syrup, soft drinks, jam, jelly, marmalade and vinegar.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating
  11. Abdullah R., Wan Md Adnan W.A.H.
    JUMMEC, 2018;21(2):4-9.
    MyJurnal
    Long-distance running has gathered some momentum among health-conscious participants. However, some
    studies have revealed association between long-distance running and development of acute kidney injury.
    Although the impact usually lasts only for a few days after the event, some participants have been admitted for
    severe acute kidney injury, the minority of which require dialysis treatment. The mechanisms underlying the
    injury may include dehydration, development of rhabdomyolysis, heat stroke and concomitant use of NSAIDS.
    Unfortunately, there is no long-term follow-up study to determine the long-term effect on kidney function.
    Acute hyponatremia may develop in a significant proportion of long-distance runners. Majority of them were
    asymptomatic but a few fatal cases which were supposedly due to cerebral oedema have been reported.
    Excessive intake of hypotonic drinks, excessive sweating and secretion of non-osmotic antidiuretic hormone
    have been postulated to be the causes of hyponatremia. This mini review will discuss the pathophysiology of
    the development of acute kidney injury and hyponatremia. It will also discuss the prevention and treatment
    of both conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating
  12. Wijayanto T, Wakabayashi H, Lee JY, Hashiguchi N, Saat M, Tochihara Y
    Int J Biometeorol, 2011 Jul;55(4):491-500.
    PMID: 20824480 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-010-0358-5
    The objective of this study was to investigate thermoregulatory responses to heat in tropical (Malaysian) and temperate (Japanese) natives, during 60 min of passive heating. Ten Japanese (mean ages: 20.8 ± 0.9 years) and ten Malaysian males (mean ages: 22.3 ± 1.6 years) with matched morphological characteristics and physical fitness participated in this study. Passive heating was induced through leg immersion in hot water (42°C) for 60 min under conditions of 28°C air temperature and 50% RH. Local sweat rate on the forehead and thigh were significantly lower in Malaysians during leg immersion, but no significant differences in total sweat rate were observed between Malaysians (86.3 ± 11.8 g m(-2) h(-1)) and Japanese (83.2 ± 6.4 g m(-2) h(-1)) after leg immersion. In addition, Malaysians displayed a smaller rise in rectal temperature (0.3 ± 0.1°C) than Japanese (0.7 ± 0.1°C) during leg immersion, with a greater increase in hand skin temperature. Skin blood flow was significantly lower on the forehead and forearm in Malaysians during leg immersion. No significant different in mean skin temperature during leg immersion was observed between the two groups. These findings indicated that regional differences in body sweating distribution might exist between Malaysians and Japanese during heat exposure, with more uniform distribution of local sweat rate over the whole body among tropical Malaysians. Altogether, Malaysians appear to display enhanced efficiency of thermal sweating and thermoregulatory responses in dissipating heat loss during heat loading. Thermoregulatory differences between tropical and temperate natives in this study can be interpreted as a result of heat adaptations to physiological function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating/physiology
  13. Dhillon HK, Singh HJ, Mahmood NM, Ghaffar NA
    Climacteric, 2008;11(6):518-24.
    PMID: 18991079 DOI: 10.1080/13697130802491031
    OBJECTIVE:
    Documentation of self-care actions for vasomotor complaints by some postmenopausal women in Kelantan.

    METHODS:
    A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 326 naturally menopausal women to determine the prevalence and types of self-care actions taken for vasomotor complaints.

    RESULTS:
    Fractionally more women took self-care actions for night sweats than hot flushes. The choice of self-care action depended upon the area of residence and the educational level. The most common action taken for night sweats was to sleep either in an air-conditioned room or under a ceiling fan. About one-quarter of the complainants used hormone replacement therapy, the majority of who were urban-living and with secondary education. Only a small fraction used traditional remedies.

    CONCLUSION:
    A large proportion of women complaining of vasomotor complaints took self-care actions and the choice of self-care actions depended on the area of residence and educational level. The use of modern remedies and less of the traditional remedies was more common amongst the more affluent and educated women than women in rural areas who either did nothing or resorted to the more simple type of self-care actions. Contrary to our expectations, the use of traditional remedies was low.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating*
  14. Saat M, Tochihara Y, Hashiguchi N, Sirisinghe RG, Fujita M, Chou CM
    J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci, 2005 Jul;24(4):267-75.
    PMID: 16079566
    The effect of low-intensity exercise in the heat on thermoregulation and certain biochemical changes in temperate and tropical subjects under poorly and well-hydrated states was examined. Two VO2max matched groups of subjects consisting of 8 Japanese (JS) and 8 Malaysians (MS) participated in this study under two conditions: poorly-hydrated (no water was given) and well-hydrated (3 mL x Kg(-1) body weight of water was provided at onset of exercise, and the 15th, 35th and 55th min of exercise). The experimental room in both countries was adjusted to a constant level (Ta: 31.6+/-0.03 degrees C, rh: 72.3+/-0.13%). Subjects spent an initial 10 min rest, 60 min of cycling at 40% VO2max and then 40 min recovery in the experimental room. Rectal temperatures (Tre) skin temperatures (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heat-activated sweat glands density (HASG), local sweat rate (M sw-back) and percent dehydration were recorded during the test. Blood samples were analysed for plasma glucose and lactate levels.The extent of dehydration was significantly higher in the combined groups of JS (1.43+/-0.08%) compared to MS (1.15+/-0.05%). During exercise M sw-back was significantly higher in JS compared to MS in the well-hydrated condition. The HASG was significantly more in JS compared to MS at rest and recovery. Tre was higher in MS during the test. Tsk was significantly higher starting at the 5th min of exercise until the end of the recovery period in MS compared to JS. In conclusion, tropical natives have lower M sw-back associated with higher Tsk and Tre during the rest, exercise and recovery periods. However, temperate natives have higher M sw-back and lower Tsk and Tre during experiments in a hot environment. This phenomenon occurs in both poorly-hydrated and well-hydrated states with low intensity exercise. The differences in M sw-back, Tsk and Tre are probably due to a setting of the core temperature at a higher level and enhancement of dry heat loss, which occurred during passive heat exposure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating/physiology
  15. Arshad AR
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Dec;53(4):417-22.
    PMID: 10971987
    Parotid swellings are uncommon. Over a twelve-year period, 110 cases of parotid swellings were treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, of which 97 cases were histologically proven to be parotid tumours. 75% of these tumours were benign tumours, and 80% of the benign tumours were pleomorphic adenomas. Among the malignant tumours, 6 cases were adenoid cystic carcinoma and 5 were carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma. There were equal number of male to female patients, with an age range of 14 to 83 years. There is a positive correlation between the final histological diagnosis and FNAC results in 74% of cases. Surgical treatment of choice for benign parotid tumours was near-total parotidectomy whilst for malignant tumours was total radical parotidectomy with sural nerve graft.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating, Gustatory/etiology
  16. Wakabayashi H, Wijayanto T, Lee JY, Hashiguchi N, Saat M, Tochihara Y
    Int J Biometeorol, 2011 Jul;55(4):509-17.
    PMID: 20949285 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-010-0374-5
    This study investigated the differences in heat dissipation response to intense heat stress during exercise in hot and humid environments between tropical and temperate indigenes with matched physical characteristics. Ten Japanese (JP) and ten Malaysian (MY) males participated in this study. Subjects performed exercise for 60 min at 55% peak oxygen uptake in 32°C air with 70% relative humidity, followed by 30 min recovery. The increase in rectal temperature (T(re)) was smaller in MY during exercise compared to JP. The local sweat rate and total body mass loss were similar in both groups. Both skin blood flow and mean skin temperature was lower in MY compared to JP. A significantly greater increase in hand skin temperature was observed in MY during exercise, which is attributable to heat loss due to the greater surface area to mass ratio and large number of arteriovenous anastomoses. Also, the smaller increase in T(re) in MY may be explained by the presence of a significantly greater core-skin temperature gradient in MY than JP. The thermal gradient is also a major factor in increasing the convective heat transfer from core to skin as well as skin blood flow. It is concluded that the greater core-skin temperature gradient observed in MY is responsible for the smaller increase in T(re).
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating/physiology
  17. Sandeep HV, Sarat KS, Ng LT
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2016 02;71(1):39-40.
    PMID: 27130746
    Extra-adrenal /retroperitoneal paraganglioma is a rare cause of hypertension in young with increased incidence of metastasis as compared to adrenal pheochromocytoma. We present a case of a young female with history of headache, nausea/vomiting, palpitations, uncontrolled hypertension, heat intolerance and diaphoresis. The 24-hour urine catecholamine levels were elevated. Clinical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was made and further evaluation with Computed Tomography (CT) scan of the adrenals revealed extradrenal para-aortic retroperitoneal mass in keeping with paraganglioma. Gallium-68 DOTATE positron emission tomography-CT scan (PET-CT) confirmed the diagnosis without evidence of metastatic foci.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating
  18. Alwi SA, Rubiah ZS, Lee PY, Mallika PS, Haizal MN
    Climacteric, 2010 Dec;13(6):553-60.
    PMID: 19958163 DOI: 10.3109/13697130903470319
    To determine the usage of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and knowledge about HRT among women of Sarawak in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating
  19. Mallhi TH, Khan YH, Khan AH, Mahmood Q, Khalid SH, Saleem M
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2018 Jun;28(6):460-465.
    PMID: 29848424 DOI: 10.29271/jcpsp.2018.06.460
    Hot flushes during menopause are distressing for women and result in poor quality of life. Purpose of the current review was to evaluate the available treatment modalities that should be utilised for the management of hot flushes. Menopause refers to last menses of women life and can be declared after amenorrhea of 12 months. Vasomotor symptoms including hot flushes and night sweats are common after menopause, affecting almost 50 - 85% women older than 45 years. The mean increment in core body and skin temperature is 0.5°C and 0.25 - 3°C during a hot flush attack. Low level of estrogen during menopause and its association in triggering episodes of hot flushes, is still under debate. The most accepted hypothesis is a narrowing of the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) triggered by estrogen fluctuations. Although, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) remains the standard treatment for the alleviation of such symptoms, incidence of life threatening side effects restrained medical professionals from its use. Complications associated with the use of HRT can be avoided by appropriate evaluation of patients before initiating therapy. Several guidelines have also recommended HRT (estrogen and progesterone) to be safe for up to a period of seven years. Both hormonal and non-hormonal treatments are used for the management of hot flushes. Since hot flushes are the least appreciated and neglected complication of menopause, current review provides detailed information on its background, pathophysiology and management, and emphasises the need of its treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating
  20. Abdullah NRA, Jason WLC, Nasruddin AB
    PMID: 28567291 DOI: 10.1530/EDM-17-0029
    Pachydermoperiostosis is a very rare osteoarthrodermopathic disorder whose clinical and radiographic presentations may mimic those of acromegaly. In the evaluation of patients with acromegaloid appearances, pachydermoperiostosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis. In this article, we report a 17-year-old boy who presented with 2-year history of acral enlargement and facial appearance changes associated with joint pain and excessive sweating. He had been investigated extensively for acromegaly, and the final diagnosis was pachydermoperiostosis.

    LEARNING POINTS: There is a broad range of differential diagnosis for acromegaloid features such as acromegaly, pseudoacromegaly with severe insulin resistance, Marfan's syndrome, McCune-Albright and a rare condition called pachydermoperiostosis.Once a patient is suspected to have acromegaly, the first step is biochemical testing to confirm the clinical diagnosis, followed by radiologic testing to determine the cause of the excess growth hormone (GH) secretion. The cause is a somatotroph adenoma of the pituitary in over 95 percent of cases.The first step is measurement of a serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). A normal serum IGF1 concentration is strong evidence that the patient does not have acromegaly.If the serum IGF1 concentration is high (or equivocal), serum GH should be measured after oral glucose administration. Inadequate suppression of GH after a glucose load confirms the diagnosis of acromegaly.Once the presence of excess GH secretion is confirmed, the next step is pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Atypical presentation warrants revision of the diagnosis. This patient presented with clubbing with no gigantism, which is expected in adolescent acromegalics as the growth spurt and epiphyseal plate closure have not taken place yet.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sweating
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